# Review for the exam

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## PSYCHOLOGY ON THE NET

• Memory A short tutorial on classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and cognitive learning. http://www.science.wayne.edu/~wpoff/memory.html.

• .Observational Learning- Presents Bandura’s original work on modeling, with graphs. http://www.valdosta.peachnet.edu/~whuitt/psy702/behsys/social.html

• Oppatoons – Cartoons of rats undergoing conditioning. http://www.thecroft.com/psy/toons/OppaToons.html

Quiz – Conditioning/Learning

1. Just before something scary happens in a horror film, they often play scary sounding music. When I hear the music, I tense up in anticipation of the scary event. In this situation, the music serves as a

1. US.

2. CS

3. UR

4. CR

5. NR

2. Try as you might, you are unable to teach your dog to do a somersault. He will roll around on the ground, but he refuses to execute the gymnastic move you desire because of

1. equipotentiality D. Chaining.

2. preparedness. E. Shaping.

3. Instinctive drift

3. Which of the following is an example of a generalized reinforcer?

1. chocolate cake

2. water

3. money

4. applause

4. In teaching your cat to jump through a hoop, which reinforcement schedule would facilitate the most rapid learning?

1. continuous

2. fixed ratio

3. variable ratio

4. fixed interval

5. variable interval

5. The classical conditioning training procedure in which the US is presented first is known as
1. backward conditioning.

2. Forward conditioning.

3. Simultaneous conditioning.

4. Delayed conditioning.

5. Regular conditioning.

6. Tina likes to play with slugs, but she can find them by the shed only after it rains. On what kind of reinforcement schedule is Tina’s slug hunting?

1. continuous

2. fixed interval

3. fixed ratio

4. variable interval

5. variable ratio

7. Just before the doors of the elevator close, Lola, a coworker you despise, enters the elevator. You immediately leave, mumbling about having forgotten something. Exiting the elevator is an example of

1. positive reinforcement

2. a secondary reinforcer.

3. Punishment.

4. Negative reinforcement.

5. Omission training.

8. Which researcher studied latent learning?

1. Kohler

2. Bandura

3. Tolman

4. Watson

5. Skinner

9. Many psychologists believe that children of parents who beat them are likely to beat their own children. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is

1. modeling.

2. Latent learning.

3. Abstract learning.

4. Instrumental learning.

5. Classical conditioning.

10. When Tito was young, his parents decided to give him a quarter every day he made his bed. Tito started to make his siblings’ beds also and help with other chores. Behaviorists would say that Tito was experiencing

1. internal motivation.

2. Spontaneous recovery.

3. Acquisition.

4. Generalization.

5. Discrimination.

11. A rat evidencing abstract learning might learn

1. to clean and feed itself by watching its mother perform these activities.

2. To associate its handler’s presence with feeding time.

3. To press a bar when a light is on but not when its cage is dark.

4. The layout of amaze without hurrying to get to the end.

5. To press a lever when he sees pictures of dogs but not cats.

12. With which statement would B.F. Skinner most likely agree?

1. Pavlov’s dog learned to expect that food would follow the bell.

2. Baby Albert thought the white rat meant the loud noise would sound.

3. All learning is observable.

4. Pigeons peck disks knowing that they will receive food.

5. Cognition plays an important role in learning.

13. Before his parents will read him a bedtime story, Charley has to brush his teeth, put on his pajamas, kiss his grandmother goodnight, and put away his toys. This example illustrates

1. shaping.

2. Acquisition.

3. Generalization.

4. Chaining.

5. A token economy.

14. Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement?

1. Buying a child a video game after she throws a tantrum.

2. Going inside to escape a thunderstorm.

3. Assigning a student detention for fighting.

4. Getting a cavity filled at the dentist to halt a toothache.

5. Depriving a prison inmate of sleep.

15. Lily keeps poking Jared in Mr. Clayton’s third-grade class. Mr. Clayton tells Jared to ignore Lily. Mr. Clayton is hoping that ignoring Lily’s behavior will

1. punish her.

2. Extinguish her behavior.

3. Negatively reinforce the behavior.

4. Cause Lily to generalize.
5. Make the behavior latent

MEMORY

Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time

Several different models, or explanations, of how memory works have emerged from memory research. Two of the most important models: the three-box/information processing model and the levels of processing model. Neither model is perfect.

Three Box model proposes the three stages that information passes through before it is stored:

Sensory memory
- split-second holding tank
-          the information your senses are processing right now is held in sensory memory
-         less than a second
-         George Sperling did experiments, showed iconic memory – a split-second perfect photograph of a scene
-         Other experiments indicate echoic memory – split-second memory for sounds
-         Most of the information in sensory memory is not encoded
-         Selective attention determines which sensory messages get encoded

Short-term/Working Memory
-         memories we are currently working with
-         temporary, they usually fade in 10 to 30 seconds
-         capacity is limited on average to around seven items
-         Events are encoded as visual codes, acoustic codes, or semantic codes
-         Capacity can be expanded through chunking
-         Mnemonic devices- memory aids, really examples of chunking
-         Rehearsal or simple repetition can hold information in short-term memory

Long-term Memory
-         permanent storage

-         capacity is unlimited

-         memories can decay or fade
-         stored in three different formats
Episodic memory – memories of specific events stored in a sequential series of events
Semantic memory – general knowledge of the world stored as facts, meanings, or categories rather than sequentially
Procedural Memory – memories of skills and how to perform them, These are sequential but might be very complicated to describe in words.

Memories can also be implicit or explicit

Explicit – also called declarative – conscious memories of facts or events
Implicit – also called nondeclarative- unintentional memories that we might not even realize         we have

LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL

This theory explains why we remember what we do by examining how deeply the memory was processed or thought about. Memories are neither short- nor long-term. They are deeply (or elaboratively) processed or shallowly (or maintenance) processed.

According to the levels of processing theory, we remember things we spend more cognitive time and energy processing. This theory explains why we remember stories better than a simple recitation of events and why, in general, we remember questions better than statements.

RETRIEVAL
- getting information
- two different kinds: recognition and recall

There are several factors that influence why we can retrieve some memories and why we forget others.

-         Primacy effect – more likely to recall items presented at the beginning of a list
-         Recency effect- ability ot recall the items at the end of a list
-         Context - semantic network theory
-         Flashbulb memories

-         Mood-congruent memory- ability to recall a memory is increased when current mood matches mood when stored

-         State-dependent memory-

Constructive Memory – false memories, leading questions can easily influence us.

FORGETTING

One cause is decay, because we do not use a memory or connection to a memory for a long time. Relearning effect indicates that it isn’t entirely gone

Another factor is interference, two types

-         Retroactive interference – learning new information interferes with the recall of older information

-         Proactive interference – older information learned previously interferes with the recall of information learned more recently

How memories are physically stored in the brain.

-         the hippocampus is important in encoding new memories. Damage can cause anterograde amnesia (can’t encode any new memories)

-         long-term potentiation- studies of neurons indicate that they can strengthen connections between each other through repeated firings, this might be related to the connections we make in our long-term memory