Review for the exam

Action potential All-or-none principle Afferent neurons, or sensory neurons Interneurons Efferent neurons, or motor neurons

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Action potential

All-or-none principle
Afferent neurons, or sensory neurons
Efferent neurons, or motor neurons

Central nervous system- brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
- - all other nerves
Somatic nervous system- controls voluntary movements
Autonomic nervous system- controls involuntary movements

Sympathetic nervous system- speeds things up- prepares body for fight or flight

Parasympathetic nervous system-- brings the body back to normal

Cerebral cortex- covers the lower brain and controls mental processes such as thought

Frontal lobes-– contains the motor strip and frontal association area  
Frontal association area
– plays an important part in integrating personality and in forming complex thoughts  
Motor strip
- band running down the side of the frontal lobe that controls all bodily movements

Parietal lobes -– area that contains the sensory strip
Sensory strip
- band running down the side of he parietal lobe that registers and provides all sensation

Occipital lobes- area that interprets visual information

Temporal lobes- area responsible for hearing and some speech functions

Lobe- major division of the brain  

Hemispheres- one-half of the two halves of the brain; controls the opposite side of the body

Brain lateralization
Corpus callosum - bundle of nerve fibers that transfers info. From one hemisphere to the other

Fissure- a lengthy depression marking off an area of the brain

Reticular activating system- the alertness control center of the brain that regulates the activity level of the body
Brain plasticity
Endocrine system – system of all the glands and their chemical messages taken together
Hormones – chemical regulators that control bodily processes such as emotional responses, growth, and sexuality

Pituitary gland – the master gland of the body that activates other glands and controls the growth hormone

Growth hormone – hormone that regulates the growth process

Thyroid gland – controls and regulates the speed of bodily processes called metabolism

Metabolism – the speed at which the body operates of the speed at which it uses up energy

Adrenal glands – glands that release the hormone that causes excitement in order to prepare the body for an emergency

Adrenaline – chemical that prepares the body for emergency activity by increasing blood pressure, breathing rate, and energy level

1. Blindness could result from damage to which cortex and lobe of the brain?

  1. visual cortex in the frontal lobe

  2. visual cortex in the temporal lobe

  3. sensory cortex in the parietal lobe

  4. visual cortex in the occipital lobe

  5. cerebral cortex in the occipital lobe

2.      Paralysis of the left arm might be explained by a problem in the

  1. motor cortex in the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere.

  2. Motor cortex in the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere.

  3. Sensorimotor cortex in the temporal lobe in the left hemisphere.

  4. Motor cortex in the parietal lobe in the left hemisphere.

  5. Motor cortex in the occipital lobe in the right hemisphere.

3. Deafness can result from damage to the inner ear or damage to what area of the brain?

  1. Connections between the auditory nerve and the auditory cortex in the frontal lobe.

  2. Connections between the auditory nerve and the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe.

  3. Connections between the areas of the sensory cortex that receive messages from the ears and the auditory cortex.

  4. Connections between the hypothalamus and the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe.

  5. Connections between the left and right sensory areas of the cerebellum.

4. According to the theory of evolution, why might we call some parts of the brain the old brain and some parts the new brain?

  1. Old brain parts are what exist in very young children, and the new brain develops later

  2. The old brain developed first according to evolution..

  3. The old brain becomes more active as we grow older.

  4. The new brain deals with new information, while the old brain deals with information gathered when we were children.

  5. The old brain is most affected by age deterioration (dementias) while the new brain remains unaffected.

5. Which chemicals pass across the synaptic gap and increase the possibility the next neuron in the chain will fire?

  1. synaptic peptides

  2. inhibitory neurotransmitters

  3. adrenaline-type exciters

  4. excitatory neurotransmitters

  5. potassium and sodium

6. You eat some bad sushi and feel that you are slowly losing control over your muscles. The bacteria you ingested from the bad sushi most likely interferes with the use of

  1. Serotonin D. thorazine

  2. Dopamine E. adrenaline

  3. acetylcholine

 7.      The three major categories researchers use to organize the entire brain are the

  1. old brain, new brain, and cerebral cortex

  2. lower, middle, and upper brain.

  3. Hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.

  4. Brain stem, limbic system, and cerebral cortex

  5. Neurons, synapses, and cerebral cortex.

8. A spinal reflex differs from a normal sensory and motor reaction in that

  1. a spinal reflex occurs only in response to extremely stressful stimuli.

  2. In a spinal reflex, the spine moves the muscles in response as soon as the sensory information reaches the spine while usually the impulse must reach the brain before a response.

  3. In a normal sensory/motor reaction, the spine transmits the information through afferent nerve fibers, while reflex reactions are transmitted along special efferent nerves.

  4. Spinal reflexes are part of the central nervous system response, while normal sensory/motor reactions are part of the peripheral nervous system.

  5. Spinal reflexes occur only in animals because humans are born without instinctual responses.

9. Antidepressant drugs like Prozac are often used to treat mood disorders. According to what you know about their function, which neurotransmitter system do these types of drugs try to affect?

  1. serotonin

  2. adrenaline

  3. acetylcholine

  4. endorphins

  5. morphine

10. Which sentence most closely describes neural transmission?
  1. An electric charge is created in the neuron, the charge travels down the cell, and chemicals are released that cross the synapse to the next cell.

  2. A chemical change occurs within the cell, the change causes an electric charge to be produced, and the charge jumps the gap between the nerve cells.

  3. The electric charge produced chemically inside a group of neurons causes chemical changes in surrounding cells.

  4. Neurotransmitters produced in the hindbrain are transmitted to the forebrain, causing electric changes in the cerebral cortex.

  5. Neural transmission is an electrochemical process both inside and outside the cell.

11. Dr. Dahab, a brain researcher, is investigating the connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes. Which types of brain scans is he most likely to use?

  1. MRI and CAT

  2. CAT and EKG

  3. PET and EEG

  4. EKG and CAT

  5. Lesioning and MRI

12. Split-brain patients are unable to

  1. coordinate movements between their major and minor muscle groups.

  2. Speak about information received exclusively in their right hemisphere.

  3. Speak about information received exclusively in their left hemisphere.

  4. Solve abstract problems involving integrating logical (left-hemisphere) and spatial (right hemisphere) information.

  5. Speak about information received exclusively through their left ear, left eye, or left side of their bodies.

13. When brain researchers refer to brain plasticity , they are talking about

  1. the brain’s ability to regrow damaged neurons.

  2. The surface texture and appearance caused by the layer known as the cerebral cortex.

  3. The brain’s versatility caused by the millions of different neural connections.
  4. Our adaptability to different problems ranging from survival needs to abstract reasoning.

  5. New connections forming in the brain to take over for damaged sections.

14. Mr. Spam is a 39-year-old male who has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife. She has become increasingly alarmed by her husband’s behavior over the last four months. You recommend a CAT scan to look for tumors in the brain. Which two parts of the brain would you predict are being affected by the tumors?  List of symptoms: vastly increased appetite, body temperature fluctuations, decreased sexual desire, jerky movements, poor balance when walking and standing, inability to throw objects, and exaggerated efforts to coordinate movements in a task

A. motor cortex and emotion cortex

B. motor cortex and hypothalamus
C. hypothalamus and cerebellum
D. cerebellum and medulla
E. thalamus and motor cortex

15. In most people, which one of the following is a specific function of the left hemisphere that is typically not controlled by the right hemisphere?

  1. producing speech

  2. control of the left hand

  3. spatial reasoning

  4. hypothesis testing

  5. abstract reasoning



Sensation -Experience of sensory stimulation, the activation or our senses  

Perception -Process of creating meaningful patterns from raw sensory information


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