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English SOL Enhanced Scope and Sequence for Grades K–5: READING Strand

English Standards of Learning

ENHANCED SCOPE and SEQUENCE

FIFTH GRADE

SAMPLE LESSON PLANS

Introduction

The sample lesson plans included in this document are expansions of the Virginia Department of Education’s Enhanced Scope and Sequence oral language lesson plans. They include TTAC suggestions for differentiation.


This resource is intended to help teachers align their classroom instruction with the content found in English Standards of Learning. The sample lessons are based on sound research and provide a variety of ways to actively involved children in their learning. The lessons serve to supplement the instructional suggestions in the Houghton Mifflin Teacher’s Edition.
While the sample lessons are exemplary, they by no means represent the scope of instruction that MCPS teachers are implementing in their classrooms. Teachers are invited to follow the lesson format in this document and write additional lessons to include in next year’s Curriculum Guide update.
To submit an additional lesson, copy a page from this word document to your hard drive. Use the format to guide you as you type over it the appropriate information for your lesson. Submit the lesson by sending it as an attachment to bwojo@mail.mcps.org. Please submit your lessons throughout the year so that the Office of Curriculum can compile them for review by groups of teachers next summer.

READING Lesson Plan  Guess the Word



Organizing Topic Word Analysis and Spelling

Related Standard(s) of Learning 5.4

Objective(s)

  • The student will apply knowledge of phonics, morphology, and grammar to spell and identify the part of speech of a selected word and consult a dictionary to confirm their thinking.



Prerequisite Understandings/Knowledge/Skills

  • Student are expected to know beginning, middle and ending sounds.

  • Student are expected to have phonological awareness.

  • Student are expected to have knowledge of word structure (root word, prefix, suffix).

  • Student are expected to know how to use a dictionary.

  • Student are expected to have knowledge of parts of speech, and syllabication.



Materials needed


  • Selected words from content text

  • Individual white boards or chalk boards for students

  • Dry erase markers or chalk

  • Paper towels to use as erasers

  • Dictionaries



Lesson procedure

1. Select focus words from content texts the students have just finished reading. Select words for review or words that teach concepts of sound-symbol relationships, affixes, inflected endings, syllabication, and/or spelling principles.

2. Think of a word and tell the students the number of letters in the word.

3. Have students draw a line for each letter “hangman” style on their white boards.

4. Give them a series of hints, one at a time: e.g., “The first letter sound is /…/.” “The word ends in the common adverb ending.” “The long A sound is made with two vowels next to each other.” “The word has a prefix that means….” “The word means….”

5. After each clue, give students a chance to guess the word. Confirm or give another clue to help.

6. Once the word is correctly identified, students should spell it individually on their boards. They also should divide it into syllables and record its part of speech at the top right of the board.

7. In groups of two to four, students share what they have written on their white boards (spelling, syllabication, part of speech), discuss differences, work toward consensus, and confirm their decision in a dictionary.

8. Circulate around the classroom to monitor and provide assistance as students work in the small groups.

9. In a large group, volunteer to spell the word, syllabicate it, and identify the part of speech. Discuss the meaning of the word, as it was used in content study.

10. Coach students to notice spelling, pronunciation, prefix/suffix/root, and syllabication features of the word.


11. The process may be repeated with a second and third word.

Specific options for differentiating this lesson



Technology

  • Replicate the hangman game in Word as a template.

  • Use alternative keyboard to develop overlays for the word practice.

  • Provide phonemic spelling software for practice.


Multisensory

  • Allow students to use manipulatives to represent phonemes/letters.

  • Incorporate the use movement to facilitate teaching beginning, middle, and ending sounds.

  • Provide opportunities for students to use word configuration strategies to spell words correctly.

  • Provide a controlled list of words that may be manipulated to constructed desired responses.

  • Encourage students to clap out the syllables in words.


Community Connections

  • Invite a person who uses a communication device to demonstrate how to make individual sounds into words.

  • Invite your school/hospital audiologist to the class to demonstrate the equipment used to facilitate communication.

  • Invite a local librarian to discuss word origins/etymology.


Small Group Learning

  • Give students an opportunity to work in pairs to check their work.

  • Have students practice the hang man game in groups of two and four.

  • In large group activity (#9), have a student volunteer write his/her word on a colored sticky note. Another student will match the colored sticky note to a chart on the wall, denoting the parts of speech.


Vocabulary
  • Have students create a word wall that includes examples of sound-symbol relationships, affixes, inflectional endings, and words that are divided into syllables.


  • Have student keep a journal of words that they have learned over the course of the lesson.

  • Ask students to clap out the syllables in words.


Student Organization of Content

  • Create binder to store student work with tabs.

  • Have students replicate the word wall in their notebook, or file folder to so they can manipulate sticky note tabs to organize parts of speech.

  • Use a shoebox to keep index cards that might be used to order words, information, spelling, and parts of speech learned.



READING Lesson Plan  Using Context Clues



Organizing Topic Word Analysis and Spelling

Related Standard(s) of Learning 5.4

Objective(s)


  • The student will apply knowledge of context clues to determine the meaning of words.




Prerequisite Understandings/Knowledge/Skills

  • Student are expected to read and comprehend grade level text.

  • Student are expected to engage in active listening.

  • Student are expected to participate in whole-group instruction.

  • Student are expected to engage in turn-taking with peers during group activity or discussion.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge of text features of nonfiction text.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge of questions in item 9.



Materials needed


  • Content or nonfiction text
  • Target passage that contains one to two vocabulary words with context clues that help clarify their meaning




Lesson procedure


  1. Review with students the text features that the content or nonfiction text uses to help them identify key concepts and vocabulary, e.g., boldface or italicized type, foot notes, etc. Have students preview the target passage of the content or nonfiction text and apply their knowledge of text features to locate a key word or words that are probably important in the selection.

  2. Have students identify the word(s) they have selected and the reason they think the word(s) will be important. (Students may not know how to pronounce a word. They may simply identify where the word is located on the page.) Write the word(s) on the board, and lead students to determine how to pronounce each word. With the students, divide the word into syllables, and apply phonetic and morphological principles in order to know how to pronounce it. As you say each word, have students practice pronouncing it in echo response.

  3. Direct student attention to the first word. Have them locate it in the text, then read to them the complete sentence in which the word appears. Have the students reread the sentence silently.

  4. Lead students to examine the context in order to determine the word’s probable meaning. Pose a broad question, such as, “What does the sentence tell us about the word?” Record what students identify as elements of the sentence that help them to determine the meaning. As students identify information, coach them to determine how the information helps them to understand the word, e.g., the information in the sentence gives details to describe, gives a direct definition, draws a comparison or contrast, or gives an example.
  5. Prompt the students: “Is this enough information that we have a good idea what the word means?” If it is, the lesson moves to step 8. If it is not, ask, “Where else might we look to get more information?” (Lead students to the next sentence to see if additional information is given, and look to the previous sentence or two to see if any help is given there.)


  6. Again, record the information that students identify as helping them to determine the meaning of the word. As students identify information, coach them to determine how the information helps them to understand the word, e.g., the information in the sentence gives details to describe, gives a direct definition, draws a comparison or contrast, or gives an example.

  7. Have the students use the information that they have identified to predict the meaning of the word.

  8. If there is a second key idea or concept that students have identified, it should be considered in the same manner as the first (items 3-8).

  9. Have students read silently the target passage containing the key word or words in order to confirm or revise their understanding of the meaning of the word.

  10. Lead a class discussion to examine if there is any more information from the text that needs to be added to the list.

  11. In pairs, one student should use the information the class has gathered to construct an oral definition while the other listens and consults the text glossary to confirm or revise the definition.

  12. If there is a second word, have the students switch roles and repeat item 11.



Specific options for differentiating this lesson



Technology

  • Provide text-to-speech software for students not reading on grade level.

  • Use tape recording of targeted passages.

  • Have students match text to picture symbols for easy comprehension.

  • Allow buddy reading of target passages.

  • Use the auto correction function in Microsoft Word to color-code the key vocabulary/target words.
  • Use a speech output device to facilitate responding in small/large groups.


  • Use alternative keyboard programmed with overlays (e.g., target vocabulary words for practice).


Multisensory

  • Provide questions in written form.

  • Model the difference between the information in sentences that give details to describe, that provide a direct definition, and that makes comparison and contrast, respectively. This may be done on a wall chart, with each one of the areas delineated as a column with examples provided. Students can refer back to wall chart throughout the year.

  • Have students use a hand-held electronic speller that talks.

  • Use index card with the target word on one side and a picture on the other side.

  • Use movement activity to practice differentiating between teacher question in item 9.


Community Connections

  • Invite a children’s author to the class to discuss the use of context clues in story development.

  • Invite a reporter to discuss how context clues are used in short story writing.

  • Submit a cross word puzzle to a local newspaper.

  • Invite middle/high school students to play an adapted version of Jeopardy.

  • Have students use skills learned during the lesson and teach younger peers.


Small Group Learning

  • Create groups of two students to practice target words and check for understanding and usage in text.

  • Create games using context clues.

  • Have students create cross word puzzles in small groups to submit to the local newspaper.

  • Submit a story to the school/county/local newspaper.


Vocabulary
  • Have students demonstrate understanding of the following vocabulary: describe, direct definition, comparing, and contrasting.


  • Have students use concept definition maps to help understand word meaning.

  • Have students utilize WordsAlive vocabulary strategies to understand word meanings.


Student Organization of Content

  • Have students use concept definition maps to help organize vocabulary words.

  • Have students use a duplicate of chart in class to categorize context information.

  • Use plastic bags to keep new vocabulary words or created items (e.g., cross word puzzles, index cards or sticky notes).

READING Lesson Plan  Character Report Cards



Organizing Topic Vocabulary and Comprehension of Fiction

Related Standard(s) of Learning 5.5

Objective(s)


  • The student will identify and justify character traits demonstrated in a selection of fiction.


Prerequisite Understandings/Knowledge/Skills

  • Students are expected to demonstrate ability to read and comprehend grade-level text.

  • Students are expected to be able to describe/explain personal attributes.

  • Students are expected to be able to make judgments about personal attributes.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate good expressive and receptive communication skills.



Materials needed


  • Narrative fiction text, story, or novel

  • Overhead projector

  • Several blank transparency copies of a Literary Report Card (See example in the Reading Strategies section on page 132.)

  • Transparency marker

  • Student handouts of Literary Report Card



Lesson procedure

1. Explain that readers come to understand characters in a story in much the same way as people form impressions of other people in real life. Discuss with students what they pay attention to when they meet someone and how they determine if the person is someone they want to know better.

2. As part of this conversation, highlight and have students explain comments about physical appearance, what the person says, how the person behaves, and what other people say about the person.

3. Ask students to make a list of characteristics that they value in another person. As students read their lists, record their characteristics on the board.

4. Explain that they are going to select several character traits and grade a character from the story they are reading on these traits.

5. Model the task by having the students select a trait and character to grade. Use the transparency of the Literary Report Card to show students where they will record the character’s name, the title of the story, and the character trait.

6. Discuss with students the grade they would give each character on the selected trait. Students must support their grade choice by giving evidence from the story that justifies the grade. Guide students back to the story to find evidence of what the character said, thought, or did and what other characters said or thought about the report card character.

7. Lead students to a consensus about the grade and record it.

8. Explain to students that comments are needed to justify the grade. Ask them to select from their earlier discussion key evidence necessary for the comments section of the report card.

9. Record the evidence to demonstrate for students the level of specificity that they should use. (For example, a statement like, “She always complains.” is not specific enough. Students must identify specific instances in the story that the character complained.)

10. Give each student an individual copy of a blank report card.

11. Students should work in pairs to select a character and identify 2-3 character traits on which to grade the character.

12. Working in pairs, students should complete the report card as modeled. If necessary, prompt students to return to the text and find specific information to use as a basis for the grade and as justification in the comment column.

13. Ask the class which character they want to discuss first, and create a report card transparency for that character.

14. Ask pairs of students take turns identifying a trait they graded, the grade, and their evidence. If another pair disagrees with the grade, have them share their grade and evidence. Collectively, the class should reach consensus. Record the grade and the evidence to justify it.

15. After each pair who did a report card on the first character has had an opportunity to share one trait, direct students to consider another character. Create a report card transparency for this new character.

16. The second, and if needed third, character report card should be completed following the same process as the first.


Specific options for differentiating this lesson



Technology

  • Have students use a Word program to highlight important information in text.

  • Provide sticky notes to highlight important information or facts students need to retain.

  • Have students use index cards to provide a quick reference to text material.

  • Have students use story maps and flow charts to identify character traits.


Multisensory

  • Model how to pull character traits from passage.

  • Use a “think aloud” about an author’s word choice and style to help students identify character traits.

  • Model how to make judgments based on information/facts given and justify the responses.


Community Connections

  • Arrange for a fieldtrip to see a play or theater production.

  • Invite a local drama theater to conduct a workshop with students to complete literary report card (see procedure #5).


Small Group Learning

  • Divide students get into groups and discuss their favorite characters and justify their responses.

  • Have students dress up as their favorite story book characters and discuss the characters, traits (from item #2).

  • Have students give quotes and ask others to “Guess that character.”


Vocabulary

  • Have students demonstrate an understanding of the following vocabulary: physical appearance, characteristics, value, trait, evidence, and consensus.

  • Use graphic organizers to organize students’ thoughts related to a character’s physical appearance, what is said, how the person behaves, and what other people say about the person.

  • Use “think-pair-share” to practice using the literary report card.



Student Organization of Content

  • Keep visual organizers related to characters discussed in class.

  • Use graph organizer to facilitate information recall and character facts.

  • Have students use and maintain character sketch journal outlining traits.



READING Lesson Plan  Identifying Story Elements



Organizing Topic Vocabulary and Comprehension of Fiction

Related Standard(s) of Learning 5.5

Objective(s)


  • The student will identify story elements in a narrative poem and use this understanding of the story to explain why the author might have used particular words and phrases to tell the story.


Prerequisite Understandings/Knowledge/Skills

  • Students are expected to understand story elements of narrative poems.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge of sequencing.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate good expressive communication skills, including ability to paraphrase events from the poem and interact within a small group.



Materials needed


  • Copies of the selected narrative poem

  • Student handouts and a transparency of a familiar story structure organizer, including setting, characters, problem, events, and ending (solution)

  • Overhead projector



Lesson procedure

1. Tell the students that you are going to read them a poem that tells a story. Ask them to use their knowledge of story structure to predict the story elements that they expect to be part of the poem. As students identify each element of story structure, list it on the board: setting, character, problem, events, ending/solution.

2. Ask students to listen to the story told in the poem as she reads it.

3. After listening, the students should talk in groups of three to collectively retell the poem. Circulate to understand the level of detail the students recall.

4. Explain that while students have done a good job remembering the story, they will be able to gather more details if they revisit the poem, looking specifically for details related to the setting, character, problem, events, and ending. To do this, each person in the group will have a specific element of the story that he or she will listen for and code on a copy of the poem.

5. Explain that to code a text is to mark it in a way that identifies specific information. Discuss with the class various ways to code the poem for each of the elements. For example, the person looking for details of setting might mark over words or phrases that are setting details with a yellow highlighter, might underline or circle the words or phrases, or might write “setting” next to a stanza that primarily gives details about the setting. The person tracing the events may not want to highlight, circle, or underline because too much of the text might have to be marked. He or she may simply want to put a 1 by the first thing that happens, a 2 by the second, and so on. As each element is discussed, record the coding idea next to that element on the board.

6. Each group of three students decides who will code which of the first three elements. Ask all students to listen to identify the problem and how the story ends; they do not have to code these elements.

7. Give students a copy of the poem and ask them to follow along and code the text as you reread the poem.

8. Explain that their groups of three will work collaboratively to complete a story structure organizer. Place a transparency of a familiar organizer on the overhead projector, and ask if students understand what they are to do. Clarify the task as needed.

9. As the students work, circulate from group to group, and coach as necessary.

10. Ask students to review the words and phrases they marked in the text and selected to record on the story structure organizer. Lead the class in a discussion of the author’s vocabulary choice, asking them to identify words or phrases that stand out, what makes them stand out, and why the author might have used that particular word or phrase. Ask how word choice enhances the setting, characterization, plot, or overall impression of the poem.


Specific options for differentiating this lesson



Technology

  • Replicate the poem in Microsoft Word and use highlighter to color-code details, which include setting, character, problem, events, and ending (see # 5).

  • Replicate the poem in a talking word processing program for multiple readings to enhance fluency.

  • Replicate the poem in picture symbol to talking word software program.

  • Replicate the poem on tape recorder for multiple readings to enhance comprehension.

  • Use graphic organizer software program to complete a story structure for # 8.


Multisensory

  • Have students use a printed-out copy of the highlighted word document to create a wall chart with story elements. The color-coded words are written on sticky notes and secured to the correct column on wall chart.

  • Have students draw pictures/illustrations on colored sticky notes and secure to wall charts.

  • Have students self-check sentence strips and word cards to practice sequencing from poem.

  • Have students practice sequencing using an overlay created for an alternate keyboard.


Community Connections

  • Invite a poet to visit with students to discuss the elements of narrative poetry.

  • Arrange a fieldtrip to the local library to check out a book of narrative poems.


Small Group Learning

  • Video tape students retelling poems in small groups.

  • Use cooperative learning strategies to assign appropriate roles to individual students.

  • Encourage student choice in retelling of poem (specific lines, phrases, use of pictures, voice output device, acting it out).

Vocabulary


  • Have students demonstrate understanding of the following vocabulary: setting, character, problem, events, ending/solution.

  • Have students develop picture-word dictionary cards for their word bank and/or word wall.

  • Have students use mapping strategy to outline setting, character, problem, events, ending/solution.


Student Organization of Content

  • Have students a graphic organizer software program to map out elements of the poem—setting, character, problem, events, ending/solution.

  • Have students a legend/coding system for sequencing of information in poems for # 5.

  • Have students an alphabetical system for organizing their personal word bank cards.



READING Lesson Plan  Biography: Causes and Consequences



Organizing Topic Vocabulary and Comprehension of Nonfiction

Related Standard(s) of Learning 5.6

Objective(s)


  • The student will identify a series of key cause-and-effect relationships that have an impact on the life of a biographical subject.


Prerequisite Understandings/Knowledge/Skills

  • Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge of cause-and-effect relationships in everyday applications.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to make reasonable predictions about information and situations.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate effective communication strategies within a small- and large-group setting, including turn-taking, listening, reflecting, responding to questions, asking questions.



Materials needed

  • Biographical texts of a historical figure

  • Chart of a cause/effect graphic organizer that uses the labels “causes/events” and “effect/consequence”

  • Markers



Lesson procedure


1. Ask students how they might learn more about specific historical figures. After students have given their ideas, introduce the term biography, link the term to the ideas that students have expressed, and clarify the meaning of biography (story of a real person’s life), biographer (person who has written the story about another person’s life) and biographical subject (person the biography is about).

2. Lead students to discuss why a person might become the subject of a biography, what kind of information the biographer might include, and how the biographer might organize information for the reader.

3. Explain that the events that happen in a person’s life may have important consequences or effects. Share an example of something that happened in your life and the important consequence. Invite students to share events and consequences from their lives.

4. Lead a preview of the biography and the portion of the text that students will read. Guide students to read the title, the front and back covers, and the table of contents; skim the headings and bold face type in the section they are about to read; and examine pictures, captions, and any other visual support.

5. As students preview the text, ask them to select information regarding key events in the biographical subject’s life to make predictions about what they will learn about the subject or to ask questions they think will be answered in the section of text they will read. During the preview, focus students on events in the person’s life and the possible effect or consequences of these events.

6. Explain to students that they are going to read the selection specifically to identify the events that caused a specific effect or consequence in the life of the biographical subject. Show students the cause/effect graphic organizer. An effect/consequence section is completed.

7. Read the effect/consequence section to the students, and ask them to read silently the assigned portion of the text, focusing their attention on key events in the person’s life that contributed to the identified effect/consequence.

8. After everyone has finished reading, students should share the events they think contributed to the identified effect. Record the information in the causes/events portion of the organizer. There may be more than one event leading to a particular consequence/effect.

9. If there is a second important pair of cause/effect relationships in the portion of the biography that students have read, lead students to complete a second portion of the cause/effect graphic organizer. Students again share the events that they think contributed to the identified effect as you record the information in the causes/events box.

10. Over the course of reading the biography, guide students to identify a series of cause/effect relationships, and model how to record the information on the graphic organizer.

11. After completing the biography, students, in either pairs or small groups, should review the series of cause/effect relationships they have recorded on the class graphic organizer. Have them use the information to construct an overarching statement that identifies an essential cause/effect relationship at the core of the life of the biographical subject.

12. Have pairs or small groups write their statements in large print on chart paper and create a border of visual representations of the subject’s life. Post their representations in the room.

Specific options for differentiating this lesson
Technology


  • Record selected text on tape recorder.

  • Videotape selected students reading the text for repeated readings.

  • Create a PowerPoint template and have students fill in text and graphics to match items in # 4.

  • Have students use graphic organizer software program to set purpose and establish cause-effect for reading to answer items in # 4.

  • Have students voice output device to share events that contribute to the identified effect.


Multisensory

  • Create a wall chart of the graphic organizer and have students manipulate the words and phrases on sticky notes or Velcro cards.

  • Have students participate in a matching game to reinforce cause-and-effect using sentence strips or illustrations.

  • Have students a talking word processing program to play a game with peer. The first student starts writing about something that happened in his/her life; the second students reads the information and provides the consequence/effect (refer to # 3).


Community Connections

  • Have students interview significant people in their lives or in the community, asking predetermined questions about important events and consequences in their lives.


Small Group Learning

  • Group students to participate in Community Connections activity. Roles in group will be assigned based on student strengths.

  • Have students create PowerPoint presentations of information learned.
  • Give students choices regarding how to share information with peers (illustrations, alternative keyboards, voice output, movement activities).



Vocabulary

  • Students need to have an understanding of the following vocabulary: biography, biographer, biographical subject, cause-and-effect, and effect/consequences.

  • Have students develop individual picture word cards for their reference throughout activity.

  • Have students color-code picture cards to denote cause and effect for a targeted subject.

  • Have students use picture cards to practice sequencing important events for targeted subject.


Student Organization of Content

  • Have students use a color-coding system to highlight the relationship between cause and effect for their historical figure and others discussed/studied.

  • Have students use an alphabetical system for organizing personal word bank cards of new vocabulary that they read in biographical text.



READING Lesson Plan  Magazine Research



Organizing Topic Vocabulary and Comprehension of Nonfiction

Related Standard(s) of Learning 5.7

Objective(s)


  • The student will construct questions about a topic in order to focus research and collect specific information to answer the questions.


Prerequisite Understandings/Knowledge/Skills

  • Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to attend to group directions and teacher modeling.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate an understanding of what, how, where, when, who types of questions.

  • Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to generate the following types of questions: what, how, where, when, who, etc.
  • Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to summarize information.


  • Students are expected to demonstrate the ability to make choices about visual information.



Materials needed


  • Collection of nonfiction magazines with covers that vividly illustrate articles

  • Two sheets of chart paper, each divided into four quadrants

  • Markers

  • Handout of student note taking page (8½" by 14"sheet of paper, divided into 8 equal-size boxes)



Lesson procedure

1. Explain to students that they are going to select and research a topic using the magazines gathered.

2. Demonstrate selecting a magazine with a cover that interests you. Conduct a Think-Aloud to show students how to survey the front cover of the magazine by looking at the picture and reading the print to identify anything written about the cover article.

3. Continue to model what the students are expected to do. Use the information gained by surveying the cover to pose questions the article might answer, and write one question per box on the chart paper. (Typical questions that might be generated for a magazine with a woodpecker on the cover are: Where do woodpeckers live? What do they eat? How far do they fly? How large are they? Do all woodpeckers look the same? Are there different kinds of woodpeckers? Who is their natural enemy?)

4. Have each student select a magazine with a cover topic of interest. Give each a note taking page.

5. Each student should survey the front cover of his or her magazine to generate and record questions that he or she thinks might be answered in the magazine article.

6. Students should then take their magazines, but not their sheets of questions, papers, or pencils, and move away from their desk to comfortable locations in the room.

7. Read for five minutes. When time is up, tell students to return to their desks but to leave their magazines in their reading locations.

8. Have students return to their desks and record in the appropriate box any information they found that will help them to answer a question. While students are working, record information to answer your questions on the chart.

9. Have students return to their magazine locations and continue reading for another five minutes. Again, they should leave their magazines behind, return to their desks, and record information that helps to answer questions. (This sequence may be repeated two or three more times.)

10. Students should survey their questions and the information they have gathered. Each should identify one or two questions that are not fully answered and to which they would still like to find the answer.

11. Explain that they are going to use an online resource to search for other articles that might answer their questions. Explain that in order to find the specific information that they want, they are going to have to identify key terms to search.

12. Using a computer projection system, demonstrate how to connect with the specific online resource that students are to use.

13. Explain that to find the specific information they are looking for they will need to identify key terms to search. Have them select a question that you have not been able to answer from their articles, and demonstrate what happens if they search using the main topic, woodpecker.

14. Using their question as a guide, suggest another more specific search, and demonstrate how to enter the key terms.

15. Students should study the questions that they will research, using the online resource. Have them circle or highlight one or two specific words that they think can serve as their key words.


  1. When students search online and find additional information to answer a question, have them record the new information in the same box as the question and the information they have already gathered from the magazine.



Specific options for differentiating this lesson



Technology

  • For # 3 use graphic organizer software program to duplicate the question boxes on chart paper.

  • Chunk the directions for the activity into a mini-schedule, using illustrations or picture-word communication software program.

  • Have students use an alternative keyboard overlay to access the Internet (uses picture symbols).

  • Have students use an electronic visual timer to stay within time requirements for activity.

  • Have students use a talking word processor with spell checker to record information.

  • Have students tape record responses.


Multisensory

  • Provide chart for students to place responses (sticky notes, picture word cards, etc.) on to generate questions.

  • Generate overlays for specific magazines to limit visually distracting information.

  • Enlarge specific magazine covers.

  • Provide a screen reader for students to access information visually.


Community Connections

  • Invite a newspaper reporter to provide guest lecture on how he/she identifies topic and gathers research to answer questions on that topic.


Small Group Learning

  • Have students participate in cooperative activity with individual roles assigned based on student strengths.
  • Pair students with a buddy who has complementary skills to conduct Internet research activities. One student conducts the research; the other records the information gathered on a portable word processing device (e.g., AlphaSmart).



Vocabulary

  • Have students develop individual picture word cards for their reference throughout activity.

  • Students color-code picture cards to denote “Wh” questions for a targeted

  • research topic.


Student Organization of Content

  • Have students use color-coding system to highlight categorized “Wh” questions for a targeted research topic.

  • Have students use an alphabetical system for organizing personal word bank cards of new vocabulary that they read in nonfiction text.



READING Test Items from the Virginia Standards of Learning Assessment

Released reading test items can be accessed at http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Assessment/releasedtests.html. Reviewing these assessment items and using them in the classroom will allow educators and students to become familiar with the type of questions being asked as well as the testing format.





Virginia Department of Education 2004




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