Knowing what type of motivation an individual responds best to can give managers insight into what strategies will be most effective. Extrinsic motivators are effective for a short period of time but studies show that if we want a behavior to continue, intrinsic motivation is most effective.
Management Theory – studies of management styles show two basic attitudes that affect how managers do their jobs:
Theory X – managers believe that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment
Theory Y – managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive.
THEORIES ABOUT EMOTION –
James-Lange – They theorized that we feel emotion because of biological changes, physiological change causes emotion
Cannon-Bard – They doubted this order, they demonstrated that similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states. Biological change and the cognitive awareness of the emotional state occur simultaneously
Two Factor Theory – Stanley Schacter explains emotional experiences in a more complete way than either previous. He pointed out that both our physical responses and our cognitive labels combine to cause any particular emotional response. Emotion depends on the interaction between two factors, biology and cognition.
STRESS – stress and emotion are intimately connected concepts. The term stress can refer to either certain life events (stressors) or how we react to these changes in the environment (stress reactions)
Measuring stress – Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe designed one of the first instruments to measure stress. Their social readjustment rating scale (SRRS) measured stress using life-change units (LCUs). Any major life change increases the score on the SRRS, a person who scored very high on the SRRS is more likely to have stress-related diseases than a person with a low score.
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) – Hans Seyle describes the general response in humans and animals to stressful events. There are three stages:
Alarm reaction – Heart rate increases, blood is diverted away from other body functions to muscles needed to react. The organism readies itself to meet the challenge through activation of the sympathetic nervous system.
Resistance – The body remains physiologically ready. Hormones are released to maintain this state of readiness. If the resistance stage lasts too long, te body can deplete its resources.
Exhaustion – The parasympathetic nervous system returns our physiological state to normal. We can be more vulnerable to disease in this stage especially if our resources were depleted by an extended resistance stage.
Various studies show that a perceived lack of control over events exacerbates the harmful effects of stress, control over events tends to lessen stress.
MOTIVATION AND EMOTION QUIZ
1. How would drive reduction theory explain a person accepting a new hob with a higher salary but that requires more work and responsibility?
Money is a more powerful incentive for this individual than free time.
This person seeks a higher activity level and takes the job in order to satisfy this drive.
For this person, money is a higher level need than free time.
The person takes the job to satisfy the secondary drive of increased salary.
Humans instinctively seek greater resources and control over their environment.
2. Which aspects of hunger are controlled by the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus?
contraction and expansion of the stomach, indicating too much or too little food.
Body temperature and desire to eat.
Desire to eat and physiological processes needed for eating, and digestion (such as salivation).
The binge and purge cycle in bulimics.
The desire to eat and the feeling of satiety or fullness, that makes us stop eating.
The effect the hypothalamus has on perceiving hunger
13. Which of the following factor does research indicate may influence sexual orientation?
degree of masculinity or femininity expressed in childhood
traumatic childhood experiences
being raised by homosexual parents
14. Seyle’s general adaptation syndrome describes
A. how the central nervous system processes emotions.
B. The effect of low levels of arousal on emotion.
C. Our reactions to stress.
D. Our reactions to the different levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
E. The sexual response cycle in humans
15. A high score on Holmes and Rahe’s social readjustment rating scale correlates with
Personality is the unique attitudes, behaviors, and emotions that characterize a person.
Sigmund Freud- personality was essentially set in early childhood, psychosexual stages
Three parts to personality- id, ego, superego
Id contains instincts and energy. Two types of instincts:
Eros- life instinct; often evidenced as a desire for sex
Thanatos – the death instinct;; seen in aggression
Carl Jung- proposed unconscious consists of two different parts
Personal unconscious- similar to Freud’s idea, contains painful memories and thoughts the person does not wish to confront, complexes
Collective unconscious- passed down through the species, explains certain similarities we see between all cultures, contains archetypes (universal concepts we all share
Alfred Adler – ego psychologist, downplayed the importance of the unconscious, Thought people are motivated by the fear of failure, inferiority; and the desire to achieve, superiority. Also known for his work on the importance of birth order.
Trait theorists believe we can describe people’s personalities by specifying their main characteristics or traits.
Nomothetic approach. Theorists that believe that the same basic set of traits can be used to describe all people’s personalities
Hans Eyesenck- believed could classify all people along introversion-extraversion scale and a stable-unstable scale
Raymond Cattell- 16PF (personality factor) 16 basic traits in all people in varying degrees
A number of contemporary trait theorists believe that personality can be described using the big five personality traits- extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, emotional stability
The number of traits is derived from factor analysis- a statistical technique that allows researchers to use correlations between traits.
Idiographic theorists- argue that each person should be seen in terms of the few traits that best characterize their uniqueness
Gordon Allport- created a measure to identify each person’s ‘central traits’