Review of the Research to Identify the Most Effective Models of Practice in Early Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders


Interventions Rated According to Research



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2.8 Interventions Rated According to Research

This section reviews the evidence regarding the intervention and evaluates the research supporting underlying rationales and evaluation according to application of principles of good practice in 0–7 year olds.

Table 6 presents an evaluation of the intervention research supporting the underlying rationale, and the application of principles of good practice in 0–7 year olds. It provides recommendations regarding the eligibility of early intervention services for children aged 0–7 years, based on the list of interventions provided by FaCSHIA and including treatments.

Interventions that are service based and which have not provided information about their philosophy and service provision, and about which no other information could be found, have not been provided with a rating. In order to assess the eligibility of these services further information is required.

Table 6: Interventions rated according to research

Key

E = Established/Eligible based on evidence

EE = Emerging evidence

BP = Eligible based on best practice approach. Evidence awaited.

SE = Single element, eligible based on evidence or best practice, must be used with other eligible interventions

NEI = Not eligible, insufficient information regarding best practice or evidence

NEE = Not eligible based on best practice guidelines or evidence that indicate the intervention is not effective

A number of programs have been given a rating of both EE (Eligible based on emerging evidence) and SE (Single element that must be used with other eligible treatments). This recognises that a number of treatments, particularly some therapy based interventions, have some emerging evidence but that they support only one part of a child’s overall needs. These ratings further highlight the need for collaborative multidisciplinary practice.


Type of Intervention

Named interventions within that type of intervention

Established/ Eligible based on evidence

Eligible based on emerging research

Eligible based on best practice approach. Evidence awaited.

Eligible element based on evidence or best practice, must be used with other eligible Tx

Not eligible as insufficient info re best practice and/or evidence

Not eligible as not based on best practice and/or evidence that not effective




Comprehensive programs, including EIBI, ABA, combined approaches, developmental approaches

Applied behavioural analysis (ABA) or early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI)

E
















Early Start Denver Model (ESDM)




EE













TEACCH (Treatment and education of autistic and related communication handicapped children)




EE













LEAP (Learning Experiences – An Alternative Program for Pre-schoolers and Parents)




EE













PACT




EE













Building Blocks (centred based and home-based)




EE













SCERTS (Social-Communication, Emotional Regulation and Transactional Support)







BP








DIR/Floortime Approach







BP










Developmental Social-Pragmatic (DSP) model







BP










Relationships Development Intervention (RDI)







BP










The PLAY Project®







BP










Miller Method













NEI





Service based treatments specific to autism – more information required


Learn & Grow Group







BP










HAPP Approach







BP










SERVAM (Sensory considerations, Environmental management, Routines and planned change, Visual supports, Autism friendly communication, Motivation)







BP










Play Links







BP










Autism Specific Long Day Care (Supported placement in inclusive long-day care setting. Regular IEPs, IFSPs, regular therapy sessions and consultations)







BP











Family based including parent training

Hanen ‘More than Words’




EE













Hanen ‘It takes two to talk’













NEI




Pre-schoolers with Autism




EE













Triple P – Stepping Stones adaptation




EE












Other parent training programs

Any training provided for parents under by approved service providers must adhere to the key elements of effective early intervention:

Autism specific curriculum, addressing the core features of ASDs and/or associated features

Functional approach to challenging behaviours

Predictability and routine

Visual supports


Multidisciplinary team involvement wherever appropriate








BP































Therapy based

Provision of SGD and other Augmentative & Alternative Communication (AAC)




EE













PECS




EE













Signing/other AAC




EE












Alert Program for self-regulation








BP










Social Stories










SE







Pragmatic Language Groups / Pragmatics for Prep










SE







Aquatic OT 10 Week Program










SE







Aquatic OT School Holiday Intensive Program










SE









Cognitive Behaviour Therapy














NEI




Phonological Awareness/Literacy groups













NEI




Sensory Integration Therapy













NEI




Sensory diet













NEI




Auditory Integration Therapy
















NEE

Fast ForWord Program














NEE

PROMPT (PROMPTs for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets)













NEI




Multi-sensory Environment (Snoezelen room)

















NEE




Single element components addressing one aspect of ASDs

Sleepwise©: Positive Sleeping Practices for Young Children with Developmental Delay










SE







PALS Social Skills Program (Playing and Learning to Socialise)










SE





Toilet Time©: Toilet Training for Young Children with Developmental Delay











SE







Music therapy










SE







SoSAFE!













NEI




‘Social Eyes’ 













NEI







Not specific to autism

‘Super-nanny’ - whole family support provided by a mental health nurse in the home using a DSP approach













NEI





Services identified as requiring more specific information via details given to FaHCSIA. These could not be provided with a rating.

Narrative therapy













NEI




Circles of support (inclusion program encourage other children to help the child participate in activities)










SE







Next Step program



















Sensory and perceptual motor therapy



















Jump Start

















‘I can do it’



















Busy Hands group



















Solution focussed brief therapy



















AUSPsych



















‘Communication Sensation’



















Discover and Learn


















Travelling teacher’ – intensive live in (5 days)




















Equipment Purchase






















Teacher/ centre support


Teacher training













NEI




Collaborative planning services

Consideration should be given to funding services that allow for collaborative planning (e.g. IEP meetings) and individual visits to children’s everyday settings (such as preschools and childcare) to facilitate generalisation of skills, appropriate behaviour support, use of visual supports and transition, as per the established principles of good practice.









BP










Transition visits







BP
















Other

Physiotherapy / motor skills (with exceptions made for children with Rett’s Syndrome)













NEI





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