Schemes of work and lesson plans b3: Life on Earth

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TWENTY FIRST CENTURY SCIENCE SUITE

SCHEMES OF WORK AND LESSON PLANS

B3: Life on Earth

VERSION 1.1 JULY 2011





Introduction

OCR involves teachers in the development of new support materials to capture current teaching practices tailored to our new specifications. These support materials are designed to inspire teachers and facilitate different ideas and teaching practices. Each Scheme of Work and set of sample Lesson Plans is provided in Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ needs.

The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching.

The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself. References to the content statements for each lesson are given in the ‘Points to note’ column.



Sample Scheme of Work

GCSE 21st Century Science Biology A J243

Module B3: Life on Earth



Lesson 1: Species and adaptation
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour

Topic outline


Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define the term species.

Give examples of adaptation of species.

Understand how organisms benefit from adaptation.



Watch video BBC wildlife finder penguins.

Show a picture of an emperor penguin. Students suggest ways in which it is adapted to the Antarctic. Why does being adapted help penguins survive?



Opportunity for practical work: Huddling penguins – students take 7 test tubes arranging one in the middle and six on the outside. Stand them in a beaker and half fill them with hot water. Place a thermometer or a temperature probe in the centre tube and one in the tube on the outside. The tube on the outside should cool faster – this simulates the huddling of penguins – a behavioural adaptation

Define the term species.

Students research a particular animal and its adaptations (using website BBC wildlife finder and the BBC channel on youtube as a start point). Have a prepared list of species to assign one to each student.

Students present their work using an ICT package e.g. Publisher.



Video BBC wildlife finder penguins

Youtube BBC channel

Data loggers and temperature probes can be used in the huddling penguin experiment.


Specification points:

B3.1.1. Understand that a species is a group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring.

B3.1.2. Understand that adaptation of living organisms to their environment increases the species’ chance of survival by making it more likely that individuals will survive to reproduce.

B3.1.3. Recall, and recognise when given relevant data, examples of how different organisms are adapted to their environment, and explain how the adaptations increase the organism’s chance of surviving to successfully reproduce.



Lesson 2: Food webs
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define a food web.

Understand how organisms in a food web interact.

Explain the term interdependence.



Opportunity for practical work: If your school has the facilities you may use a pond dipping activity. Alternatively collecting leaf litter from a woods is also a good source. Students use keys (such as those available from the FSC – Field Studies Council).

Use the website Canterbury environmental centre pond explorer. Students go onto the virtual pond dip and explore the sample. Use the information provided to construct a food web.

Alternatively if ICT is not available the information on this site will allow teachers to make cards about each organism which the students can arrange into a web.



Either using a food web created by students or an example web, give students a variety of scenarios where the numbers of one part of the food chain increases or decreases in number. Students then say how this will affect other organisms in the web.

Higher: Expand the above activity to explain the term interdependence.

Opportunity for practical work: As a long term project you can make your own ecosystem column using this method from saps – website saps making an eco column


Website Canterbury environmental centre pond explorer

Website class zone food webs (to use this resource select New York state and Biology 2010 text book then click on animated biology)

Website saps making an eco column


Specification points:

B3.1.5. Understand that there is competition for resources between different species of animals or plants in the same habitat.



B3.1.6. Relate changes affecting one species in a food web to the impact on other species that are part of the same food web.

B3.1.7. Explain the interdependence of living organisms by using food webs.





Lesson 3: Extinction
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define extinction.

Give examples of reasons why extinction occurs.


Watch video BBC nature end of the cretaceous

Brainstorm with student’s reasons why animals can become extinct.

Planet wide mass extinction examples include – asteroid impact, disease, super volcanoes and irradiation of the earth by cosmic events.

Small scale extinction events include – habitat loss, loss of food, competition, over predation, alien species, environmental/climate change.

Students work in small groups to make a presentation on an endangered species and what is causing it to become endangered. Information about endangered species can be found on the iucn red list

If you have access to video cameras and video editing equipment – students can make a TV/radio news spot about an endangered species (e.g. an advertisement to raise money for endangered Siberian tigers. Free software such as windows movie maker and audacity could be used for editing)



video BBC nature end of the cretaceous

Website iucn red list



Specification points:

B3.1.8. Understand that a change in the environment may cause a species to become extinct, for example, if:



  • The environmental conditions change beyond its ability to adapt

  • A new species that is a competitor, predator or disease organism of that species is introduced

  • Another species (animal, plant or microorganism) in its food web becomes extinct.




Lesson 4: Energy transfer

Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Understand how energy transfers through food chains.

Explain how energy passes out of food chains.

Calculate percentage efficiency of energy transfers.


Use a food web from the previous lesson. Discuss where the energy in the food chain originates.

Define the term producer and review photosynthesis from key stage 3. Brainstorm the way in which living organisms use the energy from glucose made by photosynthesis.


Opportunity for mathematics: Students examine one feed chain from the web. Starting with a set quantity of energy e.g. 1,000,000 joules of sunlight students use data provided to show how much energy passes (in terms of percentage) to next step in food chain. E.g.


  • Not all sunlight that falls on an area of grass hits the grass so isn’t used for photosynthesis.

  • Photosynthesis isn’t 100% efficient.

  • Animals that eat plants (primary consumers) do not gain all of the energy from the plants some is lost from excretion and some from respiration/movement.

  • The next levels of animals (secondary consumers) have even less energy.

Discuss how the results from this activity show why the number of levels in a food chain is limited.

Outline the role of decomposers (Higherand detritivores) in feeding on dead organic material and returning nutrients to the soil.

Students can use an excel spreadsheet (a template could be provided by the teacher) to model the energy transfer in a food chain.

Specification points:

B3.1.9. Understand that nearly all organisms are ultimately dependent on energy from the sun.

B3.1.10. Recall that plants absorb a small percentage of the sun’s energy for the process of photosynthesis.

B3.1.11. Recall that this absorbed energy is stored in the chemicals which make up the plants’ cells.

B3.1.12. Understand that energy is transferred between organisms in an ecosystem:


  • When organisms are eaten


  • When dead organisms and waste materials are fed on by decay organisms (decomposers and detritivores).

B3.1.13. Explain how energy passes out of a food chain at each stage via heat, waste products and uneaten parts, limiting the length of food chains.

B3.1.14. Calculate from given data the percentage efficiency of energy transfer at different stages of a food chain.





Lesson 5: Nutrient cycles
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define the roles of carbon and nitrogen in living organisms.

Understand how carbon moves through the carbon cycle.

Understand how nitrogen moves through the nitrogen cycle.


Follow the story of one carbon atom from the atmosphere as carbon dioxide through the food web and then the return to atmosphere through respiration and decomposition.

Discuss how humans can also affect carbon e.g. through high levels of combustion

Students either draw up or use cards to plot out the carbon cycle.

Follow the story of one nitrogen atom (higher terms in bold) from the atmosphere>nitrogen compounds through fixation>organic molecules in the food chain>soil by decay and excretion>atmosphere by denitrification.


Higher: Should beware of the key terms atmospheric nitrogen>nitrates through fixation and nitrates>atmospheric nitrogen through denitrification.

Outline the role of microorganisms in fixation and denitrification



Opportunity for practical work: Students can examine a busy lizzy or other legumes plant to look at root nodes containing bacteria.

Website window2universe carbon cycle game

Website class zone nitrogen cycle


Specification points:

B3.1.15. Understand how carbon is recycled through the environment to include the processes of combustion, respiration, photosynthesis and decomposition.

B3.1.16. Understand the importance of the role of microorganisms in the carbon cycle.

B3.1.17. Understand how nitrogen is also recycled through the environment in the processes of:



  • Nitrogen fixation to form nitrogen compounds including nitrates

  • Conversion of nitrogen compounds to protein in plants and animals

  • Transfer of nitrogen compounds through food chains

  • Excretion, death and decay of plants and animals resulting in release of nitrates into the soil

  • Uptake of nitrates by plants

  • Denitrification

  • Foundation tier candidates are not expected to recall details of conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates, or nitrates to atmospheric nitrogen.

B3.1.18. Understand the importance of the role of microorganisms in the nitrogen cycle, including decomposition, nitrogen fixation and denitrification.




Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note










B3.1.19. Interpret simple diagrams of the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle

Foundation tier candidates are not expected to recall nitrogen fixation or denitrification.



Lesson 6: Climate Change (Phenology) and Environmental Change (Eutrofication)
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define the term climate change.

Understand how environmental change can be measured using non-living indicators.

Understand how environmental change can be measured using living indicators.



Discuss the methods that scientists use to determine that spring has arrived and how organisms react to the change in season– this is called phenology.

Examples of events used in phenology include – first sighting of; snow drops, frog spawn, daffodils, butterflies etc. All of these organisms have life cycles which are temperature dependent.

Link to GCSE Physics section on climate change and the green house effect. Discuss how changes in carbon dioxide is linked to climate change.


Opportunity for mathematics: Students use the Woodland Trust’s – natures calendar website to research phenology. Teachers can use this website to find data and results of previous years research and set data handing activities based on this.

If you have a pond or are near local woodlands etc. You may organise your school to take part in the phenology survey. You can register at the natures calendar website for a free starter pack. You can also set up a weather station (especially good with data logging equipment).

Students could research for homework how environmental change by the over use of fertilisers can be monitored by nitrates in the rivers and the effect on living organisms (e.g. algae/phytoplankton blooms).

Opportunity for practical work: In some schools it may be possible to do some fieldwork in the school grounds looking at the location of lichens and how they are affected by pollution (e.g. proximity to roads).


Website woodland trust – natures calendar

Pdf spring 2010 phenology survey



Specification points:

B3.1.20. Understand how environmental change can be measured using non-living indicators, including nitrate levels, temperature and carbon dioxide levels.



B3.1.21. Understand how climate and environmental change can be measured using living indicators, including phytoplankton, lichens and aquatic river organisms such as mayfly larvae.

B3.1.22. Interpret data obtained from living and non-living indicators to investigate environmental change.



Lesson 7: Life on Earth

Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

State when life began on earth.

Understand how life on earth evolved from simple organisms.


Ask students guess at how old the earth is (4500 million years).

Life is thought to have started about 3500 million years ago – what form did it take?

If the history of life on earth was divided into 24hours have students predict at what time events occurred?

Students use the website BBC wildlife finder – history of life on earth to research and make a time line of some important events in the development of life on Earth.

A good question to end with is: “What would the Earth be like if the asteroid didn’t hit the Earth and the dinosaurs hadn’t been made extinct?” – Discuss how the asteroid is the key to the success of mammals and ultimately man!

Homework task: Could there be life on Saturn’s moon - Titan?


Website BBC wildlife finder – history of life on earth

Powerpoint evolution of life on earth (from the Royal Kingston School)


Specification points:

B3.2.1 Recall that life on earth began about 3500 million years ago.

B3.2.2 Understand that life on earth (including species that are now extinct) evolved from very simple living things.




Lesson 8: Evidence for change
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define the term variation.

Understand that variation is caused by mutation of DNA.

Understand how mutations are inherited through sex cells.



Watch video BBC news the head lice terminators

Discuss how this is evidence that a species (head lice) has changed.

Recap from B1 you and your genes the ideas of genes, alleles and the one gene one protein theory. How do changes in genes lead to new alleles? Through mutation. (knowledge of DNA is not required until a later unit).

Students develop a flowchart to show how the use of insecticide shampoos and treatments has lead to the evolution of “super” lice!

Link back to B2 keeping healthy and the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Students research the story of the use of DDT to try to eradicate the mosquito to eliminate malaria – which sometimes leads to DDT resistant mosquitoes.


Video BBC news the head lice terminators

Care should be taken with this topic as the issue of head lice may be one students are affected by.

Specification points:

B3.2.3. Understand that there is variation between individuals of the same species and that some of this variation is genetic so can be passed on to offspring.

B3.2.4. Understand that genetic variation is the result of changes that occur in genes (mutations).

B3.2.5. Understand that mutated genes in sex cells can be passed on to offspring and may occasionally produce new characteristics.




Lesson 9: Evolution of species by natural selection
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Describe the step of natural selection.

Understand how a species could have evolved through natural selection.

Explain how evolution lead to the formation of new species.



Watch video BBC wild life finder tree of life

Introduce the story of Charles Darwin and his voyage on the Beagle (alternatively this could be a reading/research activity).

Show animation class zone principles of natural selection

Opportunity for practical work: Students take a piece of A4 black card and A4 white card. Using a hole punch students take a piece of the same colour paper and cut out 20 round black circles and 20 white. Scatter the white circles on the white paper. The students are timed to see how long it takes them to pick up the circles using some forceps. They then repeat this using white on black, black on white or black on black. The students are simulating being birds looking for insects to see the effect of camouflage.


Opportunity for mathematics: Use a spreadsheet to collect the class’s results and take averages. Use this to demonstrate the story of the peppered moth and how it evolved in the 19th Century to become black to blend in with the soot covered trees – but then evolved back to mainly white when the air was cleaner in the 20th Century.

Use some pre made sort cards to allow students to show the step in evolution for the pepper moth (variation > selection - by the birds > survival and reproduction > inheritance of the beneficial characteristic).



Video BBC wild life finder tree of life

Animation class zone principles of natural selection (to use this resource select New York state and Biology 2010 text book then click on animated biology).

Animation class zone natural selection (to use this resource select New York state and Biology 2010 text book then click on animated biology) (this animation is a bit more advanced an touches on keywords found at A-Level).

Animation tech apps peppered moth (click on the birds eye view to play the peppered moth game).

Specification points:

B3.2.6. Understand the process of natural selection in terms of the effects of genetic variation and competition on survival and reproduction, leading to an increase in the number of individuals displaying beneficial characteristics in later generations.

B3.2,8. Interpret data on changes in a species in terms of natural selection.

B3.2,9. Understand how the combined effect of mutations, environmental changes, natural selection and isolation can produce new species in the process of evolution.


IaS (3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4).



Lesson 10: Evidence for natural selection
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Describe the similarities and differences between natural selection and selective breeding.

Understand the evidence for natural selection.

Understand how Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was archived through observation and how it differs from Lamarck’s theory.



Outline the sources of evidence for evolution by natural selection (from the specification - fossil record, and DNA. Extension: Selective breeding, observing changes in species now).

Show a presentation of different breeds of dog (or use website PDS dogs that changed the world).

Students guess what purpose they were originally bred for.

Describe how in selective breeding it is man not nature that selects which animals are going to reproduce based on their characteristics.

Students draw up a table showing the similarities and differences of selective breeding and natural selection.

Describe the concept of the fossil record (show animation teachers domain how a dinosaur became a fossil) – if possible have the students examine some fossils. How does the fossil record show changes in species over time?

Linking back to previous lessons – observations of species today shows variation and change is occurring now (e.g. antibiotic resistance, head lice evolution)


Extension: Discuss similarities in the genome/DNA of closely related species e.g. humans and chimpanzees.

Students research how Jean Lamarck’s and Charles Darwin’s ideas differ. (use website necsi lamarck vs. Darwin as a starting point).


Website PBS Dogs that changed the world.

Animation teachers domain How a dinosaur became a fossil.

Website necsi lamarck vs. Darwin.

Specification points:

B3.2,7. Describe the similarities and differences between natural selection and selective breeding.

B3.2,10. Understand that evidence for evolution is provided by the fossil record and from analysis of similarities and differences in the DNA of organisms.

B3.2,11. Understand that Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was the result of many observations and creative thought and why it is a better scientific explanation than Lamarck’s (e.g. Fits with advances in understanding of genetics, no evidence or mechanism for inheritance of acquired characteristics).



IaS (4.3, 4.4).


Lesson 11: Classification
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities


Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Understand that organism can be classified into groups.

Understand that there are different levels of organisation in these groups.

Understand how classification helps organise living organism and provide evidence for evolution.



Print out a series of pictures of different organisms from different kingdoms (plant, animal, bacteria, fungi, protoctists – students are not expected to remember these kingdoms). You could also give a few key facts about these organisms which would help the students sort them. Students should try to sort the cards into the five kingdoms based in this information.

Opportunity for practical work: This can be an alternative to the above paper based activity. In groups students explore an area e.g. the school field for different species of living organism. If possible arm each group with a digital camera and allow them to take pictures to use in sorting organisms into kingdoms.

Discuss with the students how they decided where the organisms should go (using physical features). Discuss that organisms can also be sorted into groups by analysing their DNA.

Using the some of the cards from the above activity have students try to for instance sort the animal’s into phylum (e.g. mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish and birds) and then towards order/family (e.g. cats, primates) (students are not required to know the details or names of any taxa).

Discuss how this classification can also be used to help organised the variety of life on earth and draw conclusion about common ancestors and evolutionary links.

Website Britannica Whittaker, Robert H.: Five-kingdom classification of life (this is a good picture showing the five kingdoms)

Website window2universe classification


Specification points:

B3.3.1 Understand that organisms are classified into groups according to similarities and differences in characteristics including:



  • Physical features (eg flowers in flowering plants and the skeleton in vertebrates)

  • DNA

  • Candidates will not be expected to give examples of characteristics of particular taxonomic groups.

B3.3.2 Understand that organisms are classified at different levels, and that these levels can be arranged in an order progressing from large groups containing many organisms with a small number of characteristics in common (e.g. Kingdom) to smaller groups containing fewer organisms with more characteristics in common (e.g. species).

Candidates will not be expected to recall the names of taxa other than kingdom and species

B3.3.3 understand that the classification of living and fossil organisms can help to:



  • Make sense of the enormous diversity of organisms on earth

  • Show the evolutionary relationships between organisms.





Lesson 12: Biodiversity
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour


Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define the term biodiversity.

Understand the importance of biodiversity.

Understand the effect of humans of biodiversity.



Show video BBC wildlife finder – blue bird of paradise – why does the blue bird of paradise act in this way? Link this back to evolution

Show video BBC wildlife finder – supreme bird of paradise as another example of a bird of paradise.

Recap on classification and the differences in organism within an ecosystem – use this to introduce the term biodiversity (the number and range of different living organisms in an area). Discuss how biodiversity is highest in places like tropical rain forest due to the abundance of natural resources e.g. food.

Discuss that biodiversity also refers to variation within a species. Why is variation within a species beneficial? (variation promotes evolution – and even eventually speciation – the formation on new species).

Extension: As an opportunity for mathematics and extension task for high achievers you could introduce Simpsons biodiversity index with some simple calculations.

Discuss how biodiversity is threatened by human activity (e.g. farming, house building etc) – this links into the next activity.




Video BBC wildlife finder – blue bird of paradise

Video BBC wildlife finder – supreme bird of paradise

Website natural history museums exploring biodiversity


Specification points:

B3.3.4. Understand that biodiversity refers to the variety of life on earth including:



  • The number of different species
  • The range of different types of organisms, eg plants, animals and microorganisms


  • The genetic variation within species

B3.3.5. Understand why biodiversity is important for the future development of food crops and medicines.

B3.3.6. Understand that the rate of extinction of species is increasing and why this is likely to be due to human activity.






Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Students make a short presentation about: what is biodiversity, benefits of biodiversity and the risks to biodiversity using the website natural history museums exploring biodiversity and look at the “what is biodiversity?” Links:

  • Exploring UK biodiversity

  • Benefits of biodiversity

  • Threats to biodiversity

  • Saving biodiversity.

If you have a new housing development in your area it may be interesting to find the local planning documents from the council which usually include plans for wildlife relocation for protected species (slow worms, greater crested newts, bats etc.)









Lesson 13: Sustainability
Suggested Teaching Time: 1 Hour

Topic outline


Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Learning objectives:

Define the term sustainability.

Give examples of how sustainability can be achieved in modern life.

Understand how using biodiversity leads to sustainability.



Collect a variety of food packaging materials including card board and plastic items.

Discuss with the students the sources on the raw materials these items are made from of use of energy in their production and transport and the slow decomposition in oxygen deficient landfill sites.

What issue is there with the use of oil to make plastics? Will we still be able to make plastics from oil in the future? (link to GCSE Chemistry).

Define the term sustainability.

Split the class into small groups and given them different research tasks on investigating sustainability. Examples include:


  • Large scale mono-crop agriculture e.g. Wheat/corn and how it effects biodiversity (maintenance of hedge rows etc)

  • Sustainable fishing e.g. cod fishing in the north sea

  • Sustainable forestry and wood production

  • Sustainable land use in house building (greenfield and brown field sites)

  • Sustainable agriculture e.g. slash and burn farming, cocoa farming (fair trade)

  • Sustainable energy production e.g. biofuels v’s fossil fuels

  • Sustainable packaging of goods

  • Sustainable waste management and recycling
  • Get students to feed back research and explore the idea that maintaining biodiversity to ensure the conservation of different species is one of the keys to sustainability e.g. eating many different fish not just cod.


Website sustainability

Website directgov – environment and greener living

Website eco-schools



Specification points:

B3.3.7. Understand that maintaining biodiversity to ensure the conservation of different species is one of the keys to sustainability.

B3.3.8. Understand that sustainability means meeting the needs of people today without damaging the earth for future generations.

B3.3.9. Understand that large-scale monoculture crop production is not sustainable because it does not maintain biodiversity.

B3.3.10. Describe and explain how sustainability can be improved, for example in the use of packaging materials, by considering the materials used, energy used and pollution created.

B3.3.11. Understand why it is preferable to decrease the use of some materials, including packaging materials, even when they are biodegradable, because of:



  • Use of energy in their production and transport

  • Slow decomposition in oxygen deficient landfill sites.

IaS (6.1, 6.2).



Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note




Many of the ideas of sustainability can carry forward into who school projects and cross curriculum initiatives e.g. eco schools status, schools use of lighting (automatic lights), recycling etc.

Opportunity for practical work: Students can work to calculate their carbon footprint using the website directgov – environment and greener living








Sample Lesson Plan

GCSE 21st Century Science Biology A J243

Module B3: Life on Earth

Species and adaption

OCR recognises that the teaching of this qualification above will vary greatly from school to school and from teacher to teacher. With that in mind this lesson plan is offered as a possible approach but will be subject to modifications by the individual teacher.

Lesson length is assumed to be one hour.

Learning Objectives for the Lesson

Objective 1

Define the term species

Objective 2

Give examples of adaptation of species

Objective 3

Understand how organisms benefit from adaptation


Recap of Previous Experience and Prior Knowledge

At Key Stage 3 students will have learned about simple classification of animals and definition of species.

Content

Time

Content

10 minutes

Watch Video BBC Wild Life Finder Penguins

Show a picture of an Emperor penguin. Students suggest ways in which it is adapted to the Antarctic. Why does being adapted help penguins survive?



20 minutes

Opportunity for Practical Work: Huddling penguins – Students take 7 test tube arranging one in the middle and six on the outside. Stand them in a beaker and half fill them with hot water. Place a thermometer or a temperature probe in the centre tube and one in the tube on the outside. The tube on the outside should cool faster – this simulates the huddling of penguins – a behavioural adaptation.

20 minutes

Define the term Species (or ask students to research the meaning).

Students research a particular animal and its adaptations (using Website BBC Wildlife Finder as a start point). Have a prepared list of species to assign one to each student. Students present their work using an ICT package e.g. Publisher.



Consolidation

Time

Content

10 minutes

Review some of the examples of species that the students have research. Discuss how these animals relate to each other in the ecosystem (laying groundwork for next lesson on food webs).


Homework

Finish a more detail presentation on the adaptations of a particular species and how that makes it more likely to survive.




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