Robert a. Pastor


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September 2012


Office Address:

Dr. Robert A. Pastor

Professor of International Relations

School of International Service

American University

4400 Massachusetts Ave. NW

Washington, D.C. 20016-8026

Phone: 202-885-1520; E-Mail:

Home Address:

4667 Kenmore Drive N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20007-1914

Personal Data:

Married, two children

Professional Experience
American University, Washington, D.C. 2002 – Present

Professor of International Relations, School of International Service

Director, Center for North American Studies

Co-Director, Center for Democracy and Election Management

Executive Director and Member, Commission on Federal Election Reform

(Co-Chaired by Hon. Jimmy Carter and Hon. James A. Baker, III)

Vice President of International Affairs and Member of the Cabinet 2002-2007

Founded two Centers and the Commission on Election Reform. As Vice President, expanded the study abroad program from 12 to 108 sites and doubled the number of students going abroad. Created a new program, “Abroad at AU,” bringing students from all over the world to study at AU for a year, and helped establish the American University of Nigeria.

The Elders, a group of 12 world leaders, chaired by Desmond Tutu and including 2007-2008

Nelson Mandela, Kofi Annan, Mary Robinson, and Jimmy Carter

Senior Advisor and Interim Co-Director, responsible for conflict-resolution
Council on Foreign Relations Task Force on the Future of North America 2004-2005

Vice Chair
Goodrich C. White Professor of International Relations 1985–2002

Department of Political Science, Emory University

Courses taught included: U.S. Foreign Policy toward Latin America; Foreign Policies of the Major

Powers; Theories of Comparative Foreign Policy-Making; International Relations; Non-

Governmental Organizations (NGO) and World Politics; North America; Current Issues in Inter-

American Relations; Democracy’s Challenges and Prospects in the US and the World
Common Cause, a non-governmental organization dedicated to improving the 1998-2006

quality of democracy in the United States and the integrity of its officials

President, Common Cause/Georgia (2001-2002); Vice President (1999-2001)

National Governing Board, Common Cause (1998-2006)

Board of Directors, Common Cause Education Fund (2000-2006)

Chair, Common Cause Task Force on Election Reform (2001-2002)
Carter Center 1985 –present

Fellow and Founding Director, Latin American and Caribbean Program. 1985-1998

Directed and raised about $10 million over 13 years for a research and public policy program on

Latin America and the Caribbean and U.S. policy. Major conferences on The Debt Crisis,

Reinforcing Democracy in the Americas, Election Observing, Collective Security, NAFTA, and The Western Hemispheric Agenda. Established and directed the Council of Freely-Elected Heads of Government, chaired by Jimmy Carter and composed of 32 leaders, which monitored and mediated elections in 30 countries, including the first democratic transitions in Nicaragua, Haiti, and Paraguay.

Chair, Democracy Group: Initiated Carter Center election-monitoring program and organized

missions to 30 countries in Latin America, Middle East, Africa, and Asia.

Founding Director, China Elections Project: Negotiated and signed an agreement with the Chinese government to provide advice on elections at the village-level. Led six delegations to observe elections in seven provinces in China.
Consultant and Senior Advisor 1998-present

Advised and accompanied Jimmy Carter on trip to Cuba (2002); organized the Center’s monitoring

of Mexico’s elections in July 2000 and advised Mexico’s Federal Election Institute in July 2006; Senior Advisor on the China Elections Project (1998-2001); Member, International Negotiating Network (1991-2001); Member of “Friends of the Inter-American Democratic Charter” (2005-present); Senior Advisor on Conflict Resolution in the Middle East (2007-present)
Carter-Ford National Commission on Federal Election Reform 2001

Senior Advisor

Advisor to Democratic Presidential Candidates 1976-2008

Advisor on North and Latin American Affairs, Obama-Biden Campaign (2007-08); Task Force on North America and Member of the Western Hemisphere Affairs Task Force to the John F. Kerry Campaign (2004); Co-Chair, Advisory Group on the Americas to the Gore-Lieberman Campaign and Vice Chair, Gore-Lieberman Campaign, Georgia (2000); Vice Chair, Clinton-Gore Campaign for Georgia; Surrogate speaker for President Clinton; Elected delegate from the 5th District to the Democratic Convention (1996); Advisor on Latin American and Foreign Policy issues, Bill Clinton (1992), Michael Dukakis (1988), Walter Mondale (1984), Jimmy Carter (1976, 1980)

Institute of International Economics 1999– 2005

Senior Fellow

Research and book on the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement

John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 1998-1999

Ralph Straus Visiting Professor

Taught course on “NGOs and World Politics”

Center for International Affairs, Harvard University 1998– 1999

Visiting Scholar

Co-led seminar on “Foreign Policies of the Major Powers”

Director, Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Emory University 1987– 1991

Directed an interdisciplinary major and minor in Latin American and Caribbean Studies and a Faculty Advisory Committee of 21 from nine departments

Senior Advisor to the Carter-Nunn-Powell Mission on Haiti Sept. 1994
Nominee, U.S. Ambassador to Panama Dec. 1993 – Feb. 1995

Approved by Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 16-3; nomination withdrawn after the new

Chairman, Senator Jesse Helms, indicated he would prevent a vote by the Senate
Senior Advisor 1993

Bipartisan Commission on “NAFTA and Beyond” - Chaired by five former U.S. Presidents to

educate nation on the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement for U.S.
Fulbright Professor, El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico 1985-1986

Taught courses on U.S. foreign policy

Faculty Research Associate June 1982 – Sept. 1985

School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland

Taught courses on U.S. foreign policy. Coordinator of Humphrey Fellowship Program. Directed research project on “Migration and Development in the Caribbean,” supported by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, the World Bank, and A.I.D.

Guest Scholar April 1981 – June 1982

Brookings Institution

Research on issues related to U.S. foreign policy

Director, Office of Latin American and Caribbean Affairs Jan. 1977 – Jan. 1981

National Security Council, White House

Coordinated policy of Executive Branch on Latin American and Caribbean issues and on North-

South issues, including on the Panama Canal Treaties, human rights, democracy, non-proliferation, arms control, Cuba, and the Caribbean. Staffed the President and the National Security Adviser. Created the Humphrey Fellowship Program and Caribbean/Central American Action.
Executive Director Feb. 1975 – Jan. 1977

Linowitz Commission on U.S./Latin American Relations

Chaired by Sol M. Linowitz, the Commission, a private group of 20 distinguished citizens, issued two reports. Nearly all the recommendations for U.S. policy in the Commission’s second report were implemented between 1977 and 1979.

Teaching Fellow 1974 – 1976

Department of Government, Harvard University

Taught courses on International Relations, Congress and Foreign Policy

Researcher April 1974 – March 1975

Commission on the Organization of the Government for the

Conduct of Foreign Policy (Murphy Commission)

Researched and wrote studies on the U.S. policy making process to Latin America and how it could be improved. (The Commission was a joint Presidential/Congressional initiative.)

Lecturer 1974

Institute of Politics, Harvard University

Taught a course on U.S. Multinational Corporations and Africa with Antoine van Agtmael, then Vice President of Bankers Trust Company

Analyst 1973

Urban Systems Research, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.)

Consulted on issues of international development

Peace Corps Volunteer Feb. 1970 – May 1972

Advisor to the Malaysian Department of Agriculture

Helped establish an agricultural training center for rural youth. Devised and implemented a

development plan for a remote area of Sarawak, Malaysia. Wrote a booklet on coffee growing and processing in three languages.

Researcher May 1969 – Sept. 1969

Foreign Affairs Division, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress

Responsible for preparing briefing papers for Congressmen and Senators on U.S. policy to Latin

America and on International Organizations.

Professional Consultant 1981 – Present

To U.S. Government: National Security Council (1985-98); Department of State (1994-95);

Department of Defense (1995); CIA Historical Review Panel (1995-2005) [Top Secret Clearance]

To Foundations: U.S. Institute for Peace (1997-2004); Ford Foundation on Mexico (1985-86);

Rockefeller Brothers Fund, on U.S. policy toward Latin America (1982); Rockefeller Foundation on U.S. immigration and refugee policies (1981-82); Brookings Institution on North American

Integration (2001) and U.S. trade policies (1981-82)

To International Organizations: North American Development Bank (2004-05); U.N. Economic

Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean on NAFTA (1991-3) and on U.S. foreign economic policy (1985-86); Inter-American Development Bank on U.S. foreign investment (1983-84)

To U.S. Corporations: On trade and investment conditions and opportunities in Latin America;

International Advisory Committee, Trust Company Bank (1990-92)

Other Consultancies: The Carter Center Conflict Resolution Program and Americas Program; Fels Institute of Government, University of Pennsylvania on election reform (2001-04); CARE (1999); Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA), (1999-2004); MacArthur Foundation (1997-2001); Cambridge Energy Research Associates (1983-90); National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (1983-85); Institute for Defense Analysis (Top Secret Security Clearance, 1982-85); WGBH Public Television, award-winning television series on Central America (1983-85)

Ph.D. Harvard University, Department of Government, 1977

Major Areas: Legislative-Executive Relations; U.S. Foreign Policy; International Political Economy. Thesis: “Legislative-Executive Relations and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy”. Won Toppan Prize from Harvard University for best dissertation in Political Science.

M.P.A. John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1974

Major Areas: Public Administration and Public Policy, International Economics

B.A. Lafayette College, Department of History, 1969

Honors Thesis: “The Guatemalan Revolution, 1944-54: Victim of the Big Stick or the Cold War?”

University of Birmingham, England, 1967-68

Honorary Doctorate and Founder's Award, American University of Nigeria

Book on A Century’s Journey: How the Great Powers Shape the World, received “Outstanding

Academic Book” by Choice Magazine in 2002

Book on The Controversial Pivot: The US Congress and North America received “Outstanding

Academic Book” by Choice Magazine in 2002

Goodrich C. White Chair and Professor of International Relations, Emory, 1996-2002

Sargent Shriver Humanitarian Service Award, highest award for a Returned Peace Corps Volunteer, 1995

George W. Kidd Distinguished Alumnus Award, Lafayette College, 1993

Book on Limits to Friendship: The U.S. and Mexico received the Hubert Herring Award for the best

book in Latin American Studies, 1989

Book on Migration and Development was designated one of “Outstanding Academic Books” in

1986-87 by Choice magazine

Toppan Prize, Harvard University for best dissertation in Political Science, 1976-77

Administration Fellowship, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1972-74

Phi Beta Kappa, Lafayette College, 1969

Phi Alpha Theta Honorary History Society, Lafayette College, 1969

Member of the National Advisory Committee on North America to the U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency, 2010-2012

Board of Trustees, American University of Afghanistan, 2010-2012

Board of Advisors, J Street, 2009-present

Co-Editor, Norteamerica, an inter-disciplinary journal, 2004-present

Board of Advisors, North American Center for Transborder Studies, Arizona State University, 2007-present

Board of Advisors, Americas Division of Human Rights Watch, 2003-present

Vice Chair, Council on Foreign Relations Task Force on the Future of North America, 2004-05

Board of Trustees, American University of Nigeria, Yola, Nigeria, 2004-2008, 2012-present

Board of Directors, NAFSA (Association of International Educators), 2002-2008

Chairman, Board of Directors, North American Forum on Integration (NAFI), Montreal, Canada, 1999-

2004; Board of Directors, 1999-2008

Board of Directors, Council for a Community of Democracies, 2002-present

Member, North American Committee, National Policy Association, 2001-2003

Board of Directors, Common Cause Education Fund, 2000-2005

National Governing Board of Common Cause, 1998-2005 (elected to 3-year terms)

President, Common Cause/Georgia, 2001-02 (elected)

Charter Member, Pacific Council on International Policy, 1998-2010

Foreign Policy Advisory Committee, National Council of La Raza

Member, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, 1997-present

MacArthur Foundation Fellows Program, Nomination Committee, 1997-1999

Board Member, National Peace Monument, 1995-2001

Historical Review Panel on De-Classification, Central Intelligence Agency, 1995-2005

Committee on Foreign Policy Studies, Social Science Research Council, 1991-2000

Committee on International Security Studies, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1992-2008

Advisory Council, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame, 1986-99

Board of Editors, PS (Political Science), Democratization, International Politics, Hemisphere, Norteamérica

Author or Co-Author
The North American Idea: A Vision of a Continental Future (N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2011). Translated and published in Spanish in Mexico by Miguel Angel Porrua (2012).
Not Condemned to Repetition: The United States and Nicaragua (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 2002). Revised edition of Condemned to Repetition.
Toward a North American Community: Lessons from the Old World for the New (Institute for International Economics, 2001). Translated and published in Chinese.
Exiting the Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean (Boulder: Westview Press, 2001). Revised edition of Whirlpool. Published in Japanese (2008)
Integration with Mexico: Options for U.S. Policy (Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1993)
Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean (Princeton University Press, 1992). Paper, 1993. Published in Spanish as Remolino: Politica Exterior de Estados Unidos Hacia America Latina by Siglo Veintiuno (Mexico), 1996.
Limits to Friendship: The United States and Mexico (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1988). With Jorge

Castañeda. Paperback edition by Vintage Books in 1989. Published in Spanish as Limites en la Amistad:

Mexico y Estados Unidos (Mexico, D.F.: Joaquin Mortiz/Planeta, 1989).

Condemned to Repetition: The United States and Nicaragua (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987). Paperback edition with new epilogue, 1988.

Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University

of California Press, 1980). Paperback edition published in 1982.

Editor and Author
Democracy and Elections in North America: What Can We Learn From Our Neighbors? Election Law Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3 (2004). Symposium. Edited and wrote three chapters. Translated and published in Spanish (July 2006).
A Century’s Journey: How The Great Powers Shape the World (N.Y.: Basic Books, 1999). Translated and published in Chinese by Linking Publishing Company, Taiwan (2000) and by Shanghai People’s Publishing House, People’s Republic of China (2001) with a new preface. Edited and wrote three chapters.
The Controversial Pivot: The U.S. Congress and North America (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998). Co-editor with Rafael Fernandez de Castro and author of three chapters. Published in Spanish.
Collective Responses to Regional Problems: The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean (Cambridge: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1994). Co-editor with Carl Kaysen and Laura Reed and wrote one chapter.
Democracy in the Caribbean: Political, Economic, and Social Perspectives (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993). Co-editor with Jorge Dominguez and Delisle Worrell and wrote one chapter.
Democracy in the Americas: Stopping the Pendulum (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1989). Edited and wrote two chapters.

Latin America’s Debt Crisis: Adjusting to the Past or Planning for the Future? (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1987). Edited and wrote two chapters.

Migration and Development in the Caribbean: The Unexplored Connection (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985). Edited and wrote two chapters.
The Paramount Challenge for North America: Closing the Development Gap (San Antonio: North American Development Bank, March 14, 2005).
The North American Free Trade Agreement: Hemispheric and Geopolitical Implications (Washington, D.C.: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Inter-American Development Bank, 1993).
The Carter Administration and Latin America: A Test of Principle (Atlanta: The Carter Center of Emory University, Occasional Paper Vol. II, No. 3, 1992).
Migration and Development: Implications and Recommendations for Policy (Washington, D.C.: Commission for the Study of International Migration and Cooperative Economic Development, Working Paper, No. 7, 1989.)
U.S. Foreign Economic Policy: The Dynamics of the Debate (Santiago, Chile: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, November 1986.)

U.S. Foreign Investment in Latin America: The Impact on Employment (Buenos Aires, Argentina:

Institute for Latin American Integration, Inter-American Development Bank, 1984). Also published in


Principal author of about 40 Reports on the elections and political process in 20 countries that The Carter

Center monitored, 1989-2000; editor of Building a North American Community: Independent Task Force Report No. 53 (N.Y.: Council on Foreign Relations, May 2005); Building Confidence in U.S. Elections: Report of the Commission on Federal Election Reform (Washington, D.C.: American University’s Center for Democracy and Election Management, September 2005); Bringing Hope, Forging Peace: The Elders’ Mission to Sudan (Washington, D.C., December 2007); numerous reports on election reform in the United States and other countries for the Center for Democracy and Election Management; and reports and edited monographs for the Center for North American Studies.

Chapters in Books (63)
"North America in 2020: Two Visions," in Canada Among Nations, 20101: Canada and Mexico: Building Bridges to the Future, edited by Alex Bugiliskis and Andres Rozental (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2012).
“A North American’s View of the Old NAFTA and the New North American Agenda,” in Canada Among Nations, 2009-2010: As Others See Us, edited by Fen Osler Hampson and Paul Heinbecker (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2010).
“Imagining without Building the Sub-Regions of the Americas: A Foreword,” Inter-American Cooperation at a Crossroads, edited by Andrew F. Cooper, Gordon Mace, and Timothy Shaw (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010).
“The Last Frontier of De-Colonization in the Americas: Indigenous Peoples – Foreword,” in Martin Edwin Andersen, Peoples of the Earth: Ethno- Nationalism, Democracy, and the Indigenous Challenge in “Latin” America (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010).
“Should Canada, Mexico, and the United States Replace Two Dysfunctional Bilateral Relations with a North American Community?” in Jack Citrin, ed., North American Futures (Berkeley: University of California Inter-Governmental Studies, 2010).
“Mexico’s Future in North America – Its Third Challenge,” in Arturo Oropeza Garcia, ed., America del Norte en el Siglo XXI (Mexico: UNAM, 2010).
“The Third Side of the North American Triangle: Canada-Mexico Relations,” in Maria Isabel Studer, ed., Canada-Mexico Relations (Mexico: CEDAN, 2010)

“North America: A Partial Eclipse and a Future Community,” in Imtiaz Hussain, ed., North American

Political Economy: Forever Bonded? (Mexico City: Universidad Iberoamerica, 2008).
“Beyond NAFTA: The Emergence and Future of North America,” in Yasmeen Abu-Laban, Radha Jhapan, and Francois Rocher, eds., Politics in North America: Redefining Continental Relations (Toronto: Broadview Press, 2008).
“China’s Elections: Foreword,” in Village Elections in China: Democratizing the Countryside, by Qingshan Tan (Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006).
“The US Administration of Elections: Decentralized to the Point of Being Dysfunctional,” in Electoral

Management Design: The International IDEA Handbook. (Stokholm: International IDEA, 2006).
“U.S. Policy on Human Rights and Democracy: Reconciling Ideals and Interests,” in Shireen Hunter, ed., The Human Rights Divide Between the U.S. and the Muslim World: Building Bridges (Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2005).
“North America and the Americas: Integration Among Unequal Partners,” in Mary Farrell, Bjorn Hette, and

Luk Van Langenhove, eds., Global Politics of Regionalism (London: Pluto Press, 2005)

“Closing the Development Gap and Forging a Partnership: The Challenge for NAFTA’s Second Decade,” in Laurence Whitehead, Mexico and North American Realities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005). In

Spanish as “Despues Del Libre Comercio en America del Norte; Como Cerrar La Brecha de Desarrollo,”

published by El Colegio de Mexico and Oxford University.

“El Modelo de America del Norte en un Mundo de Tres Regiones” (The North American Model in a World

of Three Regions), in Joaquin Roy, Alejandro Channona, and Robert Dominguez, La Union Europea y el

Tlacan: Integracion Regional Comparada y Relaciones Mutuas (Miami: University of Miami Press, 2005).
“The Great Powers in an Age of Global Governance,” in J. N. Clarke and G. R. Edwards, eds., Global

Governance in the Twenty-First Century (N.Y.: Palgrave: MacMillan, 2004)
“The Delicate Balance Between Coercion and Diplomacy: Haiti and Panama,” in The United States and

Coercive Diplomacy: Lessons Learned from the Early Post-Cold War World, eds. Robert Art and Patrick

Cronin (U.S. Institute for Peace, 2003)

“NAFTA is Not Enough: Steps Toward a North American Community,” in Robert Litan and Peter Hakim,eds., The Future of North American Integration Beyond NAFTA (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2002).
“A Regional Development Policy for North America: Adapting the European Union Model,” in Edward J.

Chambers and Peter H. Smith, eds., NAFTA in the New Millennium (University of California, San Diego: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies and Calgary, Canada: University of Alberta Press, 2002).

“The United States and the Americas: Unfilled Promise at the Century’s Turn,” in Eagle Rules? Foreign

Policy and American Primacy in the 21st Century, ed. Robert Lieber (N.Y.: Prentice-Hall Publishers, 2001).
“U.S.-Taiwan-China Relations: Drawing Lessons from the Past for the Future,” in The Taiwan Relations Act, eds. William W. Boyer and Jaw-Ling Joanne Chang (Baltimore: University of Maryland Press, 2000).

“Is Democracy Possible in China? If So, What Paths Might China Take,” in Democratization in Mainland

China and Taiwan, edited by Thomas Bellows (N.Y.: St. Johns University Press, 2000).
“Democratization and the International Community,” in The Democratic Invention, edited by Marc F.

Plattner and Joao Carlos Espada (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000).

“More and Less Than It Seemed: The Carter-Nunn-Powell Mission in Haiti, 1994”, in Herding Cats: The

Management of Complex International Mediation, edited by Chester Crocker, Fen Hampson, and Pamela

Aall (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 1999).

“The Third Dimension of Accountability: The Role of the International Community in National Elections,” and “A Brief History of Electoral Administration,” in The Self-Restraining State: Corruption and Accountability in New Democracies, eds. Andreas Schedler, Larry Diamond, and Marc F. Plattner (Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Press, 1998).
“Restoring Democracy in Haiti,” Mediating Deadly Conflict, ed. Dana Francis (Cambridge, Mass.: World

Peace Foundation, 1998).

“A Popular Democratic Revolution in a Predemocratic Society: The Case of Haiti,” in Haiti Renewed:

Political and Economic Prospects, ed. Robert I. Rotberg (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press,

“The State of U.S.-Mexican Relations,” foreword to Joining Together, Standing Apart: National Identities

After NAFTA (Kluwer Law International, 1997).
“The Clinton Administration and the Americas: Moving to the Rhythm of the Post-War World,” in Eagle

Adrift: American Foreign Policy at the End of the Century, ed. Robert Lieber (N.Y.: Harper Collins, 1996).

“U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and the Caribbean,” The Encyclopedia of U.S. Foreign Relations (Lakeville, CT: American Reference Publishing Company, 1996).
“To Intervene or Not to Intervene: The Question for U.S. Policy in the Caribbean Basin,” in U.S. and

Russian Policy-Making with Respect to the Use of Force, ed. Jeremy R. Azrael (Santa Monica: RAND, 1996).
“Monitoring Elections,” in Encyclopedia of Democracy (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1995).
“Disagreeing on Latin America,” in Congress and the Making of Foreign Policy, ed. Paul E. Peterson

(Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994).

“The United States and Central America: Interlocking Debates,” in Peter Evans, Harold K. Jacobson, and

Robert D. Putnam (eds.), Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics

(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993).
“The War Between the Branches: Explaining U.S. Policy Toward Nicaragua, 1979-89,” in Richard Sobel (ed.), Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid (Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 1993).
“Forward to the Beginning: Widening the Scope for Global Collective Action,” in Laura Reed (ed.), Emerging Norms of Justified Intervention (Cambridge, Mass.: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1993).
“NAFTA as the Center of an Integration Process: The Nontrade Issues,” in Nora Lustig, Barry P. Bosworth, and Robert Z. Lawrence (eds.), North American Free Trade: Assessing the Impact (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1992).

“The President Versus Congress,” in Robert J. Art and Seyom Brown (eds.), U.S. Foreign Policy: The Search for a New Role (N.Y.: MacMillan, 1992).

“Old Habits, New Opportunities in Nicaragua,” Afterword, in William I. Robinson, A Faustian Bargain

(Boulder: Westview Press, 1992).

“George Bush and Latin America: The Pragmatic Style and the Regionalist Option,” in Kenneth Oye, Robert J. Lieber, and Donald Rothchild (eds.), Eagle in a New Land: American Grand Strategy in the Post-Cold War World (N.Y.: HarperCollins, 1992). [Also published in Journal of Inter-American Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Fall 1991)]
“The United States and Central America After the Cold War: Seal, Peel, or Repeal the Sphere of Influence?” in George Breslauer, et. al. (eds.), Beyond the Cold War (University of California at Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, 1991).
“U.S. National Security and Latin American Revolutions: Imprismed,” in Richard J. Bloomfield and Gregory Treverton (eds.), Alternative to Intervention: A New U.S.-Latin America Security Relationship (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1990).
“The Centrality of Central America,” in Larry Berman (ed.), Looking Back on the Reagan Presidency

(Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990).

“The United States and the Grenada Revolution: Who Pushed First and Why?” in Jorge Heine (ed.), A

Revolution Aborted: The Lessons of Grenada (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990).
“Who in Mexico Paid for the Debt Crisis?” in Dwight Brothers and Adele E. Wick (eds.), Mexico’s Search for A New Strategy (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990).

“The Carter Administration and Latin America: A Test of Principle,” in John D. Martz (ed.), U.S. Policy in Latin America: Quarter Century of Crisis and Challenge (University of Nebraska Press, 1988). [“El

Gobierno de Carter y America Latina: Una Prueba de Principios,” Foro Internacional 106, 27, Oct-Dec.


“The Invasion of Grenada: A Pre- and Post-Mortem,” in Scott MacDonald, Harald Sandstrom, and Paul

Goodwin (eds.), The Caribbean After Grenada (N.Y.: Praeger Publishers, 1988).

“Caribbean Emigration and U.S. Immigration Policy,” in Jorge Heine and Leslie Manigat (eds.), The

Caribbean and World Politics: Cross Currents and Cleavages (N.Y.: Holmes and Meier, 1988).
“The Reagan Administration and Latin America: Eagle Insurgent,” in Kenneth Oye, Robert Lieber, and

Donald Rothchild (eds.), Eagle Resurgent? The Reagan Era in American Foreign Policy (Boston: Little,

Brown and Company, 1987). [“El Gobierno de Reagan y America Latina: La Busqueda Implacable de

Seguridad,” Foro Internacional, Mexico 105, Vol. 27, 1, Julio-Sep. 1986]

“The Impact of U.S. Immigration Policy on Caribbean Emigration: Does It Matter?” in Barry Levine (ed.), Caribbean Exodus (N.Y.: Praeger, 1987).
“The Caribbean-- More People and Fewer Resources,” with Sergio Diaz Briquets, in Andrew Maguire and Janet Welsh Brown (eds.), Bordering on Trouble: Resources and Politics in the Americas (Bethesda,

Maryland: Adler and Adler, 1986).

“U.S. Policy Toward the Caribbean: Interests and Strategies,” in Peter M. Dunn and Bruce W. Watson (eds.), American Intervention in Grenada: The Implications of Operation “Urgent Fury” (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1985).
“Re-Defining the Strategic Challenge in Central America,” in Joseph Cirincione (ed.), Central America and the Western Alliance (N.Y.: Holmes and Meier, 1985).

“The Impact of Grenada on the Caribbean: Ripples From a Revolution,” in Jack W. Hopkins (ed.), Latin

America and Caribbean, Contemporary Record III, 1983-84 (N.Y.: Holmes and Meier, 1985).
“Puerto Rico as an International Issue: A Motive for Movement?” in Richard Bloomfield (ed.), Puerto Rico: The Need for a National Policy (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1985).
“The Threat to U.S. National Security in Central America Is Exaggerated,” in David L. Bender (ed.), Central America: Opposing Viewpoints (St. Paul, Minn.: Greenhaven Press, 1984).
“Far From Hopeless: An Economic Program for a Post-War Central America,” with Richard Feinberg, in

Robert Leiken (ed.), Central America: Anatomy of Conflict (N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984).

“A Question of U.S. National Interests in Central America,” in Wolf Grabendorff, et. al. (eds.), Change in

Central America: Internal and External Dimensions (Boulder: Westview Press, 1984).
“The Cry and Sigh Syndrome: Congress and U.S. Trade Policy,” in Allen Schick (ed.), Making Economic

Policy in Congress (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1983).
“Migration in the Caribbean Basin: The Need for an Approach as Dynamic as the Phenomenon,” in M. M. Kritz (ed.), U.S. Immigration and Refugee Policy: Global and Domestic Issues (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1983).
“Cuba and the Soviet Union: Does Cuba Act Alone?” in Barry B. Levine (ed.), The New Cuban Presence in the Caribbean, (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1983).

“U.S. Policies Toward the Caribbean: Recurring Problems and Promises,” in Jack Hopkins (ed.), Latin

American and Caribbean Contemporary Record, I, 1981-82 (N.Y.: Holmes and Meier, 1983).

“Congress’ Impact on Latin America: Is There a Madness in the Method?” and “U.S. Sugar Politics and Latin America: Asymmetries in Input and Impact,” in Abraham F. Lowenthal (ed.) The Conduct of Routine Economic Relations: U.S. Foreign Policy-Making to Latin America, Vol. III, I. Commission on the Organization of the Government for the Conduct of Foreign Policy (Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1975).
Selected Articles (81)
"Beyond the Continental Divide," The American Interest (July/August 2012).
"A Vision and a Blueprint for North America," Berkeley Review of Latin American Studies (Spring 2012).
"North America or Asia? The 21st Century Choice for the United States," Perspectives on the Americas (University of Miami Center for Hemispheric Policy, January 23, 2012).
"What Happened to the North American Idea?" in Americas Quarterly (Spring 2011).
"Talking to Hamas," Foreign Affairs (January/February 2011).
"Whither North America?" in FOCALPoint: Canada's Spotlight on the Americas, Vol. 10, No. 1 (February 2011).
“The Cold War and Its Aftermath in the Americas: The Search for a Synthetic Interpretation of U.S. Policy – A Review Essay,” Latin American Research Review, Vol. 45, No. 3 (December 2010).
“The Internationalization of U.S. Universities: Are We Making Progress?” NAFSA Educator (July/August 2010). With Sara E. Dumont.
“Missing Each Other A Comment on ‘When Empathy Failed,’“ Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2 (Spring 2010).

“Voting and ID Requirements: A Survey of Registered Voters in Three States,” American Review of Public Administration. With Robert Santos, Alison Prevost, and Vassia Stoilov, September 16, 2009.

“How Ahmadinejad Stole an Election – And How He Can Fix It,” with Mehdi Khalaji. Foreign Policy, August 2009.
“The Future of North America: Replacing a Bad Neighbor Policy,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 87, No. 4

(July/August 2008). Also published in Spanish in Foreign Affairs in Español.

“The Solution to North America’s Triple Problem: The Case for a North American Investment Fund,”

Norteamérica, January 2008.
“America Observed: Why Foreign Election Observers Would Rate the U.S. Near the Bottom,” The

American Prospect, January 2005.
“Building a Democratic State: Is It Possible? A Review Essay of State-Building: Governance and World

Order in the 21st Century,” books by Francis Fukuyama, and “The Future of Freedom,” with Fareed Zakaria, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Fall 2004).

“Collectively Defending Democracy: The Inter-American Model,” The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol. XI, No. 1 (Summer/Fall 2004).
“North America’s Second Decade,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 83, No. 1 (January/February 2004). Also published in Spanish as “La Segunda Década de América del Norte,” Foreign Affairs En Español, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Enero/Marzo 2004).
“The Flip Side: Corruption’s Threat to Democracy,” Elections Today (IFES), Vol. 11, No. 1 (2003).
“A Community of Democracies in the Americas: Instilling Substance into Wondrous Phrase,” Canadian

Foreign Policy (Carleton University, Ottawa), Vol. 10, No. 3 (Spring 2003).

“Who Threatens Whom? China and the United States in the 21st Century,” Columbia Journal of

International Affairs (Spring 2001), Vol. 54, No. 2.
“Mexico’s Victory: Exiting the Labyrinth,” Journal of Democracy (Oct. 2000), Vol. 11, No. 4.
“The Meaning of China’s Village Elections” with Quingshan Tan, in “Elections in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China: Does Limited Democracy Lead to Democracy?”, edited by Larry Diamond and Ramon H. Myers, China Quarterly, June 2000.
“The Paradox of the Double Triangle: Preempting the Next Crises in Taiwan and Cuba,” World Policy Journal, Volume XVII, No. 1, Spring 2000.
“Students of World Affairs Can’t Ignore the Continuing Clout of the Great Powers,” Chronicle of Higher

Education, Volume XLVI, Number 25, February 25, 2000.
“The Role of Electoral Administration in Democratic Transitions: Implications for Policy and Research,”

Democratization, Vol. 6, No. 4 (Winter 1999).
“The Journey of the Great Powers to the Liberal Epoch,” The Ambassadors Review (Fall 1999).
“Is China A Threat or a Partner? The Logic of the Downward Spiral,” The Brown University Journal of

World Affairs (Fall 1999), Vol. VI, Issue 2.
“Elections in China: Potemkin or Jeffersonian Villages,” Harvard Asia Quarterly (Winter 1999), Vol. 3, No. 1.
“Mediating Elections,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 9, No. 1 (January 1998).

“The Clinton Administration and the Americas: The Postwar Rhythm and Blues,” Journal of InterAmerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Winter 1996-1997).

“The Centrality of Elections: A Global Review,” New Perspectives Quarterly (Fall 1996).
“Haiti,” Foreign Service Journal, November 1995.
“With the Carter Team in Haiti,” Worldview, Spring 1995.
“The United States and the Caribbean: The Power of the Whirlpool,” in Trends in U.S.-Caribbean Relations, edited by Anthony P. Maingot, A Special Issues of The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (May 1994).
“The North American Free Trade Agreement: Hemispheric and Geopolitical Implications,” The International Executive, Vol. 36, No. 1 (January/February 1994).
“Widening the Scope for Global Collective Action,” International Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4 (1993).
“NAFTA’s Green Opportunity,” Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. IX, No. 4 (Summer 1993).
“Moderating Ethnic Tensions by Electoral Mediation: The Case of Guyana,” Security Dialogue, Vol. 24, No. 2 (June 1993). (With David Carroll)
“A Discordant Consensus on Democracy,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Winter 1993).
“The Path Toward a Hemispheric Democratic Community,” North-South Magazine (December 1992-January 1993).
“NAFTA,” Brookings Review (Winter 1993).
“The Latin American Option,” Foreign Policy 88 (Fall 1992). (In Mexico as “Del Big Brother al Buen

Vecino,” Nexos 180, 1992).

“The Labyrinth of U.S. Politics” (published as “El Laberinto de la Política Estadounidense,” Examen 32

(Septiembre 1992)).

“Congress and U.S. Foreign Policy: Comparative Advantage or Disadvantage?” Washington Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Fall 1991).
“Pollwatching and Peacemaking,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 2, No. 4 (Fall 1991). With Jennifer McCoy and Larry Garber.
“Lessons from Caribbean Elections,” Hemisphere (Fall 1991).
“The Caribbean in the 21st Century,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No. 3 (Summer 1991). With Richard Fletcher.
“Cuba and the End of the Cold War,” in Cuba in the Nineties, report of the Cuba Roundtable of Freedom

House, September 1991.

“Pre-empting Revolutions: The Boundaries of U.S. Influence,” International Security, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Spring 1991).
“Crossing a Watershed: A North American Free Trade Agreement,” New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Spring 1991).
“Post-Revolutionary Mexico: The Salinas Opening,” Journal of Inter-American Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Fall 1990): 1-24.
“Mexico’s Post-Revolutionary Opening: Salinas Takes A Gamble,” The New Republic, September 10 & 17, 1990: 27-32.
“Nicaragua’s Choice: The Making of a Free Election,” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Summer 1990): 13-25.
“Forging a Hemispheric Bargain: The Bush Opportunity,” Journal of International Affairs 43, 1

(Summer/Fall 1989): 69-81.

“Securing a Democratic Hemisphere,” Foreign Policy 73 (Winter 1988-1989): 41-59.

“Stalemate and Opportunity in Latin America,” Harvard International Review (March 1989).

“Everything But Diplomacy,” The Atlantic Monthly, July 1988.
“The Canal Treaties: The Other Debate on Central America,” Caribbean Review 25 (1987): 25-28.
“Does the United States Push Revolutions to Cuba? The Case of Grenada,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 28 (Spring 1986): 1-34.
“Explaining U.S. Policy Toward the Caribbean Basin: Fixed and Emerging Images,” World Politics, Vol. 38, No. 3 (April 1986).
“The Psychological Divide in the Caribbean Basin,” Caribbean Review, Vol. 15, No. 1 (Winter 1986).
“Alternative Futures of Latin America: Four Issues,” American Enterprise Institute Foreign and Defense

Review (Winter 1985).
“Migration and Development in the Caribbean: Relating Policies and People,” International Migration

Review (Spring 1985).
“The Problem of Puerto Rico: American Interests and the Island’s Identity,” The New Republic, November 12, 1984.
“U.S. Immigration Policy and Latin America: In Search of the Special Relationship,” Latin American Research Review (Fall 1984).
“The International Debate on Puerto Rico: The Costs of Being an Agenda-Taker,” International Organization 38, 3 (Summer, 1984).
“The United States and Puerto Rico: A Proposal,” Washington Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Summer, 1984).
“Latin America and the Marshall Plan Reflex,” with Richard E. Feinberg, Vital Issues, Connecticut, 1984.

“Why Are We In Central America: On Dominos, Death Squads, and Democracy,” A Roundtable, Harper’s Magazine, June 1984.

“Continuity and Change in U.S. Foreign Policy: Carter and Reagan on El Salvador,” Journal of Policy

Analysis and Management, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Winter, 1984).
“Spheres of Influence: Seal Them or Peel Them?,” SAIS Review (Johns Hopkins University) IV, 1 (Winter-Spring, 1984).
“The Socialist International and the United States in Central America: Mirror Images,” The New Republic, (May 16, 1983).
“Sinking in the Caribbean Basin,” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 60, No. 5 (Summer, 1982).
“The Target and the Source: U.S. Policy Toward El Salvador and Nicaragua,” Washington Quarterly, Vol. 3

(Summer 1982).

“Our Real National Interests in Central America,” The Atlantic Monthly, cover story, Vol. 250, No. 1, July, 1982.
“Winning Through Negotiation: Congress Has the Seed of a Better Idea for El Salvador,” The New Republic, March 17, 1982.
“Ratifying Tlatelolco,” Journal of the Federation of American Scientists, Vol. 34, No. 8, Oct. 1981.
“Remembering Omar Torrijos: Ode to Omar,” The New Republic, August 15, 1981.
“Three Perspectives on El Salvador,” SAIS Review 2 (Johns Hopkins University), Summer, 1981.
“A New Panama Canal Treaty: Which Side of the Watershed?” Harvard Magazine 78 (June 1976).
“Coping with Congress’ Foreign Policy,” Foreign Service Journal 52 (December 1975).

“On the Congressional Effort to Influence U.S. Relations with Latin America,” Inter-American Economic

Affairs 29 (Winter 1975).
“The Platonic Acorn: A Case Study of the United Nations Volunteers,” International Organization, Vol. 28 (Summer 1974).
“Development-Inducer or Dependency-Seducer? U.S. Multinational Corporations in Africa,” Harvard

Political Review (Fall 1974). With Antoine W. van Agtmael.
Op-Ed Newspaper Editorials (89)
"Mexican Drug Wars in Chicago," Latitude News, September 4, 2012.
"Eight Lessons the U.S. Electoral System Could Learn from Mexico's,", July 2, 2012.
"Buy North American and Save Ourselves," Globe and Mail, February 11, 2012.
"The Road to Washington Runs Through Mexico," The Toronto Star, January 23, 2012.
"We're Neglecting Our North American Neighbors," Miami Herald, November 16, 2011.
"Embrace Idea of North America," San Francisco Chronicle, September 19, 2011.
"Want Jobs? Think Regional: To Prosper, We Should Include Mexico and Canada in Our Economic Policies," Los Angeles Times, September 16, 2011.
“Talking It Out in the Middle East,” Washington Post, September 23, 2009.
“Mexico Summit Must Be More than Photo-Op,” Miami Herald, August 9, 2009.
“A Case for Three Amigos,” Globe and Mail (Canada), May 1, 2009. With Andres Rozental.

“Don’t Blame NAFTA,” Los Angeles Times and International Herald Tribune, March 6, 2008.

“Build Bridges, Not Fences,” Los Angeles Times, November 30, 2006.
“What the U.S. Could Learn From Mexico,” Los Angeles Times, July 8, 2006.
“Breaking Out of the Box: The Solution to the Immigration Problem,” Newsweek International, Cover Story, March 19, 2006.
“Help Mexico Lift All Boats,” Miami Herald, March 8, 2006.
“Lessons in Elections From An Ayatollah,” Los Angeles Times, January 23, 2004.
“As Argentina Goes, so go the Americas,” The Christian Science Monitor, November 14, 2002. With Kiplin Pastor.
“Carter Quest for Peace is Perpetual,” The Atlanta-Journal Constitution, October 14, 2002.
“Save Time, Money With Instant Runoffs,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, April 11, 2002. With Rob Richie.
“Continent Needs Mexican Growth,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 20, 2002.
“Become a Resident of North America,” Emory Report, February 4, 2002.
“Post-NAFTA: How North America Has Changed,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Sept. 9, 2001.
“Bush’s North American Agenda,” Washington Post, September 4, 2001; published as “Get Started

Now Constructing a North American Community,” International Herald Tribune, Sept. 4, 2001.

“Latin America Doesn’t Need An Arms Race,” Christian Science Monitor, March 22, 2001.

With Thomas A. Cardamone, Jr.

“Economic Ties That Can Bind a Continent,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Feb. 15, 2001.

Published as “Shine NAFTA’s Light on the Darker Corners,” Los Angeles Times.

“More Than Election Machinery Needs Overhauling,” Georgia Trend Magazine, February 2001.
“Form Federal Commission for Election Problems,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Dec. 17, 2 000.
“Un Nuevo Mexico,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Sunday, July 9, 2000.
“A New World Partnership,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, December 14, 1999.
“America’s Journey Across Panama,” Christian Science Monitor, December 14, 1999.
“Open Markets Open New Jobs,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, December 2, 1999.
“Transferring the Canal,” Washington Post, October 12, 1999.
“Local Elections in China: Are They Serious?” The Taipei Times, July 31, 1999.
“Placing Blame on Helms Obscures Dirty Details,” The Christian Science Monitor, June 10, 1999.
“China’s Lagging Reform,” The Christian Science Monitor, April 7, 1999.
“Bridging Gap Between Two Nations,” U.S.-China Relations, April 7, 1999.
“Elections in China: Potemkin or Jeffersonian Villages,” Wall Street Journal Asia Edition, September 10,

“China’s Electoral Experiment,” Time Magazine, March 30, 1998.

“Fast Track, Slow Motion, or Reverse Course?” Hemisfile, January/February 1998.
“U.S. Leadership Must Map Way to Peace,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Sunday, Nov. 16, 1997.

“Arms Embargo? The Case for Arms Restraint,” Latin Trade, November 1997.

“Put Books and Trade Ahead of Arsenals,” Los Angeles Times, October 12, 1997.
“Democratic Process Is Held Hostage,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, September 21, 1997.
“A Roadmap Back to Latin America,” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 1997.
“China: Village Elections a Sign of Progress,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 30, 1997.
“The Passing of Panama’s Gabriel Lewis: An Appreciation,” Miami Herald, December 29, 1996. With

Ambler Moss.

“Parties Switch Toughness Images,” Los Angeles Times, October 14, 1996.
“Slowing Passage of the Panama Canal,” Washington Post, September 5, 1995.
“Cherchez la democracie: Haiti,” Hemisfile, September/October 1995.
“Haiti: Groping for Democracy Through Opaque Politics,” The Miami Herald, March 7, 1995.
“Delay and Obstruct: The Senate’s New Role in Nominations,” Washington Post, February 1, 1995.
“Establish a Collective Defense of Democracy,” Miami Herald, February 9, 1992.
“Haiti Is Not Alone,” New York Times, October 4, 1991.
“U.S. Mustn’t Pass Up Trade Opportunity with Mexico,” Miami Herald, and 10 other papers, May 19, 1991. With Jimmy Carter.
“Consolidating Democracy in Nicaragua,” Atlanta Journal- Constitution, April 1, 1991.
“A Post-Revolutionary Arrives,” Los Angeles Times, June 8, 1990.

“Nicaragua’s Chamorro and a Divided Nation, Family,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, April 22, 1990.

“Revolution as a Family Affair,” Los Angeles Times, April 8, 1990.
“Nicaragua: Democracy’s First Days,” Washington Post, March 4,1990.
“A Born-Again Strategy on Panama,” Washington Post, May 14, 1989.
“Latin America’s Debt Crisis is Our Debt Crisis,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, April 16, 1989.
“Make the Mask of Democracy Real in Central America,” Los Angeles Times, March 26, 1989.
“A New Rio Grande Bridge?” New York Times, November 28, 1988.
“‘MexAmerica’ Explores Mexico’s Influence on the U.S.,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Book Review, October 16, 1988.
“Mexico’s Time of Danger,” Los Angeles Times, September 18, 1988.
“Risks Both Sides Assumed Give Hope to Nicaraguan Pact,” Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1988.
“‘Chile’ a Chilling Examination of a Troubled Nation,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Feb. 28, 1988.
“Can Central America Escape Its History?” Miami Herald, November 22, 1988. Reprinted in Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
“Helping Arias’ Peace Plan,” New York Times, September 19, 1987.
“Iran-Contra Hearings Should Teach Us Respect for the Law,” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Sunday,

July 19, 1987.

“Nicaragua Policy Is Beyond Redemption,” LA Times, Dec. 7, 1986.

“Apply Latin--Not U.S.--Pressure,” Washington Post, June 9, 1985.

“Redesign Kissinger Proposal,” New York Times, Jan.18, 1984. With Richard E. Feinberg.
“Grenada,” Washington Post, October 26, 1983. ‘
“A Mission for the Kissinger Panel,” Miami Herald, July 24, 1983.
“An Eight-Point Peace Plan for Central America,” Washington Post, July 5, 1983.
“Hypocrisy in World Trade: We Talk Protectionist, But We Don’t Mean It - Fortunately,” Los Angeles

Times, May 17, 1983.
“Harassing Latin Intellectuals,” Christian Science Monitor, May 5, 1983.
“Central America’s Real Peril,” New York Times, March 17, 1983.
“How Not To Lose Central America: Panama Canal Experience Holds Valuable Lessons for the U.S.,” Los Angeles Times, August 5, 1982.
“Make Deficits a Federal Crime,” Washington Post, August 3, 1982.

“Reagan’s Two Caribbean Visions,” Miami Herald, February 28, 1982.

“U.S. Needs A Better Caribbean Policy,” Newsday, February 18, 1982.
“What to do about Cuba?” Miami Herald, Sunday, December 27, 1981.
“For a Caribbean Compact,” The New York Times, December 23, 1981.
“Reagan Strategy Aids Salvador Leftists,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. 13, 1981.
“A Time to Act on El Salvador,” Washington Post, October 11, 1981.
“The Right Way Out on El Salvador,” Miami Herald, March 22, 1981.

“Jamaican Freedom Requires More Aid,” The Washington Star, January 28, 1981.

Prepared Statements and Testimony Invited by Congress and Commissions
"U.S.-Mexican Cooperation for Development," Congressional Hispanic Caucus Conference, May 13, 2009.
“Impediments to a Free and Fair Electoral Process: The Urgency for Reform,” U.S. Commission on Civil

Rights, October 13, 2006.

“The U.S., Mexico, and North America,” House International Relations Committee, April 26, 2006.
“A North American Community Approach to Security,” Senate Foreign Relations Committee, June 9, 2005.
“U.S. Policy toward the Americas: A Critique and an Alternative,” House International Relations Committee, October 21, 2003.
“North American’s Future,” Foreign Affairs Committee, House of Commons, Canada, February 7, 2002.
“U.S. Interests in the Panama Canal Transition,” Senate Foreign Relations Committee, June 16, 1998.
“The Status of Haiti’s Democratic Transition,” House International Relations Committee,” October 12, 1995.
“Nomination as Ambassador to Panama,” Senate Foreign Relations Committee, July 22, 1994.
“Transition to Democracy in the Caribbean: Haiti, Guyana, and Suriname,” House Foreign Affairs

Committee, June 26, 1991.

“A New Approach toward Latin America and the Caribbean,” House Foreign Affairs Committee, March 1, 1989.
“The Status of Democratic Transitions in Central America,” House Foreign Affairs Committee, June 28,


“Immigration, Development, and the Caribbean Basin,” House Subcommittee on Census and Population, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, March 26, 1985.

“Grenada and Security Options for the Caribbean,” statement at Congressional Research Service Conference, December 10, 1984.
“The Invasion of Grenada,” House Committee on Foreign Affairs, November 3, 1983.
“A Bipartisan Approach to Central America,” the President’s National Bipartisan Commission on Central

America, chaired by Hon. Henry A. Kissinger, September 20, 1983.

“The Caribbean Basin Initiative: An Analysis,” U.S. Senate Committee on Finance, April 13, 1983.
“The Implications of U.S. Immigration Policy for the Caribbean Basin,” House Subcommittee on Census and Population, Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, December 9, 1982.
“U.S. Policy Toward El Salvador: Origins of the Land Reform,” Senate Foreign Relations Committee, August 5, 1982.
“Agricultural Development and the Caribbean Basin,” House Agriculture Committee and the Foreign Affairs Committee, July 20, 1982.
“Immigration and Refugee Policy,” Subcommittee on Immigration, House Judiciary Committee, October 28, 1981.
“U.S. Policy Options Toward El Salvador,” House Foreign Affairs Committee, Sept. 24, 1981.

Outside Lectures and Media
On average, Dr. Pastor offers about 30 external lectures at leading Universities and Conferences in the United States and abroad each year and about 25 media interviews with leading newspapers, television and radio, e.g., National Public Radio, CNN, BBC, Lehrer News Hour, CBS News and “Sixty Minutes”, ABC News, Voice of America, MNBC, Fox News, others.


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