Review for the exam

:)


Download 373.98 Kb.
Page2/16
Date conversion04.09.2017
Size373.98 Kb.
TypeReview
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   16

HISTORY AND METHODS QUIZ

1. The essence of the experimental method is


  1. accurate calculation of correlations

  2. obtaining direct reports from subjects about their subjective experiences.

  3. careful measurement and record keeping

  4. using control to identify cause and effect connections

2. Which of the following is an appropriate use of naturalistic observation?

  1. to raise questions and suggest hypotheses

  2. to develop formal psychological theory

  3. to test hypotheses derived from theory

  4. to answer questions about cause and effect relationships

3. You are at a lecture about the history of psychology and the speaker states that Wilhelm Wundt’s theory of structuralism was the first scientific psychological theory. On what historical fact might the speaker be basing her or his argument?

  1. Wundt was internationally known at the time, and this led credence to his theory in the scientific community.

  2. Wundt studied under Ivan Pavlov for his graduate training, and Pavlov required scientific methods to be used.

  3. Structuralism was based on the results of his introspection experiments, so it is, at least in part, empirical.

  4. Structuralism was based on careful anecdotes gathered from Wundt’s extensive clinical career.

  5. Wundt was the first person to study psychology in an academic setting

4. In order to summarize or organize a series of observations in some meaningful way psychologists may develop

  1. hypotheses

  2. experiments

  3. surveys

  4. theories

5. In the simplest experiment, the two groups of subjects are treated exactly alike except for the __ variable.


  1. independent

  2. dependent

  3. extraneous

  4. control

6. Sigmund Freud’s theory of the unconscious mind

  1. was revolutionary because it was the first comprehensive explanation of human thought and behavior.

  2. Resulted from discoveries about the human brain obtained by cadaver dissection.

  3. Is outdated and has no relevance for modern psychology.

  4. Focused entirely on human males’ sex drive.

  5. Depends on the idea that humans can remember events but not be consciously aware of the memory.

7. The conditions that a researcher wishes to prevent from affection the experiment are called

  1. constants

  2. dependent variables

  3. extraneous variables

  4. independent variables

8. In what way might a behaviorist disagree with a cognitive psychologist about the cause of aggression?

  1. A behaviorist might state that aggression is caused by memories or ways we think about aggressive behavior, while a cognitive psychologist might say aggression is caused by a past repressed experience.

  2. A behaviorist might state that aggression is a behavior encouraged by our genetic code, while a cognitive psychologist might state that aggression is caused by memories or ways we think about aggressive behavior.

  3. A behaviorist might state that aggression is caused by past rewards for aggressive behavior, while a cognitive psychologist might believe aggression is caused by an expressed desire to fulfill certain life needs.
  4. A behaviorist might state that aggression is caused by past rewards for aggressive behavior, while a cognitive psychologist might believe aggression is caused by memories or ways we think about aggressive behavior.


  5. A behaviorist would not disagree with a cognitive psychologist about aggression because they both believe that aggressive behavior is caused by the way we cognitively process certain behaviors.

9. A researcher wants to determine the effect of sleep deprivation on human problem solving. Subjects in an appropriate control group for such an experiment would be described as having

  1. much more sleep than normal.

  2. Much less sleep than normal

  3. A normal amoount of sleep

  4. The same amount of sleep as the experimental group

10. Which type of variable is measured in both the experimental and control groups of an experiment?

  1. the dependent variable

  2. the independent variable

  3. extraneous variables

  4. the reference variable

11. Dr. Marco explains to a client that his feelings. Of hostility toward a coworker are most likely caused by the way the client interprets the coworker’s actions, and the way he thinks that people should behave at work, Dr. Marco is most likely working from what perspective?

  1. behavioral

  2. cognitive

  3. psychoanalytic

  4. humanist

  5. social-cultural

12. In the traditional learning experiment the effect of practice on performance is investigated. Performance is the ___ variable

  1. independent

  2. extraneous

  3. control

  4. dependent

13. One of the limitations of the survey method is

  1. observer bias

  2. that it sets up an artificial situation

  3. that replies may not be accurate

  4. the self-fulfilling prophecy


14. Which of the following is not a goal of psychology?

  1. description of behavior

  2. prediction of behavior

  3. depiction of behavior

  4. understanding behavior

15. Control is an important goal of psychology. For most psychologists, control means

  1. heavy reliance upon rewards rather than punishments

  2. manipulation of behavior by government, educators, scientists, or authorities

  3. altering conditions that influence behavior in predictable ways

16. Professor Ma wants to design a project studying emotional response to date rape. He advertises for participants in the school newspaper, informs them about the nature of the study, gets their consent, conducts an interview, and debriefs them about the results when the experiment is over. If you were on the IRB, which ethical consideration would you most likely have the most concern about in Professor Ma’s study?

  1. Coercion D. anonymity

  2. Deception E. clear scientific purpose
    C. confounding variables




1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   16
:)


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page

:)