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CONSTANCY- Tendency to perceive objects as stable and unchanging despite changes in sensory stimulation  
Size constancy
- Perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed  
Shape constancy
- Tendency to see an object as the same shape no matter what angle it is viewed from  
Brightness constancy
- Perception of brightness as the same, even though the amount of light reaching the retina changes


Visual cliff experiment-

Monocular cues - Visual cues requiring the use of one eye

interposition - Monocular distance cue in which one object, by partly blocking a second object, is perceived as being closer.  
Linear perspective
- Monocular cue to distance and depth based on the fact that two parallel lines seem to come together at the horizon  
Relative size
Texture gradient

Binocular cues - Visual cues requiring the use of both eyes

Retinal disparity - Binocular distance cue based on the difference between the images  
- cast on the two retinas when both eyes are focused on the same object  
Stereoscopic vision
- Combination of two retinal images to give a three-dimensional perceptual experience.


1. Our sense of smell may be a powerful trigger for memories because

  1. we are conditioned from birth to make strong connections between smells and events.

  2. The nerve connecting the olfactory bulb sends impulses directly to the limbic system
  3. The receptors at the top of each nostril connect with the cortex

  4. Smell is a powerful cue for encoding memories into long-term memory

  5. Strong smells encourage us to process events deeply so they will most likely be remembered

2. The cochlea is responsible for

  1. protecting the surface of the eye

  2. transmitting vibrations received by the eardrum to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.

  3. The receptors at the top of each nostril conect with the cortex

  4. Smell is a powerful cue for encoding memories into long-term memory

  5. Strong smells encourage us to process events deeply so they will most likely be remembered.

3. In a perception research lab, you are asked to describe the shape of the top of a box as the box is slowly rotated. Which concept are the researchers most likely investigating?

  1. feature detectors in the retina

  2. feature detectors in the occipital lobe

  3. placement of rods and cones in the retina

  4. binocular depth cues

  5. shape constancy

4. The blind spot in our eye results from

  1. the lack of receptors at the spot where the optic nerve connects to the retina

  2. the shadow the pupil makes on the retina

  3. competing processing between the visual cortices in the left and right hemisphere

  4. floating debris in the space between the lens and the retina

  5. retinal damage from bright light

5. Smell and taste are called _______ because

  1. energy senses; they send impulses to the brain in the form of electric energy

  2. chemical senses; they detect chemicals in what we taste and smell
  3. flavor senses; smell and taste combine to create flavor.

  4. Chemical senses; they send impulses to the brain in the form of chemicals.

  5. Memory senses; they both have powerful connections to memory

6. What is the principal difference between amplitude and frequency in the context of sound waves ?

  1. Amplitude is the tone or timbre of a sound, while frequency is the pitch.

  2. Amplitude is detected in the cochlea, while frequency is detected in the auditory cortex.

  3. Amplitude is the height of the sound wave, while frequency is a measure of how frequently the sound waves pass a given point.

  4. Both measure qualities of sound, but frequency is a more accurate measure since it measures the shapes of the waves rather than the strength of the waves.

  5. Frequency is a measure for light waves, while amplitude is a measure for sound waves.

7. Weber’s law determines

  1. absolute threshold.

  2. Focal length of the eye.

  3. Level of subliminal messages.

  4. Amplitude of sound waves.

  5. Just-noticeable difference.

8. Gate control theory refers to

  1. which sensory impulses are transmitted first from each sense

  2. which pain messages are perceived

  3. interfering sound waves, causing some waves to be undetected

  4. the gate at the optic chiasm controlling the destinaiton hemisphere for visual information from each eye.

  5. How our minds choose to use either bottom-up or top-down processing.

9.If you had sight in only one eye, which of the following depth cues could you NOT use?

  1. texture gradient

  2. convergence

  3. linear perspective

  4. interposition

  5. shading

10. Which of the following sentences best describes the relationship between sensation and perception?

  1. Sensation is a strictly mechanical process, while perception is a cognitive process.

  2. Perception is an advanced form of sensation.

  3. Sensation happens in the senses, while perception happens in the brain.

  4. Sensation is detecting stimuli, perception is interpreting stimuli detected.

  5. Sensation involves learning and expectations, and perception does not.

11. What function does the retina serve?

  1. The retinal contains the visual receptor cells

  2. The retinal focuses light coming in the eye through the lens.

  3. The retina determines how much light is let into the eye.

  4. The retina determines which rods and cones will be activated by incoming light

  5. The retina connects the two optic nerves and sends impulses to the left and right visual cortices.

12. Color blindness and color afterimages are best explained by what theory of color vision?
A..trichromatic theory 
B. Visible hue theory
C. Opponent-process theory
D. Dichromatic theory
E. Binocular disparity theory

13. You are shown a picture of your grandfather’s face, but the eyes and mouth are blocked out. You still recognize it as a picture of your grandfather. Which type of processing best explains this example of perception?

  1. bottom-up processing

  2. signal detection theory

  3. top-down processing

  4. opponent-process theory

14. What behavior would be difficult without our vestibular sense ?

  1. integrating what we see and hear

  2. writing our name

  3. repeating a list of digits

  4. walking a straight line with our eyes closed
  5. reporting to a researcher the exact position and orientation of our limbs





We spend about 8 hours/day, 56 hours/week, 224 hours/month and 2,688 hours/year doing it...that's right...SLEEPING. One third of our lives we are apparently doing nothing. But is sleep really doing nothing? It looks like it...a person's eyes are closed; muscles are relaxed; breathing is regular; there is no response to sound or light. However, if you take a look at what is happening inside the brain, you will find quite a different situation - the brain is very active.

Scientists can record brain activity by attaching electrodes to the scalp and then connecting these electrodes to a machine called an electroencephalograph. The encephalogram (or EEG) is the record of brain activity recorded with this machine. The wavy lines of the EEG are what most people know as "brain waves".

Consciousness is our level of awareness about ourselves and our environment.

Conscious level The information about yourself and your environment you are currently aware of.
Nonconscious level Body processes controlled by your mind that we are not usually aware  of
Preconscious level Information about yourself or your environment that you are not currently Thinking about but you could be.
Subconscious level Information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior. 

Unconscious level. Psychoanalytic psychologists believe some evens and feelings are unacceptable to our conscious mind and are repressed into the unconscious mind. Many psychologists object to this concept as difficult or impossible to prove.

Mere-exposure effect - prefer stimuli we have seen before over novel stimuli
Priming - respond more quickly and/or accurately to questions they have seen before
Blind sight - person being blind being able to grasp an object they cannot see


Great information found at:

Circadian rhythm
Sleep stages
REM rapid eye movement


  • Insomnia- problems of getting to or staying asleep, effects up to 10% of the population

  • Narcolepsy- extreme sleepiness - sleep attacks  Go to

  • Sleep apnea- stop breathing during sleep

  • Night terrors- usually occur in children are dreams outside of REM, during stage 4 sleep

  • Somnambulism- sleep walking


Freudian Theory - believes that dreams reveal information in the unconscious mind

Manifest content- literal content
Latent content - deeper meaning 

Activation-synthesis Theory - dreams are nothing more than the brains interpretation of what is happening physiologically during REM sleep

Information-processing Theory - dreams may be a way to integrate the information processed during the day into our memories


Posthypnotic amnesia - forget events that occurred during hypnosis

Posthypnotic suggestibility - 

Role Theory - says hypnosis is not an alternate state of consciousness, points out that some people are more easily hypnotized than others.

State Theory - hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness

Dissociation Theory - Hilgard studied, it causes to divide our consciousness voluntarily - the experiment that demonstrated the hidden observer effect

DRUGS For information on specific drugs go to:

Blood-brain barrier agonist

Tolerance antagonist

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