Rudraksa, Tulasi and Dhatri (Amalaka)

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Preface


Rudraksa, Tulasi and Dhatri (Amalaka). An interesting and noteworthy feature of this part is the mention of sinful tribes such as Nagnakas, Avacakas, Kuvadas, Kharpas, Darunas— probably some heretical religious sects of India—and, more importantly, of foreigners such as hairless and beardless Yavanas, cow-eating Turuskas (Turks?) and Mlecchas, obviously referring to the historical event of foreigners' invasion of India especially by the Muslims. This event gave rise to the glorification and worship of cows which came to be considered as sacred asAgni and Brahmanas, all the three together with the Vedas spoken of as born from Brahma's mouth.

Acknowledgements

It is our pleasant duty to put on record our sincere thanks to Dr. R.N. Dandekar and the UNESCO authorities for their kind encouragement and valuable help which render this work more useful than it would otherwise have been. To Dr. N. A. Desh-pande we are grateful for giving this nice translation. We are also thankful to all those who have been helpful in our project.

—Editor

CONTENTS


PREFACE vu

ABBREVIATIONS xi


PADMA-PURANA: SECTION I: SRSTIKHANDA (Contd.)

  1. The Gift of Brahmanda 425

  2. The Killing of a Sudra Ascetic 460

  3. Conversation between Rama and Agastya 468

  4. Rama's Abstaining from the Performance of
    Rajasuya 478

  5. The Installation of the Image of Vamana 490

  6. The Birth of the Lotus , 505

  7. The Army of Demons 517
  8. The Rise of the Lotus and the War between


Gods and Demons 532

  1. Taraka's Victory in the War between Gods and
    Demons 556

  2. Gauri's Marriage 565

  3. The Birth of Kumara and the Death of Taraka 605

  4. The Manifestation of Narasimha 623

  5. Purificatory Rites of a Brahmana 636

  6. The Birth of Garuda 655

  7. Importance of Bull (and Cow) 669

  8. Good Conduct 685

  9. The Account of the Five 696

  10. The S tory of a Faithful Wife 723

  11. On Women's Conduct 730

  12. Non-covetousness of a Siidra 740

  13. The Rape of Ahalya 746

  14. The Birth of Lauhitya 750

  15. The Account of the Five 755

  16. In Praise of (Digging a) Tank etc. 759

  17. In Praise of Planting Trees etc. 762

Contents

59.

In Praise of Rudraksa

767

60.

In Praise of TulasI


785

61.

Glorification of TulasI

798

62.

In Praise of the Ganga

801

63.

A Hymn to Ganapati

812

64.

Another Hymn to Ganapati

814

65.

The Slaying of Kalakeya

816

66.

The Slaying of Kaleya

825

67.

The Slaying of Bala and Namuci

827

68.

The Slaying of Muci

831


69.

The Slaying of Tareya

831

70.

Devantaka, Durdharsa and Durmukha Slain

833

71.

The Second Namuci Slain

835

72.

The Slaying of Madhu

837

73.

The Slaying of Vrtra

840

74.

The Slaying of Tripura's Son

843

75.

The Hymn of Victory at the End of War between







Gods and Demons

846


76.

The Exposition of Merit

854

77.

The Vow of SaptamI in Honour of the Sun

866

78.

The Pacification of the Sun

875

79.

The Story of Bhadresvara

880

80.

The Worship of the Moon

884

81.

The Birth of Bhauma and His Worship

886

82.

The Worship of the Planets

891

ABBREVIATIONS

Common and self-evident abbreviations such as Ch(s) — Chapter(s), p—page, pp—pages, V—Verse, W—Verses, Ftn—footnote, Hist. Ind. Philo.—History of Indian Philosophy are not included in this list.

ABORI Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute,

Poona

AGP S. M. Ali's The Geography of Purdnas, PPH, New

Delhi, 1973
AIHT Ancient Indian Historical Tradition, F. E. Pargiter,

Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD), Delhi


AITM Ancient Indian Tradition and Mythology Series, MLBD,

Delhi


AP Agni Purdna, Guru Mandal Edition (GM), Cal-

cutta, 1957

Arch.S.Rep. Archaeological Survey Report
AV Atharva Veda, Svadhyaya Mandal, Aundh

Bd. P. Brahmanda Purdna, MLBD, Delhi 1973

BG Bhagavadgitd

Bh. P. BhdgavataPurdna, Bhagavat Vidyapeeth, Ahmedabad

Br. Brdhmana (preceded by name such as Satapatha)

BS. P. Bhavisya Purdna, Vishnu Shastri Bapat, Wai

BV. P. Brahma Vaivarta Purdna, GM, 1955-57

CG Caturvarga Cintdmani by Hemadri

CVS Carana Vyuha Sutra bySaunaka, Com. by Mahidasa

DB Devi Bhdgavata, GM, 1960-61

De or The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Media-

GDAMI eval India, N. L.De, Oriental Reprint, Delhi, 1971


Dh- S. Dharma Sutra (preceded by the author's name

such as Gautama)

ERE Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics by Hastings

Gp Garuda Purdna, ed. R. S. Bhattacharya, Chow-

khamba, Varanasi, 1964

I

ust), Varanasi

CHAPTER THIRTYFOUR



The Gift of Brahmanda

Bhlsma said:
  1. Please tell me when revered Brahma, the creator of the

    worlds, commenced to perform a sacrifice with the requisites.


  2. Who were the priests that he employed at the sacrifice ?
    What sacrificial fees did the great-souled one pay them?

  3. (Please) tell me as it happened, as it took place; there is
    a great curiosity in me to know about the sacrifice of (i.e. per­
    formed by) Brahma.

Pulastya said:

  1. I have already told you that he having created the (ten)
    lords of created beings said to Svayambhuva Manu, "Fashion
    the creation".

  2. He himself, having gone to Puskara, and having collect­
    ed the minute details about the sacrifice, and having brought
    the materials, lived in the fire-chamber.

  3. (At the sacrifice) Gandharvas continually sang (songs)
    and the hosts of celestial nymphs danced. (There were) the four
    performing priests, viz. Brahma, Udgatr, Hotr and Adhvaryu.

  4. He himself also appointed three attendants to each of
    them. (The first group consisted of) Brahma, Brahmanacchamsi,
    Potr and Agmdhra1.

  5. This group of four was metaphysics, all lores and Vedic
    lore (combined). The second group consisted of Udgatr,
    Pratyudgatr, Pratihartr and Subrahmanya.

1. Brahma—One of the four priests employed at a Soma-sacrifice.

Brahmanacchamsi—A brahmana in the second stage ( between brahmana-matrai.e. a brahmana only by birth and srotriya).

Potr—One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice; assistant of the priest called Brahman.

Agnidhra—The priest who kindles fire.



426

Padma Purana

1.34.17-29

427

9-10. This second group of four belonged to (i.e. was led by) Udgatr1. The third group consisted of Hotr2, Maitravaruna, Acchavaka and Grava. The fourth group consisted of: Adh-varyu, Pratisthatr, Nestr and Unnetr.3


  1. O you son of Santanu, this is said to be the fourth
    group. Those who have pondered over the Vedas have recom­
    mended these sixteen priests.

  2. The self-born one has created three hundred and sixty
    sacrifices. They (the authorities) say that these brahmanas are
    always (employed) at these sacrifices.

  3. Some also desire (i.e. recommend) a superintending
    priest, a group of three samans and the Adhvaryu also. He
    made Narada the Brahma-priest; he appointed Gautama as the
    Brahmanacchamsl-priest;

  4. He (appointed) Devagarbha as the Potr-priest and
    Devala as the Agnldhra-priest. Angiras was the Udgatr-priest
    and Pulaha the Pratyudgatr-priest.

  5. Narayana was the Pratihartr-priest and Atri was said
    to be the Subrahmanya-priest. In that sacrifice Bhrgu was the
    Hotr-priest, Vasistha the Maitravaruna-priest.

  6. Kratu was the Acchavaka-priest and Cyavana was the
    Grava-priest. Pulastya (i.e. I) was the Adhvaryu-priest and
    Sibi was the Pratisthatr-priest.

  1. Udgatr—One of the four chief priests at a sacrifice; he chants the
    hymns of the Samaveda. Pratyudgata, Pratiharta and Subrahmanya are his
    three assistants.

  2. Hotr—A sacrificial priest, especially one who recites the prayers of the
    Rgveda at a sacrifice.

Maitravaruna—One of the sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice.

Acchavaka—The invoker or inviter; a priest who is employed at Soma-sacrifices and is a co-ordinator of Hotr.

Gravastut—One of the sixteen priests called after the hymn (Rgveda X.94) addressed to the Soma stones.

3. Adhvaryu: One of the priests at a sacrifice. His duties are: to mea­

sure the ground, to build the altar, to prepare the sacrificial vessels, to fetch
wood and water, to light the fire, to bring the animal and immolate it.
While engaged in these duties he repeated hymns from the Yajurveda.

Pratisthatr—Adhvaryu's assistant.

Nestr—One of the chief officiating priests at a Soma-sacrifice; he leads forward the wife of the sacrificer and prepares Sura.

Unne{r—The priest who pours Soma into the receptacles.

17. There (i.e. at the sacrifice) Brhaspati was the Nestr-priest and Samsapayana was the Unnetr-priest. Dharma was the Sadasya-priest; he was assisted by his sons and grandsons.

18-20. Others that were appointed as Sama-singers and Adhvaryus were Bharadvaja, Samlka, Purukutsa, Yugandhara, Enaka, TIrnaka, Kesa and Kutapa, also Garga and Veda-siras. Similarly Kanva and others, and also Markanda and Gandi were present there with their sons, grandsons, disciples and relatives. They carefully worked there day and night.

21. (Thus) when one Manu-period passed (i.e. at the end
of one full Manu-period) the ablution at the (completion of
the) sacrifice took place. As the fee the (region of the) eastern
direction was given to Brahma and (the region of) the southern
direction was given to Hotr.


  1. The (region of) the west was given to Adhvaryu, and
    (the region of) the north to Udgatr. Brahma gave all the worlds
    as the (sacrificial) fee to them.

  2. For the successful accomplishment of the sacrifice a
    hundred cows should be given to a wise man. Eight (cows)
    should be given to the performing priests or more than forty
    also (may be given).



  1. Gift of twentyfour cows is recommended for those of

    the second rank. Also sixteen auspicious cows should be given
    to the priests of the third rank.


  2. Similarly other twelve cows etc. should be caused to be
    given to Agnldhras etc. The same number of villages, maids and
    small cattle (should be given).

  3. At the bathing at the completion of a sacrifice a feast
    to one thousand (brahmanas) should be given. The self-born
    has said that the sacrificer should give all his wealth (to brah­
    manas).

  4. Gift according to the desire of the sacrificer is recom­
    mended to the Adhvaryus and the superintending priests. Brahma
    called Visnu and said to him gladly:




  1. "O you of good vow, having propitiated Savitrl, bring
    her here. That (goddess) of an auspicious face, will not be
    angry on seeing you (i.e. when she will see you).

  2. You, using pleasing, courteous and especially logical
    speech, always speak sweetly. Your tongue oozes nectar.

428


429
Padma Purina

30. No one who would not do what you tell is (to be) seen


in the world. Going with Gandharvas, bring my beloved
(here).

  1. The good lady, propitiated by you, will certainly come.
    You should not delay. O Madhava, go quickly. Do not tarry.

  2. Auspicious LaksmI should go before you to Savitri's
    residence. Follow her path, and pacify my beloved.

  3. O goddess (LaksmI), Savitri does not desire to do any­
    thing all alone, which is not liked by you. O beautiful lady, she
    always behaves (by) seeing your face (i.e. as you desire).

  4. Such and many other sweet words should be spoken to

    the goddess, so that she would be soon pleased."


  5. When Visnu was addressed like this by Brahma, the
    creator of the worlds, he quickly went to that place where
    Savitrl remained.

  6. (When she saw) even from a distance Visnu coming
    with his wife, she quickly got up, and was saluted by Visnu.

  7. "My salutation to you, O chief goddess; my salutation
    to you, O wife of Brahma, for every person gets absolved of sin
    (only) after he salutes you.

  8. You are loyal to your husband; you are illustrious.
    You are in the heart of Brahma. Thinking of you day and night,
    he desires your favour.

  9. You (may) even ask this your dear good friend
    LaksmI, the daughter of Bhrgu. O you of beautiful eyes, if (you
    feel), trust these words."

40-42. Speaking thus, Sauri (i.e. Visnu) then touched with both his hands the two feet of Savitrl saying: "Pardon me, O goddess, salutation to you, O you venerable to the world and the mother of the world." Withdrawing her feet, the goddess holding with her hand the hands of Visnu, said to him: "O Acyuta, I have forgiven everything. O son, this LaksmI will always live in your heart.

  1. She will never have attachment for anyone else but you.
    This one, born of Bhrgu's wife, is your good-vowed wife.

  2. By the effort of gods and demons she was again born
    of the ocean. She would incarnate where you, the revered one,
    would (take birth).

1.34.45-56

  1. In godhead (i.e. when she is born as a goddess), she
    has a divine body, and (when born) as a human being she has a
    human form. With you as her companion, she has been prac­
    tising the vow of matrimonial relation for a long time.
  2. O lord, tell me what I have to do in this matter."


Visnu said:

The end of the sacrifice has come. I have been sent to your vicinity (i.e. to you, by Brahma).



  1. (He told me:) "Bring Savitri quickly; she would bathe
    •with me." (Therefore) O goddess, come on quickly. Go there
    happily.

  2. Going there, see your husband followed by all gods.

LaksmI said:

O noble lady, get up quickly, go where the grandsire is.

49. I shall not go without you. I have touched (i.e. I am
touching) your feet.

Getting up, the generous one held her hand in (i.e. with) her right hand.



  1. The grandsire (i.e.) god (Brahma) seeing that Savitri
    was getting late, said these words to Mahadeva, who was near
    him:

  2. "O you destroyer of the demons, go with this Parvati.
    Let Gaurl go before you, and O Sankara, you go after her.

52-53. Having advised her, bring her (here). Act in such a way that she comes quickly." That couple viz. Parvati and Siva, thus addressed and instructed (by Brahma), went and spoke to Brahma's beloved (i.e. Savitrl): "O you loyal wife, you have to do a lot of work there.

  1. O you of a charming face, ask this beautiful Parvati,
    the daughter of the (Himalaya) Mountain or this Laksmi of
    broad eyes or this Indrani.

  2. Or, O goddess, ask them whom you trust. Salutation to
    you." She gave a blessing to the trident-holder, the god of
    gods:

  3. "O Sankara, O you handsome one in the three worlds,
    Gaurl will remain on (i.e. occupy) half of your body. O god,
    you will look graceful on account of her.

430

Padma Purana

1.34.70-82




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