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Consciousness- the awareness or, or the possibility of knowing, what is happening inside or outside the organism
– consciousness just below our present awareness
– thoughts or desires about which we can have no direct knowledge
– the study of forces that control the body at different times of the day, month, or year
– a concept requiring a belief in something that cannot be seen or touched but that seems to exist
Biological clocks
– internal chemical units that control regular cycles in parts of the body
Free-running cycles
– cycles set up by biological clocks that are under their own control, ignoring the environment
– the process of altering the free-running cycle to fit a different rhythm
Circadian rhythm
– sequences of behavioral changes that occur every 24 hours
Twilight state
– relaxed state just before we fall asleep
REM sleep
– rapid eye movement sleep when we dream
Beta waves
- rapid brain waves; appear when a person is awake
Alpha waves
– stage 1, fairly relaxed brain waves occurring just before going to sleep; relaxed
Delta waves
– slow, lazy, deep-sleep brain waves.
NREM sleep
– non-rapid eye movement sleep/ sleep involving partial thoughts, images,or stories, poor organization
– frightening dream during REM
REM rebound
– increase in the number of dreams after being deprived of them
Incubus attack
– also called a night terror, a horrible dream occurring during NREM when the body is not prepared for it
– the inability to get enough sleep

Narcolepsy - disorder in which a person falls instantly into sleep no matter what is going on in the environment

Sleep apnea – breathing stops while someone is asleep
– a state of relaxation in which attention is focused on certain objects, acts, or feelings.
– a form of self-control in which the outside world is cut off from consciousness
Altered state of consciousness
– mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness
Psychoactive drugs
– chemical substances that change moods and perceptions
– vivid visual and auditory experiences that occur primarily during REM periods of sleep
Substance abuse
– a pattern of drug use that diminishes the user’s ability to fulfill responsibilities at home, work or school, that results in repeated use of a drug in dangerous situations, legal problems
Substance dependence
– a pattern of compulsive drug taking that often results in
tolerance and or withdrawal
– phenomenon whereby higher doses of a drug are required to produce its original effects or to prevent withdrawal symptoms
Withdrawal symptoms
– unpleasant physical or psychological effects that follow the discontinuance of a dependence-producing substance.
– know the effects – opiates, stimulants, amphetamines, cocaine, depressants, hallucinogens, alcohol, LSD, barbiturates, marijuana


1. Agonists are psychoactive drugs that

  1. produce tolerance to the drug without the associated withdrawal symptoms

  2. mimic and produce the same effect as certain neurotransmitters.

  3. Mimic neurotransmitters and block their receptor sites.

  4. Enhance the effects of certain opiates like heroin.

  5. Make recovery from physical addiction more difficult.

2. In comparison with older people, babies

  1. sleep more fitfully; they tend to wake up more often.

  2. Sleep more deeply; they spend more time in stage 3 and 4 sleep

  3. Spend more time in the REM stage than other sleep stages

  4. Spend more time in stage 1, which causes them to awaken easily.

  5. Sleep more than young adults but less than people over 50.

3. Which of the following is the best analogy for how psychologists view consciousness?

  1. The on/off switch on a computer.

  2. A circuit breaker that controls power to a house.

  3. A fuse that allows electricity to pass through until a short circuit occurs.

  4. A dimmer switch for a light fixture

  5. The ignition switch on a car

4. During the normal night’s sleep, how many times do we pass through the different stages of sleep?

  1. 2

  2. 2-3

  3. 4-7

  4. 8-11

  5. 11-15

5. Which of the following is evidence supporting the role theory of hypnosis?

  1. Some people are more hypnotizable than others

  2. People will not behave under hypnosis in ways they would not without hypnosis.

  3. Hilgard’s experiment demonstrated the presence of a hidden observer.

  4. Our heart and respiration rates may differ while under hypnosis

  5. Some therapists successfully use hypnosis in therapy.

6. Activation-synthesis theory tries to explain

  1. how consciousness emerges out of neural firings.

  2. How psychoactive drugs create euphoric effects.
  3. The origin and function of dreams.

  4. How our mind awakens us after we pass through all the sleep stages.

  5. How our consciousness synthesizes all the sensory information it receives.

7. Hilgard’s experiment that demonstrated the presence of a hidden observer is evidence for which theory?

  1. role theory of hypnosis

  2. levels theory of consciousness

  3. recuperative theory of sleep

  4. dissociation theory of hypnosis

  5. state theory of hypnosis

8. Which of the following two sleep disorders occur most commonly?

  1. insomnia and narcolepsy

  2. apnea and narcolepsy

  3. night terrors and apnea

  4. somnambulism and insomnia

  5. apnea and insomnia

9. Marijuana falls under what category of psychoactive drug?

  1. depressant

  2. mood-elevator

  3. hallucinogen

  4. stimulant

  5. mood depressant

10. Night terrors and somnambulism usually occur during which stage of sleep?

  1. stage 1, close to wakefulness

  2. REM sleep

  3. REM sleep, but only later in the night when nightmares usually occur

  4. Stage 4

  5. Sleep onset

11. Which neurotransmitter is affected by opiates?

  1. serotonin

  2. endorphins

  3. dopamine

  4. GABA

  5. Acetylcholine

12. In the context of this unit, the term tolerance refers to

  1. treatment of psychoactive drug addicts by peers and other members of society.
  2. The amount of sleep a person needs to function normally.

  3. The need for an elevated dose of a drug in order to get the same effect.

  4. The labeling of individuals automatically produced by the level of our consciousness.

  5. The harmful side effects of psychoactive drugs.

13. The information processing theory says that dreams

  1. are meaningless by-products of how our brains process information during REM sleep.

  2. Are symbolic representations of the information we encode during the day.

  3. Are processed by one level of consciousness but other levels remain unaware of the dreams.

  4. Occur as the brain deals with daily stress and events during REM sleep.

  5. Occur only after stressful events, explaining why some people never dream.

14. Which level of consciousness controls involuntary body processes?

  1. preconscious level

  2. subconscious level

  3. unconscious level

  4. autonomic level

  5. nonconscious level

15. Professor Bohike shows a group of participants a set of geometric shapes for a short period of time. Later, Professor Bohike shows the same group a larger set of shapes that includes the first set of geometric shapes randomly distributed among the other new images. When asked which shapes they prefer, the participants choose shapes from the first group more often than the new images, even though they cannot remember which images they had seen previously. This experiment demonstrates which concept?

  1. priming

  2. mere-exposure effect

  3. shaping

  4. primary-attribution error

  5. primacy

16. Mr. Spam is a 39-year-old male who has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife. She has become increasingly alarmed by her husband’s behavior over the last four months. You recommend a CAT scan to look for tumors in the brain. Which two parts of the brain would you predict are being affected by the tumors?

List of symptoms: vastly increased appetite, body temperature fluctuations, decreased sexual desire, jerky movements, poor balance when walking and standing, inability to throw objects, and exaggerated efforts to coordinate movements in a task

A. motor cortex and emotion cortex

B. motor cortex and hypothalamus
C. hypothalamus and cerebellum
D. cerebellum and medulla
E. thalamus and motor cortex




Learning- a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING – learning based on association of stimuli

Ivan Pavlov  

Unconditioned stimulus

Unconditioned response

Conditioned stimulus

Conditioned response  

Acquisition phase  

Delayed conditioning

Simultaneous conditioning

Backward conditioning  




Spontaneous recovery  

First-order conditioning

Second-order conditioning


Learned taste aversions



Contiguity model – the Pavlovian model, the more times two things are paired, the  

greater the learning that will take place

Contingency model- Rescorla – rests of cognitive view of classical conditioning, If A is
contingent on B and vice versa then one predicts the other, learning more powerful.

OPERANT CONDITIONING – kind of learning based on the association of consequences with one’s behavior.

Edward Thorndike  

Law of effect
Instrumental learning
B.F. Skinner 
Skinner box
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Omission training
Escape learning
Avoidance learning
Primary reinforcers
Secondary reinforcers 

Premack principle – the reinforcing properties of something depend on the situation

Instinctive drift

Reinforcement schedules differ in two ways:

 What determines when reinforcement is delivered – the number of responses made (ratio) or the passage of time (interval)

 The pattern of reinforcement – either constant (fixed) or changing (variable)

Observational learning –

 also known as modeling
 was studied by Albert Bandura in formulating his social-learning theory
 A significant body of research indicates that children learn violent behaviors from watching violent television programs and violent adult models

Latent learning
 studied by Edward Tolman
 is hidden learning
 experiment with maze running rats, ones that didn’t initially get a reward didn’t seem to learn, but when they started being rewarded their performance changed drastically

Abstract learning
 involves understanding concepts such as tree or same
 Skinner box pigeons picking out certain shapes

Insight learning
 Wolfgang Kohler did studies with chimpanzees
 Insight learning occurs when one suddenly realizes how to solve a problem
 Chimps using boxes to reach banana

What Is Learning?

* Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. Learning resulting from conditioning depends on reinforcement. Reinforcement increases the probability that a particular response will occur.

  • Classical (or respondent) conditioning and instrumental (or Operant) conditioning are two basic types of learning.

  • In classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus begins to elicit a response through association with another stimulus. In operant conditioning, the frequency and pattern of voluntary responses are altered by their consequences.

How does classical conditioning occur?

  • Classical conditioning, studied by Pavlov, occurs when a neutral stimulus(NS) is associated with an unconditioned stimulus (US).

  • The US causes a reflex called the unconditioned response (UR). If the NS is consistently paired with the US, it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) capable of producing a response by itself. This response is a conditioned (learned) response (CR).

  • When the conditioned stimulus is followed by the unconditioned stimulus, conditioning is reinforced (strengthened).

  • From an informational view, conditioning creates expectancies, which alter response patterns. In classical conditioning the CS creates an expectancy that the US will follow.

  • Higher order conditioning occurs when a well-learned conditioned stimulus is used as if it were an unconditioned stimulus, bringing about further learning.

  • When the CS is repeatedly presented alone, conditioning is extinguished (weakened or inhibited). After extinction seems to be complete, a rest period may lead to the temporary reappearance of a conditioned response. This is called spontaneous recovery.

  • Through stimulus generalization, stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus will also produce a response. Generalization gives way to stimulus discrimination when an organism learns to respond to one stimulus but not to similar stimuli.

Does Conditioning affect emotions?

  • Conditioning applies to visceral or emotional responses as well as simple reflexes. As a result, conditioned emotional responses (CERs) also occur.

  • Irrational fears called phobias may be CERs. Conditioning of emotional responses can occur vicariously (secondhand) as well as directly.

How does operant conditioning occur?
  • Operant conditioning occurs when voluntary action is followed by a reinforcer. Reinforcement in operant conditioning increases the frequency or probability of a response. This result is based on the law of effect.

  • Complex operant responses can be taught by reinforcing successive approximations to a final desired response. This is called shaping. It is particularly useful in training animals.

  • If an operant response is not reinforced, it may extinguish (disappear). But after extinction seems complete, it may temporarily reappear (spontaneous recovery).

Are there different kinds of operant reinforcement?

  • In positive reinforcement, a reward or pleasant event follows a response. In negative reinforcement, a response that ends discomfort becomes more likely.

  • Primary reinforcers are “natural”, physiologically based rewards. Intracranial stimulation of ‘pleasure centers’ in the brain can also serve as a primary reinforcer.

  • Secondary reinforcers are learned. They typically gain their reinforcing value by direct association with primary reinforcers or because they can be exchanged for primary reinforcers. Tokens and money gain their reinforcing value in this way.

  • Feedback, or knowledge of results, aids learning and improves performance. It is most effective when it is immediate, detailed and frequent.

  • Programmed instruction breaks learning into a series of small steps, and provides immediate feedback. Computer-assisted instruction (CAT) does the same but has the added advantage of providing alternate exercises and information when needed. Four variations of CAI are drill and practice, instructional games, educational simulations, and interactive videodisk instruction.

How are we influenced by patterns of reward?

  • delay of reinforcement greatly reduces its effectiveness, but long chains of responses may be built up so that a single reinforcer maintains many responses.
  • Superstitious behaviors often become part of response chains because they appear to be associated with reinforcement….

  • Reward or reinforcement may be given continuously (after every response) or on a schedule of partial reinforcement. Partial reinforcement produces greater resistance to extinction.

  • The four most basic schedules of reinforcement are fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, and variable interval. Each produces a distinct pattern of responding.

  • Stimuli that precede a reinforced response tend to control the response on future occasions (stimulus control). Two aspects of stimulus control are generalization and discrimination.

  • In generalization an operant response tends to occur when stimuli similar to those preceding reinforcement are present.

  • In discrimination, responses are given in the presence of discriminative stimuli associated with reinforcement (S+) and withheld in the presence of stimuli associated with nonreinforcement (S-)

What does punishment do to behavior?

  • Punishment decreases responding. Punishment occurs when a response is followed by the onset of an aversive event or by the removal of a positive event (response cost)

  • Punishment is most effective when it is immediate, consistent and intense. Mild punishment tends to only temporarily suppress responses that are also reinforced or were acquired by reinforcement.

  • The undesirable side effects of punishment include the conditioning of fear to punishing agents and situations associated with punishment, the learning of escape and avoidance responses, and the encouragement of aggression.

What is cognitive learning?

  • Cognitive learning involves higher mental processes. such as understanding, knowing, or anticipating. Even in relatively simple learning situations, animals and people seem to form cognitive maps (internal representations or relationships).
  • In latent learning, learning remains hidden or unseen until a reward or incentive for performance is offered.

  • Discovery learning emphasizes insight and understanding, in contrast to rote learning.

Does learning occur by imitation?

  • Much human learning is achieved through observation, or modeling. Observational learning is influenced by the personal characteristics of the model and the success or failure of the model’s behavior. Studies have shown that aggression is readily learned and released by modeling.

  • Television characters can act as powerful models for observational learning. Televised violence increases the likelihood of aggression by viewers.

How does conditioning apply to practical problems?

  • Operant principles can be readily applied to manage behavior in everyday settings. When managing one’s own behavior, self-reinforcement, self-recording, feedback, and behavioral contracting are all helpful.

  • Four strategies that can help change bad habits are reinforcing alternate responses, promoting extinction, breaking response chains, and avoiding antecedent cues.

  • In school, self-regulated learners typically do all of the following: They set learning goals, plan learning strategies, use self-instruction, monitor their progress, evaluate themselves, reinforce successes, and take corrective action when required.

How does biology influence learning?

  • Many animals are born with innate behavior patterns far more complex than reflexes. These are organized into fixed action patterns (FAPs), which are stereotyped, species-specific behaviors.

  • Learning in animals is limited at times by various biological constraints and species-typical behaviors.

  • According to prepared fear theory, some stimuli are especially effective conditioned stimuli.
  • Many responses are subject to instinctive drift in operant conditioning. Human learning is subtly influenced by many such biological potentials and limits

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