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Mouth and Foot Painting Artists

There is a (1) … that you can tell an artist merely looking at his or her hands, but this is not always so. Some artists are unable to use their arms and hands — the disability being caused by accidents; by illness or at birth.

They paint by holding the brush in the mouth or with the toes.

One of the (2) … known mouth-painting artists was Sarah Biffen, who was born without arms and legs in Somerset in 1784. She eventually had one of her paintings accepted in the Royal Academy. Erich Stagmann is the founder and president of the Association of Mouth and Foot Painting Artists. At the age of three he was struck down with polio, which left his arms and hands (3) ... . His legs were also affected. He remembered his childhood when he was put to bed as a punishment, and was unable to move until his mother remembered him. This (4) … made Eric resolve that when he grew up he would try to earn a great deal of money so that he would never again be wholly dependent on anybody.

At the age of 34, having succeeded in creating an artistic (5) … for himself, he formed an association with its headquarters in Liechtenstein.

If the artists can satisfy an (6) … board with the standard of artistic ability, they are accepted as members of the Association. They then earn a monthly salary for the rest of their lives, regardless of the extent of their disability or their output of (7) … .

Each year over 200 paintings are chosen for reproduction and used to make cards, calendars and such-like, which are sold to the (8) … to help finance the mouth and foot painting artists (MEPA). Membership of the MEPA is (9) … and is open to all talented mouth or foot painting artists.

1) independent; 2) world-wide; 3) work; 4) public; 5) career; 6) saying; 7) earliest; 8) useless; 9) memory.

297. Прочитайте уважно текст. Після тексту дається 10 запитань. До кожного завдання пропонується 4 варіанти відповідей. Визначте, яка відповідь правильна.

The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack, is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross on a white background is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross on a blue background is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross on a white background is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. The Welsh flag, called the Welsh dragon, represents a red dragon on a white and green background. St. George’s Day falls on 23, April and is regarded as England’s national day. On this day some patriotic Englishmen wear a rose pinned to their jackets. A red rose is the national emblem of England.

St. Andrew’s Day (30 November) is regarded as Scotland’s national day. On this day some Scotsmen wear a thistle in their button-hole. As a national emblem of Scotland, thistle was apparently first used in the 15th century as a symbol of defence.

St. Patrick’s Day (17 March) is considered as a national day in Northern Ireland and an official bank holiday there. The national emblem of Ireland is shamrock.

St. David’s Day (1 March) is the church festival of St. David, the 6th century monk and bishop, the patron saint of Wales. On this day (though it is not an official bank holiday) many Welshmen wear either a yellow daffodil or a leek pinned to their jackets, as both plants are traditionally regarded as national emblems of Wales.

1. What is the Union Jack?

1) The Scottish flag. 2) The Welsh national emblem. 3) The flag of the United Kingdom. 4) The national emblem of Ireland.

2. How many crosses are there on the flag of the United Kingdom?

1) Two. 2) Three. 3) Six. 4) Four.

3. Who is the patron saint of England?

1) St. George. 2) St. Nicholas. 3) St. David. 4) St. John.

4. How is the Welsh flag called?

1) The Loch Ness monster. 2) The Stars and Stripes. 3) The Welsh Old Glory. 4) The Welsh dragon.

5. What is the national emblem of England?

1) A white daffodil. 2) A red rose. 3) A Christmas tree. 4) A cross.

6. What is St. Andrew’s Day?

1) The national day of Scotland. 2) The Day of Independence. 3) The Remembrance Day. 4) Mothers’ Day.

7. What is a symbol of defence in Scotland?

1) The thistle. 2) The red rose. 3) The dragon. 4) The star.

8. When is St. Patrick’s Day celebrated?

1) On the 30th of November 2) On the 1st of March. 3) On the 17th of March. 4) On the 30th of August.

9. Who is St. David?

1) The patron saint of England. 2) The 6th century monk and bishop. 3) The French monk and bishop. 4) The bishop of Scotland.

10. How many plants are traditionally regarded as national emblems of Wales?

1) One. 2) Two. 3) Three. 4) Many.

298. Прочитайте уважно текст. Після тексту дається 10 запитань. До кожного завдання пропонується 4 варіанти відповідей. Визначте, яка відповідь правильна.

New York is the largest city in the world and the biggest seaport. It is the money-centre of the United States. New York is situated in the north-east of the USA in the state of New York or the Empire State. In comparison with such ancient cities as Rome, Moscow, London or Paris, New York is quite young. It was founded in 1613 by Dutch settlers. A Dutchman, Peter Minuit, bought Manhattan Island from the Indians for 24 dollars and a barrel of rum. The Americans say that this was the best business deal ever made in New York. In 1613 the Dutch had built only four small houses in Manhattan. New Amsterdam was the first name of the city. After the English had taken over the city in 1626 it was renamed New York after the Duke of York who was commander of the English army.

During the War of Independence New York was an important political centre, and for five years from 1785 till 1790, the capital of the USA.

New York is a multinational city, the people that live in it speak seventy-five different languages. Manhattan is the name of an island which forms the heart of New York. The island is 13 miles long, 2 miles wide, and lies at the mouth of the Hudson River. Here is the heart of American business and culture, the city of sky-scrapers, of Broadway, of Wall Street, which is the centre of American money business. The street got its name in the old days when one of the Dutch governors of New Amsterdam built a wall across Manhattan to protect the colonists from the Indians. The wall was later broken down but the name remained.

1. What was the first name of New York?

1) Rome. 2) Paris. 3) London. 4) New Amsterdam.

2. When was New York founded?

1) In 1613. 2) In 1626. 3) In 1785. 4) In 1790.

3. What state is called the Empire State?

1) Washington. 2) New York. 3) New Jersey. 4) Montana.

4. Who bought Manhattan Island from the Indians?

1) The Duke of York. 2) The first President of the USA. 3) The English colonists. 4) Peter Minuit.

5. Who was commander of the English army?

1) Peter Minuit. 2) Abraham Lincoln. 3) The Duke of York. 4) George Washington.

6. How long was New York the capital of the USA?

1) Six years. 2) Five years. 3) Ten years. 4) A year.

7. How many different languages are spoken in New York?

1) Five. 2) Four. 3) Thirteen. 4) Seventy-five.

8. What is Manhattan?

1) An island in New York City. 2) The state. 3) The street. 4) The name of the Dutch governor.

9. When did Wall Street get its name?

1) Quite recently. 2) In the old days. 3) Seventy years ago. 4) Two centuries ago.

10. Who built a wall across Manhattan to protect the colonists from the Indians?

1) The English settlers. 2) The American soldiers. 3) One of the Dutch governors. 4) One of the American presidents.

299. Прочитайте уважно текст. Після тексту дається 10 запитань. До кожного завдання пропонується 4 варіанти відповідей. Визначте, яка відповідь правильна.

Francis Drake, one of the most famous of English sailors and pirates, was born in Plymouth, a seaport and the largest town in the south of England. The boy spent much of his time looking at the ships in Plymouth Harbour and talking to the seamen. His cousin, Captain Hawkins, told him long stories about his adventures at sea. At fifteen Francis was taken on a small ship and worked there for some years. The boy learned the duties of a sailor very soon and did his work so well that the master of the ship said the boy was born to be a great sailor. When Drake was twenty-five Captain Hawkins made him mate on his ship.

Drake’s first sea-fight took place on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean where a small fleet of six English ships was attacked by Spanish men-of-war. Four of the English ships were burnt and only two – the one commanded by Hawkins and the other by Drake – came back to England.

Drake asked the king of Spain to pay him for his ships but was refused. Drake was very angry and promised he would take all he could from the king of Spain. And he did so.

Drake was the first Englishman who sailed round the world. Englishmen have set up a monument to Francis Drake in Plymouth.

1. What was Francis Drake?

1) A famous English writer. 2) A famous English traveller. 3) A pop singer. 4) A famous English sailor and pirate.

2. What kind of city was Plymouth?

1) A great scientific centre. 2) A capital of England. 3) A small town in the south of England. 4) A seaport.

3. Who told Francis long stories about sea adventures?

1) His cousin. 2) His grandfather. 3) His friend. 4) His neighbour.

4. Where did he work when he was fifteen?

1) On a small farm. 2) On a small ship. 3) On a sea liner. 4) In the pub.

5. What was Francis when he was twenty-five?

1) A sailor. 2) A captain. 3) A mate. 4) A pirate.

6. Where did Drake’s first sea-fight take place?

1) In the Pacific Ocean. 2) In the Atlantic Ocean. 3) In the Indian Ocean. 4) In the North Sea.

7. How many English ships came back to England?

1) Four. 2) None. 3) Nine. 4) Two.

8. What did Drake ask the king of Spain?

1) To return him his ships. 2) To pay him for his ships. 3) To repair his ships. 4) To build six new ships for him.

9. Who was the first Englishman who sailed round the world?

1) Captain Hawkins. 2) Captain Drake. 3) Captain Cook. 4) Captain Blood.

10. In what country is there a monument to Francis Drake?

1) In France. 2) In England. 3) In Spain. 4) In the USA.

300. Прочитайте уважно текст. Після тексту дається 10 запитань. До кожного завдання пропонується 4 варіанти відповідей. Визначте, яка відповідь правильна.

George Stephenson was the first man who put a steam-engine on wheels. The English call him the “Father of Railways”.

Stephenson was born in the family of a poor worker near the city of Newcastle, one of the industrial centres of England. The boy’s father could not send him to school, so George helped his mother to look after the younger children in the family. His duty was to see that his little brothers and sisters did not get under the horses that pulled coal-cars on the wooden rails near his father’s house. The boy looked at those rails every day and knew how often they were repaired. He decided then that iron rails could be better.

At eight Stephenson began to work as a horse-driver in a coal-mine. The boy could not read and write but he did not forget about the iron rails. Now he thought of a steam-engine which could do the work of twenty horses. He built a model in clay of such an engine. At nineteen he was put to work on a steam-engine. Now he had time to learn reading and writing. Soon he made a design of a locomotive, which moved on iron rails. But Stephenson could not build it as he had no money. Stephenson was fifty years old when some businessmen decided to build an iron railway and see how Stephenson’s locomotive worked.

1. What nationality was George Stephenson?

1) American. 2) English. 3) Spanish. 4) German.

2. Who is called the “Father of Railways”?

1) George Stephenson’s father. 2) George Stephenson’s younger brother. 3) George Stephenson. 4) George Stephenson’s uncle.

3. Where was George Stephenson born?

1) In the city of Newcastle. 2) Near the city of Newcastle. 3) Far from the city of Newcastle. 4) In London.

4. What did George Stephenson do in his childhood?

1) Studied at school. 2) Worked in the garden. 3) Looked after his younger brothers and sisters. 4) Helped his father.

5. When did Stephenson begin to work as a horse-driver in a coal-mine?

1) When he was 11. 2) When he was 8. 3) When he was 13. 4) When he was an adult.

6. What was the first model of a steam-engine made of?

1) Wood. 2) Iron. 3) Clay. 4) Gypsum.

7. When was George Stephenson put to work on a steam-engine?

1) At 15. 2) At 17. 3) At 21. 4) At 19.

8. Who made a design of a locomotive?

1) George Stephenson’s assistant. 2) George Stephenson. 3) George Stephenson’s son. 4) Isaac Newton.

9. Why didn’t Stephenson build a locomotive himself?

1) He didn’t know how to do it. 2) He was prohibited to do it. 3) He had no money. 4) He had nobody to help him.

10. How old was Stephenson when the iron railway was built?

1) Forty-five. 2) Fifty. 3) Fifty-two. 4) Sixty.

Рекомендована література
1. Андерсон К. Е., Шерік А. Д., Савічук В. Я. Посібник з англійських фразеологізмів.– Луцьк: Агроспецсервіс ЛТД, 2001.– 128 с.

2. Баграмова Н. В., Блинова С. И. Практика английского языка (обучение лексике): Уч. пособ.– СПб: СОЮЗ, 1998.– 144 с.

3. Верба Г. В., Верба Л. Г. Довідник з граматики англійської мови.– К.: Освіта, 1993.– 320 с.

4. Гужва Т. Английский язык. Разговорные темы: Для абиту­риентов, слушателей курсов, студентов филологических факультетов. Ч. 1.– К.: Тандем, 1996.– 352 с.

5. Жилко Н. М., Панова Л. С. Вправи з граматики англійської мови.– К.: Освіта, 1991.– 112 с.

6. Качалова К. Н., Израелевич Е. Е. Практическая грамматика английского языка. С упражнениями и ключами: В 2-х т.– К.: Методика, 2000.– 672с.

7. Клементьева Т.Б. Повторяем времена английского глагола: Учебное пособие.– М.: Высш.шк., 1990.– 207 с.

8. Heinemann E. L. T. Elementary English Grammar: Уч. пособ.– К.: Методика, 2001.– 256 с.

9. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use: a self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students, with answers.– Cambridge University Press, 1988.– 328 p.

10. Murphy R. Essential Grammar in Use: a self-study reference and practice book for elementary students of English.– Cambridge University Press, 1990.– 259 p.

11. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English / A. S. Hornby. Fifth edition.– Oxford University Press, 1995.– 1427 p.

12. Swan M., Walter C. The Cambridge English Course.– Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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