53. In Ivan Pavlov's experiments in classical conditioning, the dog's salivation was
(A) an unconditioned stimulus only
(B) an unconditioned response only
(C) a conditioned response only
(D) both an unconditioned and a conditioned stimulus
(E) both an unconditioned and a conditioned response *This question was not scored because results of recent research indicate that more than one answer may be correct.
54. Which of the following is a characteristic common to all individuals with a narcissistic personality disorder?
(A) A domineering attitude toward others
(B) An unwarranted sense of self-importance
(C) Restricted ability to express warmth and affection
(D) Inability to form social relationships
(E) Oversensitivity to rejection or possible humiliation
55. Hypnosis has been found useful in the treatment of
58. Which of the following statements is true of behaviorism?
(A) It was formulated to account for cognitive development.
(B) It is rooted in Sigmund Freud's view of the importance of early experiences.
(C) It focuses on the development of thought processes and knowledge.
(D) It holds that development is largely a product of learning.
(E) It emphasizes the dominance of heredity over environment.
59. Which of the following best characterizes individuals diagnosed as having personality disorders?
(A) They are typically afraid to leave their homes.
(B) They are consistently psychotic in their cognition and affect.
(C) They may function reasonably well in society.
(D) Their symptoms are characterized by sudden onset and short duration.
(E) They developed their problems as a result of drug abuse.
(A) is symmetrical
(B) is not normal
(C) is positively skewed
(D) represents measures for a random sample
(E) represents measures for a biased sample
61. Which of the following is typically cited as a characteristic of autistic children?
(A) Minor developmental delays in academic achievement
(B) Above-average performance on tests of creativity
(C) Severely impaired interpersonal communication
(D) Tendency to seek younger playmates
(E) Paranoia comparable with that experienced in schizophrenia
62. The goal of rational-emotive therapy is to help clients
(A) focus on the significance of childhood events for current feelings of self-worth
(B) correct self-defeating thoughts about their lives
(C) avoid putting themselves in risky situations
(D) practice relaxation techniques and autohypnosis to reduce anxiety
(E) use introspection to alleviate their feelings of self-doubt
63. A person with sight in only one eye lacks which of the following visual cues for seeing in depth?
(A) increase the velocity of conduction of the action potential along the axon
(B) increase the velocity of conduction of the action potential across the synapse
(C) facilitate the incoming stimulus signals at sensory receptors
(D) reduce the amount of unused neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft
(E) protect the terminal buttons of the neuron from destruction by enzymes
68. Which of the following was true of Solomon Asch's experiments on conformity?
(A) People conformed if they knew and respected the authority figure present.
(B) An increase from 7 to 12 confederates increased conformity by experimental subjects.
(C) Experimental subjects conformed less frequently when their judgments were made known to the group.
(D) About 99% of the judgments made by the experimental subjects were wrong.
(E) If the confederates' judgments were not unanimous, the degree of conformity by experimental subjects decreased.
69. Which of the following concepts was advanced by social psychologists to help explain why people who are part of a crowd sometimes commit aggressive, antisocial acts that they would not commit if they were alone?
70. A somatoform disorder is best described as an illness that
(A) results from inadequate parenting in childhood
(B) occurs when defense mechanisms are used inappropriately
(C) is psychological in nature with no physical symptoms
(D) is physical in nature with no psychological symptoms
(E) is physical in nature and caused by psychological factors
71. It is widely known in Jerry's social circle that he is the most stubborn and inflexible member of the group. Yet Jerry complains that all his friends are opinionated and rigid. Jerry's complaints are most clearly a sign of
74. Which of the following is most useful in under- standing an employer's interpretation of an employee's poor performance?
(A) Cannon's theory
(B) Reinforcement theory
(C) Attribution theory
(D) Arousal theory
(E) Cognitive dissonance
75. Which of the following accurately describes a major change in perspective in the field of developmental psychology over the past twenty-five years?
(A) A shift from an emphasis on childhood and adolescence to an interest in development over the life span
(B) A shift from a cognitive to a psychoanalytic interpretation of developmental phenomena
(C) A shift in research focus from cognitive to personality development
(D) A decrease in interest in the physiological factors affecting growth and development
(E) A decrease in interest in the study of the cognitive components of intellect
77. Which of the following allows the examination of living brain tissue visually without performing surgery?
79. The hypothesis that intelligence is in part inherited is best supported by the fact that the IQ correlation for
(A) pairs of twins reared together is greater than the correlation for pairs of twins reared apart
(B) pairs of identical twins is greater than for pairs of fraternal twins
(C) pairs of fraternal twins is greater than the correlation for other pairs of siblings
(D) adopted children and their adoptive parents is greater than zero
(E) adopted children and their adoptive parents is greater than the correlation for the same children and their biological parents
80. The technique of strengthening behavior by reinforcing successive approximations is called
76. Which of the following has been most effective in the treatment of schizophrenia?
(A) Administration of L-dopa
(B) Prefrontal lobotomy
(C) Psychoanalytic therapy
(D) Drug therapy that blocks neurotransmitter sites
(E) Drug therapy that increases the activity of limbic system neurons
81. According to Jean Piaget, what is the earliest stage at which a child is capable of using simple logic to think about objects and events? (A) Sensorimotor
84. According to Carl Rogers, the role of the therapist in person-centered psychotherapy is to
(A) accept the client unconditionally so that the client's own desire for mental health and positive growth will flourish
(B) express warmth and empathy and suppress negative feelings that arise in the relationship with the client
(C) use a didactic approach to teach the client to correct maladaptive behavior
(D) establish behavior-change programs to alter the problematic behavior that is often learned in early childhood
(E) define ideal characteristics of mental health for the client and to encourage the client to incorporate these elements in his or her personality
85. One criticism of Sigmund Freud's psychosexual theory of development is that it
(A) emphasizes developmental changes in the oral and anal stages
(B) views adult disorders as adjustments to the environment
(C) views fear of loss as a motivating drive
(D) is based on empirically unverifiable constructs
(E) is based on ethnographic studies
86. For most people, which of the following is an activity based in the right hemisphere of the brain?
(A) Muscular control of the right hand
(B) Simple spatial reasoning
(C) Arithmetic reasoning
(D) Language comprehension
87. Which of the following are the stages in Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome?
88. The defense mechanism of reaction formation is best exemplified in which of the following situations?
(A) A college student speaks sharply to her room- mate after quarreling with her professor about her grades.
(B) A woman who is unaware of her anger toward her friend expresses affection for that friend.
(C) A runner forgets the name of the opponent who just defeated her in an event for which she held the record.
(D) A man who dislikes his supervisor believes that his supervisor dislikes him.
(E) An elderly man lights up a cigarette just after learning that he has been cured of a respiratory ailment.
89. Which of the following is true of the reticular activating system?
(A) It is the major system in the brain for controlling emotions.
(B) It functions primarily in the control of motor responses.
(C) It regulates levels of arousal.
(D) It regulates body temperature.
(E) It controls the uptake of pituitary hormones.
90. Which of the following types of test is designed to measure an individual's knowledge of a subject?
92. Which of the following studies has had the most profound impact on ethical issues in psychological research?
(A) Stanley Milgram's study of obedience
(B) Solomon Asch's study of conformity
(C) Daryl Bem's study of self-perception
(D) William McGuire's study of self-concept
(E) Leon Festinger's study of cognitive dissonance
93. Behaviorally oriented therapists seek to modify a client's behavior by
(A) repressing the client's deviant thoughts
(B) relating past events to the client's current behavior
(C) removing the underlying causes of the client's behavioral problems
(D) explaining the significance of the client's dreams
(E) changing the contingencies of reinforcement for the client
94. If Carrnelita stares at a red spot for one minute and then shifts her gaze to a white piece of paper, she is likely to experience an afterimage that is
95. The place in the retina where the optic nerve exits to the brain is called the
97. According to Benjamin Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis, which of the following is true?
(A) Individuals have a natural predisposition to learn language.
(B) Individuals learn positive instances of concepts faster than they learn negative instances.
(C) Children learn their first language from their relatives and their peer group.
(D) Different languages predispose those individuals who speak them to think about the world in different ways.
(E) Children learn quantifying words such as "more" and "further" sooner than they do absolutes such as "every" and "all."
98. In their discussions of the process of development, the advocates of nature in the nature-nurture controversy emphasize which of the following?
E) Information processing
99. Which of the following is an example of metacognition?
(A) Memorizing 100 words in a foreign language
(B) Recognizing the faces of people after meeting them once
(C) Solving a complex problem in a slow, deliberate way
(D) Understanding the role of various parts of the brain in memory
(E) Knowing the effectiveness of different strategies for learning statistical formulas
100. The debate over whether development occurs gradually, without discernible shifts, or through a series of distinct stages is termed
(A) nature vs. nurture
(B) developmental vs. cognitive
(C) cross-sectional vs. longitudinal
(D) continuity vs. discontinuity
(E) maturation vs. learning