Primary reinforcer - reinforcer that is rewarding in itself, such as food, water, and sex
Secondary reinforcer - reinforcer whose value is learned through association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
Contingency - a reliable ‘if-then’ relationship between two events such as a CS and US
Blocking - prior conditioning prevents conditioning to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented simultaneously
Schedule of reinforcement - in partial reinforcement, the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered
Fixed-interval schedule - reinforcement schedule that calls for reinforcement of a correct response after a fixed length of time
Variable-interval schedule - reinforcement schedule in which a correct response is reinforced after varying lengths of time after the last reinforcement
Fixed-ratio schedule - reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses
Variable-ratio schedule - reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented
Cognitive learning - learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
Latent learning -learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
Cognitive map - a learned mental image of a spatial environment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the environment change
Learning set - ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
Social learning theory - view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without firsthand experience by the learner
Observational learning - learning by observing other people’s behavior
Vicarious reinforcement/punishment - performance of behaviors learned through observation that is modified by watching others who are reinforced or punished for their behavior
Token economy – a behavioral technique in which rewards for desired acts are accumulated through tokens, which represent a form of money
Cognitive map – a mental image of where one is located in space
Cognitive approach – a way of learning based on abstract mental processes and previous knowledge
Learning curve – a gradual upward slope representing increased retention of material as the result of learning
State-dependent learning- the fact that material learned in one chemical state is best reproduced when the same state occurs again
Transfer of training- a learning process in which learning is moved from one task to another based on similarities between the tasks
Positive transfer – a transfer of learning that results from similarities between two tasks
Negative transfer – an interference with learning due to differences between two otherwise similar tasks
Information processing – the methods by which we take in, analyze, store, and retrieve material
Schema – an organized and systematic approach to answering questions or solving problems
Elaboration – the process of attaching a maximum number of associations to a basic concept or other material to be learned so that it can be retrieved more easily
Mnemonic devices – unusual associations made to material to aid memory
Principle learning – a method of learning in which an overall view (principle) of the material to be learned is developed so that the material is better organized
Chunking – putting things into clusters or ‘chunks’ so that items learned are in groups, rather than separate
Forgetting – an increase in errors when trying to bring material back from memory
Overlearning – the process of learning something beyond one perfect recitation so that the forgetting curve will have no effect; the development of perfect retention.
Forgetting curve – graphic representation of speed and amount of forgetting that occurs
Recall – the ability to bring back and integrate many specific learned details
Recognition – the ability to pick the correct object or event from a list of choices
Interference theory – the belief that we forget because new and old material conflict with one another
Amnesia – the blocking of older memories and/or the loss of new ones
Short-term memory – the memory system that retains information for a few seconds to a few minutes
Long-term memory – the memory system that retains information for hours, days, weeks, months, decades
Sensory memory system – direct receivers of information from the environment – for example, iconic, acoustic
Iconic memory – a very brief visual memory that can be sent to the STM
Acoustic memory – a very brief sound memory that can be sent to the STM
Eidetic imagery – an iconic memory lasting a minute or so that keeps images ‘in front of the person’ so objects can be counted or analyzed, also called ‘photographic memory’
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Language is intimately connected to cognition
First stage – babbling
- babbling appears to be innate
- babies in this stage are capable of producing any phoneme from any language
- babbling progresses into utterances of words as babies imitate the words they hear caregivers say
Second stage – telegraphic speech
- combine words into simple commands
- begin to learn grammar and syntax rules during this stage
Controversy in language acquisition
-Behaviorists believe it is learned through operant conditioning and shaping
-Noam Chomsky – nativist theory of language acquisition, says humans are born with a language acquisition device which allows them to learn language rapidly. There may be a critical eriod for learning language.
-Most psychologists now agree that there is some combination of the two
Language and Cognition
Benjamin Whorf, linguistic relativity hypothesis – the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking
THINKING AND CREATIVITY
Schemata – cognitive rules we use to interpret the world
Concepts- similar to schemats, rules that allow us to categorize and think about the objects, people, and ideas we encounter Prototypes – the most typical example of a particular concept Images – mental pictures
Algorithms – try every possible solution,, an algorithm is a rule that guarantees the right solution by using a formula or foolproof method, may be impractical
Heuristics –a rule of thumb,it limits the possible combinations drastically
Availability heuristic- judging a situation based on examples of similar situations that come to mind initially.
Representativeness heuristic – judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to prototypes the person holds in his or her mind.
Use of the heuristics can lead to specific problems in judgments. Overconfidence, belief bias, belief perseverance
Impediments to Problem Solving-
- rigidity (mental set) tendency to fall into established thought patterns
- functional fixedness – the inability to see a new use for an object
- not breaking the problem into parts
- confirmation bias – we tend to look for evidence that confirms our beliefs
- Framing – the way a problem is presented
- little correlation between intelligence and creativity
- difficult to define, originality, appropriateness, novel, somehow fits the situation
- convergent thinking- thinking pointed toward one solution
- divergent thinking- thinking that searches for multiple possible answers to a question - divergent thinking is more closely associated with creativity.
1. Mr. Krohn, a carpenter is frustrated because he misplaced his hammer and needs to pound in the last nail in the bookcase he is building. He overlooks the fact that he could use the tennis trophy sitting above the workbench to pound in the nail. Which concept best explains why Mr. Krohn overlooked the trophy?
2. Phonemes and morphemes refer to
elements of telegraphic speech toddlers use.
Elements of language.
Building blocks of concepts.
Basic elements of memories stored in a long-term memory.
Two types of influences language has on thought according to the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
3. Which example would be better explained by the levels of processing model than the information-processing model?
Someone says your name across the room and you switch your attention away from the conversation you are having.
You forget part of a list you were trying to memorize for a test.
While visiting with your grandmother, you recall one of your favorite childhood toys
You are able to remember verbatim a riddle you worked on for a few days before you figured out the answer.
You pay less attention to the smell of your neighbor’s cologne than to the professor’s lecture in your college class.
4. Contrary to what Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis originally predicted, what effect does recent research indicate language has on the way we think?
Since we think in language, the language we understand limits what we have the ability to think about.
Language is a tool of thought but does not limit our cogniton.
The labels we apply affect our thoughts.
The relative wods in each langage afect our ability to think because we are restricted to the words each langage uses.
The linguistic relativity hypothesis predicts that how quickly we acquire language correlates with our cognitive ability
5. Which of the following is an example of the use of the representativeness heuristic?
Judging that a young person is more likely to be the instigator of an argument than an older person, because you believe younger people are more likely to start fights.
Breaking a math story problem down into smaller, representative parts, in order to solve it.
Judging a situation by a rule that is usuly, but not always true.