Review of CafeScribe April 2012



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Tech For All - Accessibility Review of CafeScribe April 2012

Confidential






Confidential
Accessibility Review of CafeScribe Application

(Post Remediation Accessibility Evaluation with VPAT Revision)

Accessibility Evaluation Report
Presented to: Follett Software Company



Contacts:

Doug Bantz

Development Project Manager

Follett Software Company

and


Jennifer Ullrich Eveslage

Intellectual Property

Follett Higher Education Group

Prepared By:

Tech For All, Inc.

www.TFAConsulting.com

Address Inquiries to:

Caesar Eghtesadi, PhD.

Managing Consultant

Tech For All, Inc.


(571) 338-3318
keghtesadi@TFAConsulting.com
April 10, 2012

Rev 1.0
Table of Contents





1. PROJECT SUMMARY 3

2. ACCESSIBILITY EVALUATION METHODOLOGY 4

3. ACCESSIBILITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION RESULTS 5

4. VOLUNTARY PRODUCT ACCESSIBILITY TEMPLATE FOR CAFESCRIBE 7

APPENDIX A: 15

BACKGROUND on Voluntary Product Accessibility Template 15




1. PROJECT SUMMARY


  1. Tech For All, Inc. (TFA, www.TFAConsulting.com) has conducted an independent accessibility review of the CafeScribe online application on PC platform. The objective was to provide Follett with accessibility guidance based upon expert testing to identify accessibility barriers that will enable Follett’s developers to improve the accessibility and usability of the application for people with disabilities. The previous formal evaluation of the product was conducted in September of 2011.

  2. TFA conducted the examination in consultation with CafeScribe’s designated technical leadership. Testing and analysis of the selected sections were performed between April 2 and April 9, 2012. After gathering and thoroughly analyzing the data, TFA’s team assembled its findings in this Accessibility
    Evaluation Report.

  3. TFA’s evaluation was conducted according to the WCAG 2.0 Guidelines Level AA; the Level AA Guidelines cover the requirements of Section 508 Accessibility Standards of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 (
    www.section508.gov). The entire user interface was surveyed using JAWS 13 screen reader and IE 9 and Firefox 11 with confirmation by NVDA 2012 screen reader. Additional, more intensive review was conducted on the issues listed in the "stories".

The evaluation indicated that the most of the more serious accessibility barriers remain unfixed and while some changes have been made since the original evaluation (Phase 1 Accessibility Evaluation in September of 2011), these changes had minor impact on screen reader accessibility.

Overall, the CafeScribe application has significant accessibility and usability barriers for people with mobility and vision impairments. Until remediated these barriers will prevent several groups of disabled users from successfully using the application. The evaluation generated sufficient information to assess the application's conformance with the WCAG 2.0 (Level AA) and Section 508 Accessibility Standards; despite the introduction of some accessibility fixes, overall, the application does not conform to the standards.

The rest of this report contains: (1) TFA’s methodology, (2) results of TFA’s accessibility assessment of the recent changes to the product, and (3) a sample Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT) for the application, (It is important to mention that 508 Conformance does not assure product accessibility because some WCAG issues may remain even when 508 issues have been addressed).

Two Appendices provide for reference: (A) Background on the Voluntary Product Accessibility Template; and (B) Suggested Language for use in VPAT completion.

2. ACCESSIBILITY EVALUATION METHODOLOGY


In the course of the latest evaluation of the CafeScribe application, TFA’s team reexamined its architecture including its design and development approach, and looked for the presence of relevant accessibility barriers. The accessibility assessment was conducted according to the following steps:

  1. A sighted evaluator conducted an overall technical analysis in order to identify issues of technical compliance that would affect mobility impaired, deaf/hearing impaired and low vision users. The evaluator inspected the pages for each screen using Firefox 11. Analysis was also conducted using Internet Explorer 9. W3C WCAG 2.0 and Section 508 accessibility guidelines were used as the basis for the evaluation.

  2. In the keyboard accessibility review, all the pages were navigated without the use of a mouse.

  3. An evaluation of accessibility for low vision users was performed using the screen magnification, palette, and contrast controls provided by the operating systems as well as the font resizing capability offered by the browsers. Additionally, the Juicy Studio Color Contrast Analyzer was used.

  4. The screen reader testing was conducted by an evaluator who is legally blind. The goal was to identify accessibility barriers that are likely to be experienced by blind users of assistive technology. The evaluator worked through the application using the JAWS 13 screen reader with Internet Explorer 9 and Firefox 11 and the NVDA 2012 screen reader. Pages, which were found to have screen reader issues, were re-examined in an interactive session with a sighted evaluator.

  5. Because, no audio content was included in the scope of the evaluation a deaf/hearing impaired analysis was unnecessary.

The findings of the various team members were assembled, reviewed and evaluated by the team in conjunction with TFA’s Principal Accessibility Consultant. The evaluation results and recommendations developed through this process are presented in the following pages. Based on the testing results, the team also created the Voluntary Product Accessibility Template for the application.

3. ACCESSIBILITY ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION RESULTS


Summary Accessibility Evaluation Results of different Stories
Story S-01607

  • User invokes a page load in any of the normal ways (from the bookshelf, bookmarks, TOC, etc.). When the page load completes, CafeScribe Reader announces that the page is present and ready to be navigated.




  1. When a page is selected from the table of contents, no announcement is made, screen reader focus is placed on the "Next" button, and the screen reader user must navigate backwards to get to the book content area.




  1. When the Bookshelf page is launched, after Log In, the page is not announced and the first thing the screen reader focuses and reads is, "Title/Author(s)"




  1. When the Reader page is launched, the page is not announced and the first thing the screen reader focuses and reads is the user name.



Story S-01609

  • Book Info: Provide a notification when CafeScribe Reader displays the book info dialog so that Paul knows he can start navigating it.

  • Give focus to objects in the modal only; hide objects in the background.

  • Give all objects in Book Info meaningful names.

  • Snap Summary: Provide a notification when CafeScribe Reader displays the Snap Summary dialog so that Paul knows he can start navigating it.
  • Give focus to objects in the modal only; hide objects in the background.


  • Give all objects in Snap Summary meaningful names.

  • Bookmarks: Add the quick edit pane for bookmarks to the tab order.

  • Edit Highlights: Allow Paul to select custom colors with the color picker.




  1. When the Book Info dialog is launched, "Book Info" is not announced and the first thing the screen reader focuses and reads is the book name.




  1. The Book Info dialog contents were read in an arbitrary order that did not correspond to the visual presentation.




  1. When the Snap Summary dialog is launched, "Snap Summary" is announced and focused.




  1. The Snap Summary dialog has three unlabeled buttons and no apparent way to close it.




  1. Both "modal" dialogs were not modal from the screen reader perspective in that elements from the surrounding, background user interface were read interspersed with the dialog elements.




  1. The bookmark quick edit pane is now in the tab order and is keyboard accessible.




  1. It was not possible for the screen reader user to select custom colors for highlights. "Edit Highlights" could be selected from the Select Highlighter drop down, but the modal, "Edit Highlights" dialog could not be found or entered by the screen reader.


Story S-01619

  • Color contrast of text in book content shall be adjustable. Refer to the pattern for Screen contrast.



  1. Color contrast of text in book content is adjustable. To meet the requirements of Section 508:1194.21(g), the user interface colors should not override operating system color selections or alternatively the user interface should permit the user flexibility in selecting color and contrast for the application user interface.



Story S-01620

  • In the Bookshelf Navigation: Fix keystrokes needed to navigate keyboard. Refer to pattern for Information and relationships.




  1. Most of the user interface is keyboard navigable. Some of the exceptions have been fixed. It is still not possible to scroll the book itself (when the book is sized larger than "Fit to Page") using the keyboard alone.



Story S-01722

For both the Login and Create Account screens:

  • Fix tab order, announcements of fields match navigation (needs to be context aware).

  • System notification prompt needs to be read.

  • Remove all hot keys from login replace with: tabbing moves you, enter executes selection.

  • Activate browser so that browser short cuts can be accessed.

  • Test this using the JAWD 12 screen reader or the NVDA 2011.2 screen reader with IE 8 or Firefox 6.

  • Produce an AT that controlled tab order and announcement text.




  1. Login and Create Account screens read properly. Tabbing moves correctly and enter executes selected button. It was unclear what "System notification prompt" was and what was meant by "Activate browser so that short cuts can be accessed." These issues were not evaluated.

4. VOLUNTARY PRODUCT ACCESSIBILITY TEMPLATE FOR CAFESCRIBE

The accessibility evaluation conducted for CafeScribe’s online application selected sections identified accessibility features and functionalities associated with its application. The evaluation provided the required information to assess its conformance with the Section 508 Accessibility Standards; overall, the product does not conform to the standards. The VPAT for the selected sections of CafeScribe is based on the findings in this evaluation.

Based on this evaluation and on information published on the Information Technology Industry Council website (http://www.itic.org), TFA presents the following VPAT document for the selected sections, as laid out in the following tables:


Table 1: VPAT for CafeScribe Platform and Sample EBook Media

Voluntary Product Accessibility Template Summary

Guideline

Applicability

Compliance

Section 1194.21 Software Applications and Operating Systems

Applicable

Does Not Support

Section 1194.22 Web-based Intranet and Internet Information and Systems

Applicable

Does Not Support

Section 1194.23 Telecommunications Products

Not applicable




Section 1194.24 Video and Multimedia Products

Not applicable




Section 1194.25 Self-Contained, Closed Products

Not applicable




Section 1194.26 Desktop and Portable Computers

Not applicable



Section 1194.31 Functional Performance Criteria


Applicable

Does Not Support

Section 1194.41 Information, Documentation, and Support

Applicable

Does Not Support


Table 2: Section 1194.21 Software Applications and Operating Systems – Detail


Section 1194.21 Software Applications and Operating Systems

Voluntary Product Accessibility Template

Criteria

Supporting Features

Remarks and explanations

(a) When software is designed to run on a system that has a keyboard, product functions shall be executable from a keyboard where the function itself or the result of performing a function can be discerned textually.

Supports with Exceptions

Most portions of the user interface are keyboard accessible. The Help link and the ability to scroll content within the reader are not keyboard accessible.

(b) Applications shall not disrupt or disable activated features of other products that are identified as accessibility features, where those features are developed and documented according to industry standards. Applications also shall not disrupt or disable activated features of any operating system that are identified as accessibility features where the application programming interface for those accessibility features has been documented by the manufacturer of the operating system and is available to the product developer.



 Supports

Accessibility features are not disrupted or disabled.

(c) A well-defined on-screen indication of the current focus shall be provided that moves among interactive interface elements as the input focus changes. The focus shall be programmatically exposed so that Assistive Technology can track focus and focus changes.


 Supports

 On screen focus is displayed and communicated to assistive technology.

(d) Sufficient information about a user interface element including the identity, operation and state of the element shall be available to Assistive Technology. When an image represents a program element, the information conveyed by the image must also be available in text.

Does not Support

Not all user interface elements are adequately identified to assistive technology.

(e) When bitmap images are used to identify controls, status indicators, or other programmatic elements, the meaning assigned to those images shall be consistent throughout an application's performance.

 Supports

Images are used consistently.

(f) Textual information shall be provided through operating system functions for displaying text. The minimum information that shall be made available is text content, text input caret location, and text attributes.

 Supports

Adequate text information is provided to assistive technology to enable reading and navigating text.

(g) Applications shall not override user selected contrast and color selections and other individual display attributes.


Does not Support

The application user interface ignores operating system palette settings and provides no mechanism for user adjustment.

(h) When animation is displayed, the information shall be displayable in at least one non-animated presentation mode at the option of the user.



 

Not applicable


No animation is displayed.



(i) Color coding shall not be used as the only means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

Supports 

When color is used to indicate the enabled vs. disabled state of a control, this information is also provided to assistive technology.

(j) When a product permits a user to adjust color and contrast settings, a variety of color selections capable of producing a range of contrast levels shall be provided.

 Not applicable

Color is not adjustable.

(k) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or blink frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

 Supports

Blinking objects are not used.

(l) When electronic forms are used, the form shall allow people using Assistive Technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.


Supports with Exceptions

Most, but not all interactive form elements are properly labeled.

 

Table 3: Section 1194.22 Web-based Internet Information and Applications – Detail


Section 1194.22 Web-based Internet information and applications

Voluntary Product Accessibility Template

Criteria

Supporting Features

Remarks and explanations

(a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content).


Does not Support

Text alternatives do not appear in the eBook media.

(b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.


 Not applicable

No multimedia is present.

(c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.


 Supports

Color is not used as the sole means of communicating information.

(d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.


 Supports

Style sheets are not used in a Flash application.


(e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.


 Not applicable

There are no server side image maps used in this site.

(f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.


 Not applicable

There are no server side image maps used in this site.

(g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.

Does not Support

Data tables exist only in the eBook media, not the application user interface. The tables in the media do not identify their headers to assistive technology.

(h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.


 Not applicable

There were no complex data tables found.

(i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation


 Not applicable

Frames are not used.


(j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.


 Supports

Pages do not contain flashing elements.

(k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.


 Does not Support

No accessible text page is provided. Nor is it practical to supply a text only page with equivalent functionality. Compliance with this paragraph can be achieved by fixing all other accessibility issues.

(l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by Assistive Technology.

Does not Support

Not all user interface elements are adequately identified to assistive technology.

(m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with 1194.21(a) through (l).


Not applicable

Flash is automatically installed by browsers when it is missing.

(n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using Assistive Technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.


Supports with Exceptions

Most, but not all interactive form elements are properly labeled.

(o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.


Not applicable

The application does not have repetitive navigation links.

(p) When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.



 Not applicable

Session time outs do not create practical limitations.



Table 4: Section 1194.31 Functional Performance Criteria – Detail


Section 1194.31 Functional Performance Criteria Detail

Voluntary Product Accessibility Template

Criteria

Supporting Features

Remarks and Explanations

(a) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user vision shall be provided, or support for assistive technology used by people who are blind or visually impaired shall be provided.



 Does not Support

Screen readers not adequately supported to make for practical use of the application.


(b) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require visual acuity greater than 20/70 shall be provided in audio and enlarged print output working together or independently, or support for assistive technology used by people who are visually impaired shall be provided.



Supports with Exceptions

While eBook content can be zoomed, enlarging the user interface text and use of high contrast palettes are not possible.



(c) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user hearing shall be provided, or support for assistive technology used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing shall be provided


 Not applicable

The application does not use audio.

(d) Where audio information is important for the use of a product, at least one mode of operation and information retrieval shall be provided in an enhanced auditory fashion, or support for assistive hearing devices shall be provided.




 Not applicable

PC hardware should be capable of providing enhanced audio or support for enhanced hearing devices.

(e) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require user speech shall be provided, or support for assistive technology used by people with disabilities shall be provided.



 Not applicable

Speech is not required to operate this web site.

(f) At least one mode of operation and information retrieval that does not require fine motor control or simultaneous actions and that is operable with limited reach and strength shall be provided.



Supports with Exceptions

Most portions of the user interface are keyboard accessible. The Help link and the ability to scroll content within the reader are not keyboard accessible.

Table 5: Section 1194.41 Information, Documentation, and Support


Section 1194.41 Information, Documentation and Support

Voluntary Product Accessibility Template


Criteria

Supporting Features

Remarks and Explanations

(a) Product support documentation provided to end-users shall be made available in alternate formats upon request, at no additional charge



 Supports

Application help is provided in HTML, which is easy to convert to other formats.

(b) End-users shall have access to a description of the accessibility and compatibility features of products in alternate formats or alternate methods upon request, at no additional charge.



Does not Support

Accessibility features are not documented.

(c) Support services for products shall accommodate the communication needs of end-users with disabilities.



 

Supports





 Support is provided by phone, or email.


APPENDIX A:

BACKGROUND on Voluntary Product Accessibility Template

To facilitate effective communication between producers of products and services and those who acquire them concerning the accessibility of specific products, an accessibility information template was created by a joint government and industry effort. The VPAT document was created by the Information Technology Industry Council (www.itic.org) based on Section 508 Standards established by the United States Access Board (www.access-board.gov) in 2001.

The use of the VPAT as an evaluation tool has enabled companies to self-document and formally attest to conformance and nonconformance with specific Section 508 requirements point by point. Its purpose is to assist federal and state contracting officials and other purchasers in making preliminary assessments regarding the availability of commercial Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products and services with features that support accessibility. Vendors are frequently required to submit VPATs with their responses to RFPs and other government purchasing proposals.

For each ICT product category to which Section 508 applies, three different requirements need to be addressed. (Complete information regarding these requirements can be found at the www.section508.gov and www.itic.org websites):


  1. Specific Requirements, corresponding to specific product groups:

a. Software Applications and Operating Systems

b. Web-based Internet Information and Applications

c. Telecommunications Products

d. Video and Multi-media Products

e. Self-Contained, Closed Products

f. Desktop and Portable Computers



  1. General Requirement, “Functional Performance Criteria,” applying to all product groups

  2. General Requirement, “Information, Documentation, and Support,” applying to the information provided accompanying all ICT products. Thus FAQ’s, Manuals and the like must all be accessible.

Considering that the VPAT carries important information for the procurement official, it is essential that a supplier/producer provide an accurately prepared VPAT that fairly and responsibly represents its product and/or service.

APPENDIX B: SUGGESTED LANGUAGE FOR COMPLETING VPAT

In order to simplify the task of conducting market research assessments for procurement officials or customers, ITIC (www.itic.org) has developed suggested language for use when filling out a VPAT document. The following table provides the suggested language.

Column 1 - Supporting Features

Column 2 - Remarks and Explanations



Feedback from procurement officials and customers shows that providing further explanation regarding features and exceptions is especially helpful. Use this column to detail how the product addresses the standard or criteria by:

  • Listing accessibility features or features that are accessible
  • Detailing where in the product an exception occurs


Explaining equivalent methods of facilitation (definition of "equivalent facilitation" -see 36 CFR 1194.5.)

Supporting Features

Recommended Language

Supports

Use this language when you determine the product fully meets the letter and intent of the Criteria.


Supports with Exceptions

Use this language when you determine the product does not fully meet the letter and intent of the Criteria, but provides some level of access relative to the Criteria.


Supports through Equivalent Facilitation

Use this language when you have identified an alternate way to meet the intent of the Criteria or when the product does not fully meet the intent of the Criteria.


Supports when combined with Compatible Assistive Technology

Use this language when you determine the product fully meets the letter and intent of the Criteria when used in combination with Compatible AT. For example, many software programs can provide speech output when combined with a compatible screen reader (commonly used assistive technology for people who are blind).


Does not Support

Use this language when you determine the product does not meet the letter or intent of the Criteria.


Not Applicable

Use this language when you determine that the Criteria do not apply to the specific product.


Not Applicable - Fundamental Alteration Exception Applies

Use this language when you determine a Fundamental Alteration of the product would be required to meet the Criteria (see the access board standards for the definition of "fundamental alteration").

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