CONSTANCY- Tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation Size constancy - Perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed Shape constancy - Tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from Brightness constancy - Perception of brightness as the same, even though the amount of light reaching the retina changes
Visual cliff experiment-
Monocular cues - Visual cues requiring the use of one eye
interposition - Monocular distance cue in which one object, by partly blocking a second object, is perceived as being closer. Linear perspective - Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that two parallel lines seem to come together at the horizon Relative size- Texture gradient- Shadowing-
Binocular cues - Visual cues requiring the use of both eyes
Retinal disparity - Binocular distance cue based on the difference between the images Convergence- cast on the two retinas when both eyes are focused on the same object Stereoscopic vision - Combination of two retinal images to give a three-dimensional perceptual experience.
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION QUIZ
1. Our sense of smell may be a powerful trigger for memories because
we are conditioned from birth to make strong connections between smells and events.
The nerve connecting the olfactory bulb sends impulses directly to the limbic system
The receptors at the top of each nostril connect with the cortex
Smell is a powerful cue for encoding memories into long-term memory
Sensation happens in the senses, while perception happens in the brain.
Sensation is detecting stimuli, perception is interpreting stimuli detected.
Sensation involves learning and expectations, and perception does not.
11. What function does the retina serve?
The retinal contains the visual receptor cells
The retinal focuses light coming in the eye through the lens.
The retina determines how much light is let into the eye.
The retina determines which rods and cones will be activated by incoming light
The retina connects the two optic nerves and sends impulses to the left and right visual cortices.
12. Color blindness and color afterimages are best explained by what theory of color vision?
B. Visible hue theory
C. Opponent-process theory
D. Dichromatic theory
E. Binocular disparity theory
13. You are shown a picture of your grandfather’s face, but the eyes and mouth are blocked out. You still recognize it as a picture of your grandfather. Which type of processing best explains this example of perception?
14. What behavior would be difficult without our vestibular sense ?
integrating what we see and hear
writing our name
repeating a list of digits
walking a straight line with our eyes closed
reporting to a researcher the exact position and orientation of our limbs
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STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
We spend about 8 hours/day, 56 hours/week, 224 hours/month and 2,688 hours/year doing it...that's right...SLEEPING. One third of our lives we are apparently doing nothing. But is sleep really doing nothing? It looks like it...a person's eyes are closed; muscles are relaxed; breathing is regular; there is no response to sound or light. However, if you take a look at what is happening inside the brain, you will find quite a different situation - the brain is very active.
Scientists can record brain activity by attaching electrodes to the scalp and then connecting these electrodes to a machine called an electroencephalograph. The encephalogram (or EEG) is the record of brain activity recorded with this machine. The wavy lines of the EEG are what most people know as "brain waves".
Consciousness is our level of awareness about ourselves and our environment.
Conscious level The information about yourself and your environment you are currently aware of.
Nonconscious level Body processes controlled by your mind that we are not usually aware of
Preconscious level Information about yourself or your environment that you are not currently Thinking about but you could be.
Subconscious level Information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior.
Unconscious level. Psychoanalytic psychologists believe some evens and feelings are unacceptable to our conscious mind and are repressed into the unconscious mind. Many psychologists object to this concept as difficult or impossible to prove.
Mere-exposure effect- prefer stimuli we have seen before over novel stimuli
Priming - respond more quickly and/or accurately to questions they have seen before
Blind sight - person being blind being able to grasp an object they cannot see
Great information found at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/sleep.html
REM rapid eye movement
Insomnia- problems of getting to or staying asleep, effects up to 10% of the population
Narcolepsy- extreme sleepiness - sleep attacks Go to http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/narco.html
Sleep apnea- stop breathing during sleep
Night terrors- usually occur in children are dreams outside of REM, during stage 4 sleep