Robert Baldwin, Nature in Western Literature from Antiquity to 1700: An Anthology of Primary Sources

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Robert Baldwin, Nature in Western Literature from Antiquity to 1700:


An Anthology of Primary Sources
Robert Baldwin,

Department of Art History

Connecticut College, Box 5411

New London, CT 06320

rwbal@conncoll.edu
www.socialhistoryofart.com

c. 3800 pages


Since 2008, I have added texts to my anthology without always remembering to list them in this table of contents. In any case, it is faster to check for a text by searching the entire anthology for an author’s last name. In 70 years when the copyright runs out, this material can be distributed freely.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Note: Texts listed with an asterisk have not yet been typed. I generally add 100 pages annually. Texts are listed under 16 categories, with COSMOS subdivided into 5 subcategories. The table of contents starts below after the list of categories.


Anatomy

Cosmos


Cosmos-Myth

Cosmos-Seasons-Ages

Cosmos-Hierarchy-Chain

Cosmos-Musical Order-Dance

Cosmos-Microcosm-Natural Science

Geography, Seafaring, Travel

Villa

Pastoral


Garden

Mountain


Forest

Grotto


River

Ocean


Hunting

Fishing


Primitivism

Money and Mining

Nature's Artistry - Art vs. Nature

Gender
ANATOMY

Augustine, City of God, XXII

Augustine, On the Soul and Its Origins, III-VII

Tertullian, On the Soul, X.4

COSMOS AS MYTHOLOGICAL REALM (Mother Earth and Venus texts are found under GENDER)

Nymphs: Homer Iliad XX.8; Od VI.124; 17.205; Athena: Od. VI 291; Iliad XIV.347

"Homer," Hymn to Demeter I

"Homer," Hymn to Hermes I

"Homer," Hymn to Dionysius II

Pindar, Pythian Ode X; c. 470 B.C.

Callimachus, Hymn to Delos, 270-240 B.C.

Callimachus, Hymn to Apollo, 270-240 B.C.

Tibullus, Poems, II.1; d. 19 B.C.

Virgil, Aeneid, VI. 636-675; 26-19 B.C.

Dio Chrysostom, Third Discourse on Kingship [70-110 A.D.]

Philostratus the Elder, "Satyrs," Imagines, I.20; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Andrians," Imagines, I.25; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Pan," Imagines, II.11; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Islands," Imagines, II.17; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Younger, "Orpheus," Imagines, VI; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Callistratus, On the Staue of Orpheus," Descriptions, VII

Julian, Hymn to King Helios, before 363 A.D.

Claudian, Letter to Serena (Orpheus)

COSMOS / SEASONS / AGES

Ecclesiastes 3:1-13

Hesiod, Works and Days; c. 725 B.C.

Hesiod, Elegies, 1249-1388 [Venus, love, spring]; c. 725 B.C.

"Homer," Hymn to Pythian Apollo

Thucydides, The Pelponnesian War, I.22

Aristotle, On the Heavens I.2-3, 5, 8, 12; II.1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, III.2 Dicaerchus, Bios Hallados as quoted in Porphry, De ab. 4.2 1

Aristotle, Generation of Animals, I.1

Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, V.735-1457, 50 B.C (Mother Earth, etc.)

also Cicero, De re publica, VI.15

Horace, Odes, I.4, Spring (and death)

Horace, Odes, IV.7, Spring's Return (and death)

Horace, Odes, IV.12, The Delights of Spring

Horace, Epode XVI

Horace, Satires, I.3.99-111

Virgil, Georgics, I. 203-515; II. 324-345, before 19 B.C.

Virgil, Aeneid 6, 8 (Golden Age of Saturn restored by Augustus)

Ovid, Art of Love, II.460-487

Ovid, Metamorphoses, I; XV before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Fasti, IV.85-132; before 18 A.D.

Seneca, Moral Epistles, XII, XLI, XC

Seneca, Naturales Questiones

Seneca, Naturales Questiones , I, pref.; on fire/air,. L.p 7

Philo Judeaus, The Special Laws, ca. 50 A.D.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, II.1-5, 38-39; XXII.1; XXIV.1; XXV.1, 4, 5; XXVII.1; XXXI.1;

XXXVII.1; XXXVII.78 (d. 79 A.D.)

Juvenal, Satires, XIII, active 90-130 A.D.


*Lucian, Icaromenippus

Eusebius, Life of Constantine, II.58, IV.4-8

Gregory Nazianzen, Oratio theologica, before 390

Prudentius, The Origins of Sin, lines 298-339, ca. A.D. 380-410 (from primitive sin to Christianity)

Prudentius, Against Symmachus, Book II, lines 279-340, 914-1063; ca. 380-410 (chaos of natural world and agriculture)

Sidonius, Panegyric of Emperor Anthemius, 95-135; A.D. 468

Nonnos, Dionysiaca, XI.484-521 (Seasons dance at the house of Helios); ca. 450-500 A.D.

*Lactantius, Divine Institutions, (Golden Age)

Augustine, On Music, VI.17 (d. 604)

Augustine, City of God, VII.23-24 (Mother Earth – Tellus)



Alain of Lille, Anticlaudianus, 1183

Carmina Burana, written late 12th century (spring-Venus)

St. Francis, Canticle of Brother Sun, before 1226

Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristan, I; 13th century

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose, 1237-1277, chs. 1.14-90; 2.1-8; 40.1-76; 81.14-214

*Petrarch, Rerum Familiarium libri, I.8

Boccaccio, Teseide, III [spring]

Boccaccio, Elegy of Lady Fiammetta, VII, c. 1343-5 (spring)

**Langland, Piers Plowman, XI, XV; ca. 1377-79

Coluccio Salutati, Letter to Giuliano Zonarini, 1379

Evrart de Conty, The Chess of Love, ca. 1370-1400

Alberti, On the Family, II, ca. 1434

Lorenzo de' Medici, Woods of Love, stanzas 20-28, 32, 84-113; Song of the Seven Planets; c. 1492; Ambra; Corinto

Poliziano, Welcome May

Bembo, Gli Asolani, 1505,

Erasmus, Praise of Folly, 1509

Machiavelli, Florentine Histories, V, 1520-1525

Thomas More, "To the King" [Henry VIII], 1518

Erasmus, The Epicurean, 1533


*Raymond Sebond, Natural Theology

John Dee, Propaedeumata Aphoristica, 1-5, 9-12; 1558, 1568

*Du Bartas, Les Semaines, 1578

Lyly (attributed), 1591, Honorable Entertainment gieven to the Queene's Majestie in Progresse..., 1591 [Wilson, Eliz I, 116-117, "The Fouth Daies Entertainment"]

John Davies, Hymns to Astraea, 1590s

Marlowe, Tragedy of Dr. Faustus I, VI, VIII, 1601

Federico Borromeo, Letters and Treatises

Bellarmino, De Ascensione mentis in deum per scalas creaturarum, 1615



*Galileo, Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, 1632

Joost van den Vondel, Batavian Brothers, 16xx (Dutch golden age)


COSMOS AS HIERARCHY / CHAIN OF BEING

Plato, Timaeus, 49

Aristotle, Politics, before 322 B.C.

Lucan, De Bello Civile, I.46-64 (64 AD)


*Diogenes Laertius, Life of Plato (200-250 A.D.)

Plotinus, Enneads, 4.4.33; 2.9.7, before 270 A.D.

Eusebius, On the Tricentennia of Constantine, II. 1-5, 336 A.D.

Macrobius, Commentary on the Dream of Scipio, early 5th c.

Boethius, Consolation of Philosophy, II.8; III.2; III.9; IV.6, before 524

Bernardus Silvestris, Cosmographia, 6-8, ca. 114O

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose, ch. 91.1-12; A.D. 1237-1277

Thomas Aquinas, On Kingship, II.1, c. 1250-1274

Boccaccio, Genealogy of the Gods, XV.10

Evrart de Conty, The Chess of Love, ca. 1370-1400

John Fortescue, On the Law of Nature, 14XX

Castiglione, Book of the Courtier, IV, 1528


*Thomas Elyot, The Book of the Governor, 1531

The Book of Homilies, London: 1562

*Bodin, Les six livres de la République, 1576

See Kossman, "Popular Sovereignty".

Marlowe, Tamburlaine the Great, c. 1587

Shakespeare, Troilus and Cressida, 1609

*John Davies, Nosce Teipsum, 159X

Peacham, Compleat Gentleman, 1630


COSMOS AS MUSICAL ORDER AND DANCE

Pindar, Pythian Odes I, c. 470 B.C.

Anon. Greek, Orphic Hymns, VIII.1-14

Cicero, De Republica, VI

Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, I.25-26

Philo Judaeus, On the Creation, 17

Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, I.X.9-21; 70-90 A.D.

St. Clement of Rome, Epistle to the Corinthians, ca. 96 AD

Maximus of Tyre, Oration, XIX.3; before 185 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Hours", Imagines II.34; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Aristides Quintilianus, On Music, III.7, 9-10, 19-20; 3rd or 4th century

Eusebius, In laudibus Constantini, I.5-6; VI.17-18, 335 A.D.

Chalcidius, Commentary, LXXIII; 4th century

Synesius, Third Hymn, before 413 A.D.

Macrobius, Commentary on the Dream of Scipio, II.3, 5th century

Martianus Capella, Marriage of Mercury and Philosophy, I, IX, c. 500 A.D.

Sidonius, Epithalamium for Polemius and Araneola, 36-78; A.D. 460s?

Boethius, On Music, I.2; before 524 A.D.

Gil da Zanora, Ars Musica, ca. 1300

Evrart de Conty, The Chess of Love, ca. 1370-1400

Henry VIII, poem, before 1547

Innocenzio Ringhieri, Cento Giuochi Liberali, 1551

G. Fr. Algarotti, Secondo libro de' Madrigali, 1567

La Primaudaye, L'Academie Française, Paris, 1577

John Davies, Orchestra, 1596

Tuccaro, Three Dialogues, 1599


Milton, Comus, 1634




COSMOS-MICROCOSM-NATURAL SCIENCE


more texts in Sawday, Body Emblazoned, p. 275n19

Aristotle, Parts of Animals I.1, 5; II.7-10, 13-14;

III.1-2, 4, 10; IV.2, 6; IV.8, 10

Aristotle, Movement of Animals X

Aristotle, Progression of Animals II, IV, V

*Theophrastus, Doctrines of Natural Philosophy,

Photius, Life of Pythagoras

Cicero, The Nature of the Gods, I, II.91-153

Cicero, On Rhetoric, III.5-6, 45

Virgil, "Bees," Georgics, IV

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, VII.1 (d. 79 A.D.)

Galen, On the Usefulness of the Parts, I.2-3, 4; XIII.1, ?; XIV.1; XVI.?, XVII.?, 170-199 A.D.

Aristides Quintilianus, On Music, II.17-18, III.14, 18; 3rd or 4th century

Tertullian, De Anima, 10.4, early third century

Claudian, Panegyric on 4th Consulship of the Emperor Honorius, 213-290; A.D. 398

Lactantius, The Workmanship of God, 1-4, 6-8, 16; A.D. 303-304

Philo Judaeus, On the Creation, 69-71

Augustine, City of God, XXII, late 4th-early5th century

Augustine, On the Soul and Its Origins, 3-7

Bernardus, Cosmographia, 10, ca. 114O

Innocent III, On the Misery of Mankind

Evrart de Conty, The Chess of Love, ca. 1370-1400

Gionnozzo Manetti, On the Dignity of Man, 1452

Pico, Oration on the Dignity of Man

Valla, De vero bono


*Raymond Sebond, Natural Theology, 1484

Leonardo da Vinci, Notebooks

*Fernan Perez de Oliva, Dialogue on the Dignity of Man, ca. 1515-25, pub. 1546; Ital. ed. 1564

*Machiavelli, Exhortation to Penitence, (ca. 1520s)

Castiglione, Book of the Courtier, IV, 1528

Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel, I.58 (1533); II.8 (1534); III.8 (1546)

*Girolamo Cardano, De consolatione, Venice, 1542 2

*Vesalius, De Humani Corporis Fabrica, 1543,

Montaigne, Apology for Raymond Sebond



*John Dee
GEOGRAPHY*, SEAFARING, TRAVEL

For Jason: also see Hyginus Fables 12, 13 and Valerius Flaccus

Hesiod, Works and Days, 614-706; c. 725 B.C.

Pindar, Pythian Odes, IV, c. 462 B.C.

Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, I.519-551; c. 250 B.C.

*Julius Caesar, Gallic War

*Julius Caesar, Alexandrian, African, and Spanish Wars

Catullus, "Peleus and Thetis," Poems, LXIV.1-30; ca. B.C. 60-20

Tibullus, Poems III.7 Panegyricus Messallae, d. 19 B.C (Ulysses)

Horace, Odes, III.3

Horace, Odes, III.27 (Europe and the Rape of Europa)

Vitruvius, On Architecture, VI.1, ca. 27-20 B.C.

Virgil, Aeneid, VI.777-815; 26-19 B.C.

Virgil, Georgics, II. 136-176, before 19 B.C.


**Ovid, Tristia, IV.2

Strabo, Geography I.1.1-2; I.1.13-19; I.I. 22-23; I.2.1; I.2.4; II.3.7; II.5.1; II.5.8; II.5.11; II.5.17-18;

II.5.26; III.3.8; ca. 20 B.C.- 21 A.D.

*Petronius, Satyricon, XIV, ca. 50-75 A.D.

Martial, On the Spectacles, XXVIII (active 70-103 A.D.)

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, III.1; XXXVII.77, d.79 A.D.

Statius, Poem of Consolation to Claudius Etruscus, 70-96 A.D.

Statius, The Domitian Road

*Ptolemy, Geography

Seneca, Moral Epistles, XXVIII, LVII

Flavius Josephus, Bellum Judaicum, 2.16.345-401, 75-79 A.D.

Pliny the Younger, Panegyric on Trajan, 29, 100 A.D.

Eumenius, Panegyric 5.20-21, ca. 298 A. D

Claudian, War Against Gildo

Claudian, Against Eutropius, I

Claudian, Third Consulship of Honorius, 175-211

Claudian, Fourth Consulship of Honorius, 20-68, 127-148, 565-615

Claudian, Consulship of Manlius Theodorus

Claudian, The Gothic War

Claudian, Of an Old Man of Verona

Claudian, Poem on an astrological sphere

Claudian, Consulship of Stilicho, II

Prudentius, Contra Symmachum, Book II, lines 578-662; ca. 380-410

Julian, Panegyric in Honor of Constantius

Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 13-40

Sidonius, Panegyric of Emperor Avitus, 1-53; A.D. 456

Sidonius, Panegyric of Emperor Maiorianus, 1-62; AD 457-461

Martianus Capella, Marriage of Mercury and Philosophy, I, c. 500 A.D.

Greek Anthology, IV.3, In Praise of Justinian

Dante, Inferno, Canto 26 (and many shorter passages of poet setting forth)

*Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose, 1237-1277, chs. 46.1-21

Petrarch, Rerum Familiarium libri, IX.13, XI.15

Boccaccio, Genealogy of the Gods, XIV.Proem

Evrart de Conty, The Chess of Love, ca. 1370-1400 (Atlas-Spain)

Bruni, Panegyric on Florence, c. 1404

De Pizan, The Book of the Mutation of Fortune, c. 1410

Sebastian Brant, Ship of Fools, chs. 66, 108, 1494


*Celtis, Hodoeporica, 1502

Giles of Viterbo, Letter to Zoccoli and to the People of Rome, 1503-08

Giles of Viterbo, Oration on the Golden Age of Julius II, 1507

Cortesi, De cardinalatu, 1510

Rubios, The Requirement, 1513

Thomas More, Utopia, 1516

Erasmus, The Soldier and the Carthusian, 1523

Erasmus, The Old Man's Chat, 1524

Castiglione, Book of the Courtier, 1528

Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, 15.10-12, 16-37, 1516/1532

Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel, II.32, 1534

Francesco Guicciardini, History of Italy, VI, 1537-1540, pub. 1561 Joachim F. Ringelbergius, 3 De Ratione Studii Liber, 15XX


*Andrew Boorde, The Fyrst boke of the Introduction of knowledge, 1542

Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis, 1550



*Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique, 1553

Du Bellay, Les Regrets (1550s)

William Cuningham, Cosmographical Glasse, 1559

Theodor Zwinger, Theatrum vitae humanae, Basel, 1565



*Laurentius Gryllus, Oration on Travel, 1566

*Lodovico Guicciardini, Description de tout le Païs-Bas, 1567

Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster, 1570

Camoens, The Lusiads, Canto X, 1572 (Portugese imperial geography)

*Hieronymus Turler, The Traveiler, 1575 4

Nathan Chytraeus, Hodoeporica, 1575

Tasso, Jerusalem Liberated, XV.23-32; 1575

Theodor Zwinger, Methodus apodemica, Basel, 1577

Montaigne, Of Coaches, 1585-88

Montaine, Of Vanity


*John Dee

Richard Hakluyt, "Dedicatory Epistle" and "Chancellor's Discovery of Russia" from Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries of the English Nation, 1589-1600.

Justus Lipsius, A Direction for Travailers, 1592

John Davis, The Seamen's Secrets, preface, 1594

Tasso, Creation of the World, Seventh Day, 1594


*George Chapman, De Guiana carmen Epicum, 1596

Francis Bacon, Essays, 1597

Thomas Floyd, The Picture of a Perfit Common wealth, 1600

Marlowe, Tragedy of Dr. Faustus VIII, 1601

Drayton, To the Virginian Voyage, 1606

Grotius, Freedom of the Seas, 1607

*Walter Raleigh, History of the World, 1614

Joseph Hall, Quo vadis? A Just Censure of Travell, 1617

John Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy

Vondel, On Navigation, 1623

*Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus Posthumus, 1625

*Andrew Marvell, On the Victory Obtained by Blake over the Spaniards, 1657, pub. 1681

Andrew Marvell, The Character of Holland, pub. 1681

*Andrew Marvell, Last Instructions to a Painter, pub. 1681

John Dryden, Annus Mirabilis, 1667

*Joannes Antonides van der Goes, Overthrow of the Turks by Vice-Admiral Willem Joseph, 1670s (naval triumph)

Niccolo Giannettasio, Piscatoria et Nautica, 1685

Baudelaire, The Flowers of Evil, 1857 (voyaging poems)


VILLA* CULTURE AND AGRICULTURE

*Hesiod, Works and Days, c. 725 B.C.

Xenophon, Oeconomicus, c. 355-362 B.C.

Theocritus, Idyll, X, before 260 B.C.

Callimachus, Hymn to Demeter, 270-240 B.C.

Cato, On Agriculture, I.2.3-12; I.13.6-7; I.59.1-3;

II.Intro. 1-6; III.1-6; III.2.3-13; c. 160 B.C.

Varro, On Agriculture, I.2.3-12; I.13.6-7; I.59.1-3;

II.Intro, 1-6; III.1-6; III.2.3-13; c. 37 B.C.

Cicero, On Old Age, ca. 44 - 43 B.C.

Livy, History of Early Rome, III.26, ca. 25-20 B.C.


**Vitruvius, On Architecture, IX.2 (VI.6?) ca. 27-20 B.C.

Virgil, Georgics, I. 121-150; II. 458-540, before 19 B.C.

Horace, Odes, II.15

Horace, Odes, II.16

Horace, Odes, II.18

Horace, Odes, III.1

Horace, Odes, III.16

Horace, Epodes, II, before 8 B.C.

Horace, Letters, I.14; I.16; before 8 B.C.

Horace, Satires, II.6

Ovid, Remedies of Love, lines 169-199

Seneca, Moral Epistles

Seneca, Thyestes, 2nd chorus

Columella On Agriculture, I, Preface; I.1.18-I.2.2, ca. 60 A.D.

Martial, Epigrams, I.55; III.58; VIII.61; IX.18; IX.90; X.30; X.37; X.51; X.58; X.96; XI.18; XII.epistle; XII.16; XII.18; XII.21; XII.31, XII.50; XII.57; XII.72 (70-103 A.D.)

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, XVIII.1-8; XVIII.19-21; (d. 79 A.D.)

Statius, The Villa of Pollius Felix at Surrentum, 70-96 A.D.

Tacitus, Annals, 3.41, 4.67, 14.52-54, 15.42, ca. 100 A.D.

Pliny the Younger, Letters, before 113 A.D.

*Suetonius, "Tiberius," The Lives of the Twelve Ceasars

Lucian, Timon or the Misanthrope, ca. 150-185 A.D.

Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, IV.12, c. 170 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, Imagines, I.1; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Claudian, Panegyric on the Consulship of Manlius Theodorus

Claudian, Panegyric on 4th Consulship of Honorius

Jerome, Letters, before 420 A.D.

Sidonius, Letters (d. 489 A.D.)

Sidonius, Panegyric of Emperor Maiorianus, 293-304; A.D. 457-461


*Venantius Fortunatus, Carmina III.12, III.13, X.9

Petrarch, Rerum Familiarium libri, V.4

Petrarch, Rerum senilium libri (Letters of Old Age), XV.3

Alberti, On the Family, before 1434

Alberti, On the Art of Building, 6.1, 9.2, 9.4, c. 1450

Michelangelo, Poems, 15XX,

Ulrich von Hutten, Epistola vitae suae rationem exponens, 1518

Robert Whittinton, Opusculum..., London, 1519

*Angelo Beolco (Ruzzante), The First Oration, 1521

Georg Agricola, 300 Common Proverbs, 1528

Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel, III.13, 1546

Alberto Lollio, Lettera ... nella quale ... egli celebra la villa e lauda molto l'agricoltura, Venice, 1544

Du Fail, Propros rustiques, 1547

Flaminio, Psalm Paraphrase, cxxviii, pub. 1551

Anton Francesco Doni, Le ville del Doni, Bologna, 1556

Bartolomeo Taegio, La Villa, 1559

Giuseppe Falcone, La nuova, vaga, et dilettevole villa, 1559

*Nicolas Houel, Histoire de la Royne Arthemise, 152 5

Agostino Gallo, Le diece journate d'agricoltura, 1564

Montaigne, On Solitude, 1572-4

Bertholet, Satirical Eclogue, 1609

G. Barpo, Le delitie et i frutti dell'agricoltura

e delle villa, 1634

pp. 25-27 for explicit class-consciousness, Puppi, 108



PASTORAL*

Old Testament, Canticles 1-2, 4-8

Old Testament, 1 Samuel 16:2-13

Old Testament, Psalm 23

Hesiod, Theogony, 1-115; c. 725 B.C

Homer, Odyssey, IV. 560-570 (Elysian fields)

Homer, Odyssey, XII.124-140, 267-279 (Apollo's cattle)

Homer, Odyssey, XIV (loyal shepherd, Eumaios)

Homer, Iliad, XVIII (shield of Achilles)

"Homer," Hymn to Pan

"Homer," Hymn to Aphrodite

Pindar, Dithyrambs "Herakles"; c. 470 B.C.

Pindar, Pythian Odes, X; c. 470 B.C.

Plato: Laws, 678e-681a

Plato, Statesman, 261c-e; 264d-e; 265d; 266e-267d; 268b-c; 271d-272a; 275a-c

Plato, Republic, 440d

Plato, Phaedrus 230

Xenophon, Cyropaedia, I.1-5

Theocritus, Idyll, I, VII, XI, XVII, XXV, before 260 B.C.

Bion, Lament for Adonis, active 100 B.C.

Bion, From a Shepherd-Mime , active 100 B.C

Bion, Love's Schooling , active 100 B.C.

Moschus, Lament for Bion

Varro On Agriculture, II.1.3-10; II.10.3-8; c. 37 B.C.

Livy, "Life of Romulus," History of Rome 25-20 B.C.

Tibullus, Poems, I.1; I.3; II.3; II.5; d. 19 B.C.

Horace, Odes, IV.5 [Augustan Spring, Pastoral, Golden Age]

Horace, Carmen Saeculare, [Augustus and Nature's peace and prosperity]

Virgil, Aeneid, VI. 636-675 [Elysian Fields]

Virgil, Aeneid, VIII.312-369; 26-19 B.C.

Virgil, Eclogues, I, II, IV, VI, X, before 19 B.C.

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, before 79 A.D.

Ovid, Art of Love, III.687-746 (Cephalus and Procris)

Ovid, Metamorphoses, I, Apollo and Daphne, before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, I, Jove and Io, before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, I, Pan and Syrinx, before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, II, "Cycnus"

Ovid, Metamorphoses, II "Jove and Callisto"



**Ovid, Metamorphoses, VII (Cephalus and Procris)

Ovid, Metamorphoses, X "Apollo and Cyparissus"

Ovid, Metamorphoses, XI, "Cyllarus and Hylonone, centaurs"

Ovid, Metamorphoses, XIV.516-533 (Apuleian Shepherd), before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Fasti, II.272-303 (Arcadia)

Ovid, Fasti, III.1-42 (Mars rapes Silvia), before 18 A.D

Ovid, Fasti, IV.721-863, before 18 A.D

Ovid, Heroides, V, Oenone to Paris

Ovid, Heroides, X, Ariadne to Theseus

Ovid, Heroides, XV, Sappho to Phaon

Ovid, Heroides, XVI, Paris to Helen

Calpurnius Siculus, Eclogues, I, IV, VII, ca. 50-85 A.D.

Plutarch, Life of Romulus c. 70-90 A.D.

Statius, "The Tree of Atedius Melior" 70-96 A.D.

Statius, Lyric Poem to Septimius Severus

Martial, Epigrams, IX.61 (active 70-103 A.D.)

Tacitus, A Dialogue on Oratory, 12-13, ca. 100 A.D.

Dio Chrysostom, Discourses on Kingship, I, III, IV, active 70-115 A.D.

Juvenal, Satires, XI, active 90-130 A.D.

Apuleius, Golden Ass, V (Psyche and palace of Cupid; Pan); X (Ceres, Venus, Proserpina, Mother Earth; Judgment of Paris) 160-170 A.D.

Longus, Daphnis and Chloe, I.1-2; 1.4-5; 1.9-10; 1.23-27; II.10-12; II.37-39; III.12-14; IV.37-40

Philostratus The Elder, "Olympus," Imagines, I. 21; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Cyclops," Imagines, II.18; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Younger, "Pyrrhus," Imagines, 1, 10

Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon, I.1-2 (Europa) ca. 250-300 AD

Claudian, Panegyric on Probinus and Olybrius, 395 A.D.

Claudian, The First Book Against Rufinus

Claudian, Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Honorius

Claudian, Epithalamium for Honorius

Claudian, Epithalamium for Palladius and Celerina

Claudian, The Gothic War, 404-416, 435-437

Sidonius: Panegyric of Emperor Anthemius, 1-30; A.D. 468

Nonnos, Dionysiaca, 1-2 (Cadmos, the musical shepherd); X.139-339 (Ampelos); XVI.1-405 (Nicaia); XVII.32-87 (hospitable herdsman); XLII.1-459 (Beroe); XLVIII.470-534 (Aura); ca. 450-500 A.D.

Martianus Capella, Marriage of Mercury and Philosophy, IX, c. 500 A.D Anonymous, Ecloga Theoduli, ca. 9th c. 6

Theodulf, poem (tribute to Charlemagne) before 821


Carmina Burana, written late 12th century

Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristan, XXVI, 13th century

Dante, Purgatorio, 27-28

Dante, Eclogue I, 1319

Petrarch, Chiare, fresche e dolci acque (Canzone 14)

Petrarch, Rerum Familiarium libri, II.12; X.4; XIII.7; XIII.8; XVI.6; XVII.5

Petrarch, Rerum Senilium libri, XVII.3

Boccaccio, L'Ameto, ca. 1342-45

Boccaccio, Elegy of Lady Fiametta, c. 1343-45

Boccaccio, The Nymph of Fiesole, ca. 1346

Boccaccio, Genealogy of the Gods, XIV.4; XIV.11

Boccaccio, Decameron, Preface to the Ladies

Boccaccio, Decameron, Fifth Day, First Story (Cymon and Iphigenia)

Boccaccio, Decameron, Seventh Day, Introduction



**Langland, Piers Plowman, ca. 1377-1379

Sacchetti, Shepherdesses of the lea, 1365-1400

Christine de Pizan, Book of the Body of Policy, IX, 1407

Christine de Pizan, The Tale of Poissy

French, Les Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles, nos. 12, 82; 1455-61

*Boiardo, poem on Hercole d'Este, 1463

Lorenzo de' Medici, The Supreme Good, 1473

Lorenzo de' Medici, Sonnet

Lorenzo de' Medici, Corinto,

Poliziano, Orpheus, 1474

Poliziano, Silvae, I-III, 1482-85

Poliziano, Stanze Cominciate per la Giostra, 1475-92

Poliziano, Pastoral Lay

Francesco Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, 1499 (4 texts)


*Mantuan, Eclogue, I, before 1516 [Grant, 129]

Mantuan, Eclogue VII

Giles of Viterbo, Eclogues, 1503-4

Sannazaro, Latin Poems [To Trajan Cabanilius; Elegies 1.1; Elegies 1.7; To the Blessed Jacobus Picenus]

Sannazaro, Arcadia; prologue, ch. 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, epilogue; eclogues 1, 6, 7, 10, epilogue, written 1485-90, published 1504

Sannazaro, "Proteus," Piscatory Eclogues, 4

Sannazaro, On the Virgin Birth, 1500-1524, pub., 1526

Bembo, Gli Asolani, 1505

Castiglione, Ecloque: Alcon, 1505

Anonymous, Sonetto elegantissimo, ca. 1512



Erasmus, El Deseoso (Godly Feast?)

Machiavelli, A Pastoral: The Ideal Ruler, ca. 1513-1519

*Angelo Beolco (Ruzzante), Betia, 1515-1525

*Angelo Beolco (Ruzzante), Pastoral, prologue, 1521

*Angelo Beolco (Ruzzante), Playful Letter, 1521-24

Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, VI.17-33; VI. 71-75; XIX.16-36 (Angelica and Medoro) 1516/1532



*Thomas More, The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, 1532

*Telin, Panegyricque pastourel, 1534 (for Francis I)

Flaminio, Poem, (compares his soul to flower), 1551

John Poynet, A Shorte Treatise of Politike Pouuer, 1556


*Montemayor, Diana, 1558

*Tasso, Rinaldo 1562

Anonymoys French, Eclogue de deux bergers, 1564 7

Marot, La Complaincte d'un Pastoreau Chrestien 8

Le Belleau, La bergerie, 1565

Vasari, Life of Pontormo, 15xx

Ronsard, Poems

Camoens, The Lusiads, Canto IX, 1572 (love island with nymphs as divine reward for heroic Portugese explorer-soldiers)

Tasso, Aminta, I. ii, 1573 (trans. Samuel Daniel)

Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered, Canto 7; 18

*Bernardo de Valbuna, Siglo de oro en las selvas de Erifile 9

*Cervantes, Don Quixote, I. xi

*Cervantes, Galatea, 1585

Guarini, Pastor Fido, 1590

Thomas Scarlet, Speeches and Honorable Entertainments given to the Queenes Majestie in Progress... 1591 [Wilson, Eliz I, 90-92]

Lady Russell, Entertainment for Elizabeth I at Bisham, 1592 [Wilson, Eliz I, 43-47, Russell is not the author]

Philip Sidney, Ye Goatherd Gods, 1593

Marino, Magdalen by Titian, 1592-1600

Marino, The Shepherdess

Shakespeare, As You Like It, 1599

E.B., Theorello: A Sheepheards Edillion, England's Helicon, 1600

*Daniel, Queen's Arcadia, 1606

d'Urfé, Astrea, 1610, "Dedication,"; "From the Author to Astrea"

G. Ryckius, "O nimium felix..." 1614

H. de Roij, Otia delectant faciuntque laboribus aptos, ca. 1625-7

*Laurens Reael, "I will twine a wreath of roses," 1625-35

Jan Harmens Krul, Eerlycke Tytkorting, 1634

Thomas Carew, A Rapture, 1640

Crispijn van de Passse, Les Vrais Pourtraits de quelques unes des plus grandes Dames..., 1640

*Sir Henry Wotton, "This Day Dame Nature seem'd in love," 1640s

*Mildmay Fane, Earl of Westmorland, To Retiredness (1648)

*Benlowes, The Pleasures of Retirement (1652)

Walton, Izaak, The Compleat Angler, I, II, III, XIII, 1653 [complete text found under FISHING folder]

Lodowijk Meyer, Naauwkeurig Onderwijs in de Tooneel-Poezy, active 1655-81

Molière, The Would-Be Gentleman, 1670

*Andrew Marvell, The Picture of Little T.C. in a Prospect of Flowers, pub. 1681

*Jan van Broekhuizen, "The morning hour, its brightness spreading," 1680-1707

Bach, Hunt Cantata ("Was mir behagt...", BWV 208), 1713

Runge, Ten Point Program, 1802

GARDEN*

?? author? Invectiva in Sallustium, (Ox p. 946)

?? Cicero, Acad Pr 4 on Lucullus,

?? Plutarch, Life of Caesar, Life of Pompey,

Homer, Odyssey, VII. 81-133 (garden of Alkinoös)

Virgil, Georgics IV, 114-147, before 19 B.C.

Garden of Hesperides: Hyginus, Fab 30; Diodorus Siculus iv.26, Ovid, Met. iv.637, Apollodorus, I, pp. 219-231;

Vitruvius, On Architecture, V.5-7, ca. 27-20 B.C.

Ovid, "Pomona and Vertumnus," Metamorphoses, XIV, before 18 A.D. 367

Columella On Agriculture, X. ca. 60 A.D

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, XIX.17-20; XXI.1 (d. 79 A.D.) .375

Calpurnius Siculus, Eclogues, II, 75ff

*Statius, Epithalamium in Stellum et Violentillam

*Athenaeus, Deipnosophists, XII.531-532 (luxurious garden of Thracian King Cotys) 190-200 A.D.

Longus, Daphnis and Chloe, II.3-5, ca. 175-225 A.D.

*Resposianus, De Concubitu Mars et Veneris, 3rd c. 10

Plutarch, Life of Lucullus, c. 70-90 A.D.

Tacitus, History, 3.36, ca. 1O0 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Cupids," Imagines, I.6; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon, I.15-17, ca. 250-300 AD

Bernardus, Cosmographia, 9, ca. 114O

Andreas Capellanus, The Art of Courtly Love, 1174

Chrestien de Troyes, Cliges; Erec and Enide 1160-1190



Carmina Burana, written late 12th century

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose, chs. 2.1-8, 231-270; 3.1-180; 5.1-121; 7.1-55; 94.1-293; A.D. 1237-1277

Dante, Purgatorio

*Park of Hesdin, Built by Robert II of Artois and continued by the Countess Mahaut of Artois, 1290-1310, full of practical jokes, well-described in some text

Amadis of Gaul, 14th Century

Boccaccio, Decameron, third day, introduction

Boccaccio, Book of Theseus, III, (maiden, Venus, Priapus) c. 1340-1342

Evrart de Conty, The Chess of Love, ca. 1370-1400

*Garden of the Hotel Saint Paul, built by Charles V, with fish-ponds, pergolas, arbors, bathing pavilion, a menagerie, and a labyrinth – find texts

Poggio Bracciolini, On Nobility, ca. 1440

Alberti, On Architecture, 9.4, ca. 1450,

Poliziano, Stanze Cominciate per la Giostra, 1475-92

Boiardo, Orlando Innamorato, I.8; 1482

*Pontano, "De hortis Hesperidum," Carmina

Savonorola, Compendium of Revelations, 1495 (garden of Paradise)

Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, 1499 (Priapus)

Bembo, Gli Asolani, 1505

More, Utopia, 1516

Erasmus, "Gardens of Adonis," Adages

Erasmus, The Godly Feast, 1522

Aldovrandi, Statue di Roma, 1555 11

Palissy, Recepte véritable, 1563

Villa d'Este garden program 12

*Charles Estienne, L'Agriculture et maison rustique, 1564

Vasari, Life of Tribolo, 1567

Thomas Hill, The Profitable Arte of Gardening, 1568, 1608

*Camoens, The Lusiads, 1572 c.

Tasso, Jerusalem Liberated, X.63-69; XVI.1-20; 1575

Lipsius, De Constantia, II.1-3, 1584

Shakespeare, Richard II (III, iv, ll.43-7)

Francis Bacon, Essays, 1597

Spenser, Faerie Queene, vi. 10, 1596

Thomas Campion, There’s A Garden in Her Face, 1617

Giambattista Marino, Adonis, VI; 1623

Andrew Marvell, The Mower against Gardens, pub. 1681

Andrew Marvell, Upon Appleton House: To My Lord Fairfax, pub. 1681

**Andrew Marvell, The Garden, pub. 1681

**Andrew Marvell, Upon the Hill and Grove at Bill-Borrow. To the Lord Fairfax, pub. 1681

Saint Simon, Memoirs, 16XX (260-266)

Rousseau, La Nouvelle Héloïse, 1761

MOUNTAIN* [not yet developed]

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, XXXVI.1 (d. 79 A.D.)

Petrarch, Rerum Familiarium libri, IV.1 (Mt. Ventoux), 1336

**Conrad Gessner, On the Admiration of Mountains, 1555

Switzerland, 19th century (3 short texts on Lake Lucerne and the Alps)


FOREST* [not well developed]

Euripides, Bacchae

Catullus, "Forest of Cybele," Poems, XLIII

Ovid, "Metamorphoses, III, "Echo and Narcissus"

Ovid, Heroides, IV, Phaedra to Hippolytus

Beroul, Tristan and Isolde

Chretien de Troyes, Yvain, c. 1180-85

Chretien de Troyes, Perzeval, c. 1180-85

Anon, Aucassin and Nicolette, ???

Anonymous, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, 1360-1400

Kramer and Sprenger, Malleus Malleficarum, I.3, 1486

Laura Cereta, Letters, "To Europa Solitaria," 1487

Francesco Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, 1499

Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, II.1-3, 1594

Milton, Comus, 1634

GROTTO* [not well developed]

Homer, Odyssey, V.63; XIII.102 (Calypso; Ithaka)

Ovid, Metamorphoses, VIII, Theseus in cave of Achelous

Virgil, Aeneid, VI; IX.571, XII.298 26-19 B.C. (lovers cave, Dido and Aeneas)

Dio Chrysostom, Second Discourse on Kingship (Calypso)

Porphyry, On the Cave of the Nymphs

Gottfried of Strassburg, Tristan, XXVI, 13th century (lover’s cave)

Voragine, Golden Legend, “Life of St Mary Magdalen” 13th century

Alberti, On Architecture, 9.4, ca. 1450,

Sannazaro, Arcadia, Chapter 12, 1504

Ronsard, Chant Pastoral, 15XX,

Tasso, Jerusalem Liberated, XIV.37-49; 1575

Marino, Adonis, VIII.104-106; 1623

Naomi Miller’s book and MacDougall, Ars Hort, p. 53



RIVER* [not well developed]

**Homer, Iliad, XXI

Apollonios Rhodios, Argonautika, I.1221-1239 (Hylas and the River Nymph) 3rd century B.C.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, V, Alpheus and Arethusa

Ovid, Metamorphoses, VIII, Achelous

Ovid, Metamorphoses, IX, Byblis and Caunus

Ovid, Amores, III.6

Lucan, Civil War, Ten, ca. 63 AD (Nile)

**Pliny the Younger, Panegyric on Trajan, 30-32

Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon, IV.12; The Nile; ca. 250-300 A.D.

Claudian, Panegyric on Probinus and Olybrius, 395 A.D.

*Nonnos, Dionysiaca, XLVIII.928-942,(raped nymph, Aura, drowns herself, turns into a fountain); ca. 450-500 A.D.

Leonardo, On Water

*John Leland, Cycnea Cantio, early 16th c.

Campion, To The Thames

see Borea, Dunno, Carley, Herendeen, and Quint in my seabib

BATHING* [not well developed]

Callimachus, Bath of Pallas (Hymn 5)

Ovid, "Diana and Actaeon," Metamorphoses, III, before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, IV, Salmacis and Hermaphroditus

Nonnos, Dionysiaca, V.287-336 (Diana and Actaeon); V.600-621 (Persephone); VII.166-286 (Semele); *X.139-174 (Dionysius); XI.1-70 (Dionysius and Ampelos); *XVI.1-20 (Nicaia); ca. 450-500 A.D.

Greek Anthology V.60 Bathing Diana


Boccaccio, Decameron, Sixth Day, Tenth Story; Tenth Day, Sixth Story

Boccaccio, Nymph of Fiesole, 1343-6

Lorenzo de' Medici, Ambra, II.24-27

Tasso, Jerusalem Liberated, XIV.57-75; XV.53-66; 1575

Giambattista Marino, Adonis, VIII, 1623

Edward Jorden, A Discourse of Naturall Bathes and Minerall Waters, 1631


OCEAN* Ocean* Sea* [not well developed]

Homer, Odyssey, IV.354-570 (Menelaus and Proteus)

Horace, Odes, I.2, "Ode to Augustus" [subsiding floods of civil war]

Horace, Odes, I.14 "Ship of State"

Virgil, Aeneid, I. 13-158, 197-209, 223-239, 254-291 (Neptune calms the seas); 26-19 B.C.

Virgil, Aeneid, VIII.671-714, 729-731 (naval battle of Actium); 26-19 B.C.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, IV, "Cyage"

Ovid, "Thetis and Peleus," Metamorphoses, XI.235, before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Glaucus and Scylla, Metamorphoses XIII

*Statius, A Send off Poem to Maecius Celer (prayer to Neptune for safe voyage)

Prudentius, Against Symmachus, I 1-15, 45-73 (ship of the church victorious amidst storms)

Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy, Book IV (shipwreck of Greek victors), ca. 330-370 A.D.

Leonardo, On Water

*Du Bartas, Les Semaines, Fifth Day, 1578

Lyly (attributed), Honorable Entertainment gieven to the Queene's Majestie in Progresse..., 1591 [Wilson, Eliz I, 108-110, "The Second Daies Entertainment"]

Tasso, Creation of the World, Fifth Day, 1594

Baudelaire, “Man and the Sea”, from Fleurs du Mal, 1857
HUNTING*

Meleager:

Hyginus, Fables, 14.16; 17.1;

Apollodorus, I.65

"Homer," Hymn to Artemis II

Homer, Iliad, X.351-371; XV.274-284; XXII.129-144, 185-192

Pindar, Pythian Odes, IX; 474 B.C

Pindar, Nemean Odes, III; ca. B.C. 475

Plato, Laws, Prelude and VII.822b-824c

*Xenophon, Life of Cyrus, I.4.5-17

Xenophon, Cynegeticus, c. 390-370 B.C.

Curtius, Alexander the Great (8.1.11-19)

Polybius, Histories, 31.29.1-12 (d. after 118 B.C.)

Varro, On Agriculture, III.12, ca. 37 B.C.

Cicero, Letters to Familiars, VII.1.3

Tibullus, Poems, III.9; d. 19 B.C.

Virgil, Aeneid, IV.117-173 (Dido and Aeneas); 26-19 B.C.

Virgil, Aeneid, VII.475-510 (Ascanius and stag of Silvia); 26-19 B.C.

Ovid, Remedies of Love, lines 200-224

*Ovid, Art of Love, I.45-52; I.755ff; III.417-432

*Ovid, On Sea Fishing

Ovid, Metamorphoses, II, Arcas hunts his mother Callisto, turned into a bear

Ovid, Metamorphoses, VIII, "Meleager and the Boar," before 18 A.D.

Ovid, Metamorphoses, X, Venus and Adonis

Statius, Achilleid, II.86-167

Seneca, Hippolytus

Martial, Spectacles, XV, XXII; Epigrams, I.49; VIII.55;70-103 A.D.

Dio Chrysostom, Third Discourse on Kingship [70-110 A.D.]

Pliny the Younger, Panegyric on Trajan, 81-82, 100 A.D.

Pliny the Younger, Letters, I.6 (to Tacitus), before 113 A.D.


*Varro, Saturae Menippeae 161, 293-96, 361

Tacitus, Life of Agricola, active 80 - ca 115 A.D.

Galen, On the Usefulness of the Parts, I.2; 170-199 AD

Philostratus the Younger, Imagines, 15, early 3rd century



*Dio Cassius, History of Rome, 39.38.2-4, 230 A.D

Gregory of Nazianus, Oration on Basil, 360-390 AD (miraculous hunt)

Claudian, Panegyric on Consulship of Manlius Theodorus, 399 A.D.

Claudian, Fescennine Verses on the Marriage of Honorius, 398 A.D.

Claudian, Panegyric on the Consulship of Stilicho, III.262-369

Sidonius, Panegyric of Emperor Maiorianus, 88-106; A.D. 457-461

*Nonnos, Dionysiaca, X-XI "Dionysius and Ampelos"

Nonnos, Dionysiaca, XVI, Dionysius and Nicaia, hunt of love

Nonnos, Dionysiaca, V.287-488, "Artemis and Actaeon" 450-500 A.D.

**John of Salisbury, Policratus, 1.4; 1160 (hunting as sinful, effeminate, bestial pleasure: Adonis, Chiron, Actaeon))

Alfonso XI of Castile, Libro de la monteria

John I of Portugal, Livro da montaria

Jacobus da Voragine, Golden Legend (Life of St. Eustace)

Conty, Chess of Love, 1370-1400,

Gaston Phoebus, Livre de chasse, ca. 1410

Alberti, On the Family, IV, 1437

Poggio Bracciolini, On Nobility, ca. 1440

Edward, Duke of York, The Master of Game

Platina, On the Prince, 1471

Poliziano, Stanze Cominciate per la Giostra, 1475-92

Machiavelli, Discourses on Livy, III.39,

Giuniano Maio, On Majesty, XIX, 1492

Camoens, Lusiads, Canto IX, 1578

Thomas Cockaigne, A Short Treatise of Hunting, 1591

Thomas Scarlet, Speeches and Honorable Entertainments given to the Queenes Majestie in Progress... 1591 Wilson, Eliz I, 89-90


*Baldovino Simoncelli, Il Simoncello o vero della caccia, 1616

*Giambattista Marino, Adonis, XVIII; 1623 [Venus and Adonis]


FISHING* [not well developed]

Varro, On Agriculture, III.xvii (Loeb 521ff)

*Juliana Berners, The Boke of Saint Albans, 1486

*Anonymous (William Samuel), The Arte of Angling, 1577

*Leonard Mascall, Booke of Fishing with Hooke and Line, 1590

*John Donne, "Come live with me, and be my love," 16xx

Thomas Scarlet, Speeches and Honorable Entertainments given to the Queene's Majestie in Progress... 1591 [Wilson, Eliz I, 93-94]

*Izaak Walton, The Compleat Angler, I, IX, XI; 1653

see my thesis on this & NYT Book Review essay on fish lit, ca. July 4th, 1996


PRIMITIVISM* [not well developed]

other descriptions of the Cyclops: Philostratus, Euripides, etc: the original wild man

*Seneca, Letters, Loeb vol. 2, pp. 399-403

Tacitus, Germania

Boccaccio, “Ceres,” Concerning Famous Women, ca. 1355-59

Anon, French, "On Work", 14th century,

Conrad Celtis, Inaugural Oration, 1492

Conrad Celtis, To Sepulus the Superstitious

Hans Sachs, Lament of the Wild Forest Folk

Montaigne, Of Cannibals, 1578-80

Spenser, Faerie Queene, VI.4 (wild man)


MONEY* AND MINING*

Aristotle, Politics

Cicero, On Duties, 1. 150-152

Cicero, On Divination, I.51

Pliny, Natural History, XXXIII.1-4, 6, 14, 18-19, 21, 39-40 (d. 79 A.D.) ..448

Juvenal, Satires, VII, XIV (active 90-130 A.D.)

Eusebius, Life of Constantine, IV.8

Poggio Bracciolini, On Avarice, 1429

Alberti, Teogenio, II

Alberti, On the Family, I

Vannoccio Biringuccio, De la pirotechnia, 1540

Agricola, On precious metals, 1556

Rabelais, Pantagruel and Gargantua, III.3-4

NATURE'S ARTISTRY* / ARS* VS. NATURA* [not well developed]

Aristotle, Generation of Animals II.6

Cicero, The Nature of the Gods, II.56-59, 86-90

Vitruvius, early history, On Architecture, II.1

Pliny, Natural History, XXI; 1XXXVII. 11. 72-73 (d. 79 A.D.).

Galen, On the Usefulness of the Parts, III.10; XVII.?;

XVI.?; 170-199 A.D.

Philostratus the Elder, "Introduction," Imagines I.1; ca. 220-40 A.D.

Philostratus the Younger, "Hunters," Imagines

Gregory of Nazianzus, Oratio theologica

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose, ch. 78

Alberti, On Architecture, VI.1; IX.5, c. 1450,

Erasmus, A Pilgrimage for Religion's Sake 1526

Castiglione, Book of the Courtier, I, 1528

Botero, Reasons of State, 1589

[also Philostratus the Elder, Imagines, I.1 (p. 3)]; Montaigne, Sebond, p. 354; Coffin books, Garden books, Findlen article



GENDER* AND NATURE

"Homer," Hymn to Earth

Plato, Timaeus, 49

Aristotle, Generation of Animals I.2, 7, 16, 19-23; II.1, 3-6; III.2, 10; IV.1-6, 10; V.3, 7

Aristotle, Parts of Animals III.1

Catullus, Epithalamium, LXII, 39-47

Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, I. 1-42; V.735-1457, before 55 B.C.

Horace, Odes, I.23 [timid fawn-maiden]

Horace, Carmen saeculare, [Diana, Venus, mother earth]

Ovid, "Galatea and Polyphemus," Metamorphoses, XIII, before 18 A.D..

Ovid, Fasti, IV.85-132; before 18 A.D. [Venus, Spring, nature’s sexuality]

Ovid, Art of Love, II.460-487 [Venus, a civilizing force in nature]

Columella, On Agriculture, X, [Venus, spring, gardens] c. 60 A.D

Juvenal, Satires, VI (active 90-130 A.D.)

Apuleius, The Golden Ass, XI (mother earth), 2nd century AD

Galen, On the Usefulness of the Parts, XIV.? (170-199 A.D.)

*Achilles Tatius, Leucippe and Clitophon, II.35-38, ca. 250-300 AD

Lactantius, The Workmanship of God, 12; A.D. 303-304

Aristides Quintilianus, On Music, II.8, 10, 16, 19; III.21, 25; 3rd or 4th century

Claudian, On Stilicho’s Consulship, III, II.53 [Roma as universal mother], 390-404 AD

Augustine, City of God, VII.23-24 (attack on mother earth goddess)

Walter von Vogelweide, So di bluomen uz dem grase dringent, ca. 1220-1230

Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meun, The Romance of the Rose, [mother earth, nature’s sexuality]


Petrarch, Sonnets , mid-14th century

Boccaccio, Teseide, III, mid-14th century

Lorenzo de' Medici, Song of the Village Lasses

Kramer and Sprenger, Malleus Malleficarum, 1486

Leonardo, Notebooks, [mother earth]

Bembo, Gli Asolani, 1505 [Nature as male and female, Nature and love; Venus as civilizing force]

Castiglione, Book of the Courtier, III, 1528

*Henricus Cornelius Agrippa, Declamation on the Nobility and Preeminence of the Female Sex, 1529

Paracelsus, Volumen Paramirum, 1533-34

Tasso, The Father of the Family,

Tasso, The Creation of the World,

Shakespeare, Tempest, iv.1, 1611

*Donne, Elegie XIX, Anniversary Poems Sawday, Body, 26-27

MISC WRITING **

Tertullian, On the Soul, c. 208-211 A.D.

Petrarch, The Secret, before 1374,

Leonardo, "On the power of invention"

Aretino, "Letter to Titian"

Augucchi

van Mander

Ampzing


Huygens

Evelyn, John (17th c. book on trees)


Runge, Letters





1 (history of early man: forest, pastoral, and agricultural)

2 Eng. trans. by Thomas Beddingfield, London, 1573, with long contrast between lesser animals and immortal human soul


3


4 trans of De peregrinatione et agro Neapolitano, 1574, see Stagl, 60

5 [ms, Palissy, 157-158]

6 MP, 7, 1909-10, 169-185; Romanic Review 2, 1911, 130; George Economou, "Goddess Natura in Middle Ages"; Shirley Law Guthrie, PhD thesis, Indiana, 1973; Jane Chance, "Medieval Mythography"

7 [Palissy 176]

8 [Palissy 157]

9 Levin, Golden Age, 143, a series of Sannazzaro-like pastorals extolling Mexico as the pastoral golden age. He was the Bishop of Puerto Rico in the 16th c.

10 Loeb: Minor Latin Poets

11 (MacDougall, Ars Hort, n. 17, and p. 53-54; check her book for full text in English)

12 (Coffin, Villa d'Este 77-8, 80-2




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