Phone: 50 4253
I. Course Overview: Ever since Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed Iran an 'Islamic Republic' in 1979 political Islam has seemed an unstoppable force. Though often accused of being ‘anti-democratic’ Islamists of various stripes have excelled in electoral politics. In 2002 the Justice and Development Party swept to power in Turkey and played a key role in reinforcing the ‘civil’ nature of the Turkish state. In 2006 Islamist Hamas routed secular Fatah in democratic elections in Palestine. In Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Yemen and elsewhere, Islamists thrived as opposition forces under authoritarian rule and realised extensive cultural gains. In early 2011 it was a largely secular wave of mass protest that toppled dictatorships in Tunisia and Egypt, but Islamism appears to be consolidating itself in each of these states. So what is political Islam? Is it compatible with democracy? What are its intellectual, social and historical roots? How do Islamists behave when in power and why? These are some of the central questions to be addressed in this course.
II. Learning outcomes 1. Detailed knowledge of the main trends of political Islam in the Middle East
2. Ability to relate the ideological aspects of political Islam to political context
3. Critical understanding of different scholarly approaches and perspectives on political Islam
4. Ability to discuss and debate political Islam with reference to broad academic literature on the topic.
III. Teaching arrangements The course will be via one weekly lecture and a weekly tutorial, with tutorials beginning in Week 2. Students are expected to attend all lectures and tutorials, and are expected to complete their coursework on time. It is expected that students will read all the required readings each week. All students are expected to read in preparation for each tutorial so that they can participate fully in class discussion. Please use the tutorial discussion questions as a guide for reading and prepare some thoughts on those, and further questions based on your reading, prior to each class. Lecture: Thursdays, 12:10 - 13:00, Appleton Tower, Lecture Theatre 1
Tutorials: Fridays 10.00-.11.00 (2.3, 22 Buccleuch Place); 11.00-12.00 (2.3, 22 Buccleuch Place); 12.00-1.00 (3.3, 22 Buccleuch Place); 2.00-3.00 (3.3, 22 Buccleuch Place); 2.00-3.00 (22 Buccleuch Place).
IV. Assessment The course will be assessed as follows:
One 2000 word essay (40 %)
One final exam (60%)
Do you agree that political inclusion leads to the moderation of Islamist groups? Illustrate your answer with reference to at least two cases.
Is Islamist rule a threat to civil and political freedoms?
The best way to understand political Islam is to study Islamist ideology. Do you agree?
Are women victims of, or a driving force behind, the ‘Islamic revival’ in the Middle East?
Islamist governments represent a serious threat to Western interests in the Middle East. Do you agree?
What explains the new prominence of apparently ‘apolitical’ Salafis in contemporary Egyptian politics?
When Tunisians and Egyptians overthrew their leaders in early 2011, some Iranian politicians saw their own ‘Islamic Revolution’ as the model. Were they right?
To what extent has the ‘Arab Spring’ damaged or enhanced the prospects of Al Qaeda?
V. Assessment Criteria The following are the criteria through which the essay will be marked. However, it is important to note that the overall mark is a result of a holistic assessment of the assignment as a whole.
Does the assignment address the question set, and with sufficient focus?
Does the assignment show a grasp of the relevant concepts and knowledge?
Does the assignment demonstrate a logical and effective pattern of argument?
Does the assignment support arguments with relevant, accurate and effective forms of evidence?
Does the assignment demonstrate reflexivity and critical thinking in relation to arguments and evidence?
Is the assignment adequately presented in terms of: correct referencing and quoting; spelling, grammar and style; layout and visual presentation.
Please see the ‘Honours Handbook’ for further information on submission of coursework; ‘Late Penalty Waivers’; plagiarism; learning disabilities, special circumstances; common marking descriptors, re-marking procedures and appeals”. VI: Course Outline
Week 1, 17 January: Introduction to Political Islam Part One: Trends in Political Islam
Week 2, 23 January: The Muslim Brotherhood
Week 3, 31 January: Salafism Week 4, 7 February: Violent Islamism Week 5, 14 February: The Iranian revolution and its impact 21 February: No lecture or classes (Innovative Learning Week) Part Two: Themes in Political Islam Week 6, 28 February: Islamism in opposition Week 7, 7 March: Islamism in Power Week 8, 14 March: Islamism and society: class, gender and culture Week 9, 21 March: Geopolitics and International Relations Week 10, 28 March: Revision session
This course is accompanied by a Learn page, which students can access through their personal university accounts. Students can access Learn for a number of useful resources related to this course, including weekly course notes, links to online readings and essay questions.
There is a huge array of information and opinion on political Islam available online and students are encouraged to make use of it. But web sources should be used critically. This means being able to recognise bias, polemic and distortion. Journalistic sources are often of very high quality and can be used as sources for empirical data and analysis. But in seminar discussions and writings students should move beyond the journalistic register and draw upon scholarly sources via journals and books.
Week 1 Introduction to Political Islam This lecture will introduce political Islam in the Middle East. It will outline the main currents within political Islam and introduce some important analytic issues that will underpin the course.
No tutorial Essential readings
Denoeux, Guilain. ‘The Forgotten Swamp: Navigating Political Islam’. Middle East Policy 9, no. 2 (June 1, 2002): 56–81. Also in Volpi, Critical Reader.
Sadowski, Yahya. ‘POLITICAL ISLAM: Asking the Wrong Questions?’ Annual Review of Political Science 9, no. 1 (2006): 215–240.
Hamid, Shadi. ‘The Rise of the Islamists’. Foreign Affairs, June 1, 2011. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67696/shadi-hamid/the-rise-of-the-islamists.
Hroub, Khaled. ‘Introduction’. In Political Islam: Context Versus Ideology, edited by Khalid Hroub. SOAS Middle East Issues. London: Saqi in association with London Middle East Institute, SOAS, 2010.
Mandaville, Peter. Global Political Islam. Routledge, 2007. (Introduction)
Ayubi, Nazih N. M. Political Islam: religion and politics in the Arab world. Routledge, 1991.
Burgat, Francois, ‘From national struggle to the disillusionments of “recolonization”: the triple temporality of Islamism.’ in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
Burgat, François. Face to Face with Political Islam. I.B.Tauris, 2003.
Davis, E. ‘The Concept of Revival and the Study of Islam and Politics’. In The Islamic Impulse, edited by B.F. Stowasser. London: Croom Helm in association with Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, 1987.
Part1: Trends within Political Islam Week 2 The Muslim Brotherhood
What were the original goals of the Muslim Brotherhood and how have they changed over time? How important has been context in determining the ideology and behaviour of the Muslim Brotherhood? What have been some of the tensions within the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood?
Essential readings Brownlee, Jason. “The Muslim Brothers: Egypt’s Most Influential Pressure Group,” History Compass 8, no. 5 (May 1, 2010): 419-430.
Kepel, Gilles. The Prophet and Pharaoh: Muslim Extremism in Contemporary Egypt. London: Al Saqi Books, 1985. (Chapters 1 and 2)
Teitelbaum, Joshua. “The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria, 1945-1958: Founding, Social Origins, Ideology.” Middle East Journal 65, no. 2 (Spring2011): 213-233.
Zollner, Barbara. “Prison Talk: The Muslim Brotherhood’s Internal Struggle During Gamal Abdel Nasser’s Persecution, 1954 to 1971.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 39, no. 3 (2007): 411-433.
Al-Awadi, Hesham. In pursuit of legitimacy: the Muslim Brothers and Mubarak, 1982-2000. I.B.Tauris, 2004.
Baker, Raymond William. Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists. Harvard University Press, 2006.
Johnston, David L. “Hassan al-Hudaybi and the Muslim Brotherhood: Can Islamic Fundamentalism Eschew the Islamic State?” Comparative Islamic Studies 3, no. 1 (June 2007): 39-56.
Lia, Brynjar. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: the Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942. Reading: Garnet, 1998.
Mitchell, Richard P. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Soage, Ana Belén. “Hasan al-Banna or the Politicisation of Islam.” Totalitarian Movements & Political Religions 9, no. 1 (June 2008): 21-42.
Week 3 Salafism What are the defining characteristics of Salafist thought? How does Salafism compare with the Muslim Brotherhood? What explains Salafist political engagement in the wake of the ‘Arab Spring?’
Haykal, Bernard. ‘On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action’. In Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press, 2009.
Lacroix, Stéphane. Sheikhs and Politicians: Inside the New Egyptian Salafism. Brookings Doha Center Publications. Brookings Doha Center, June 11, 2012. http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2012/06/07-egyptian-salafism-lacroix.
Meijer, Roel. ‘Salafism: Doctrine, Diversity and Practice’. In Political Islam: Context Versus Ideology, edited by Khalid Hroub. SOAS Middle East Issues. London: Saqi in association with London Middle East Institute, SOAS, 2010.
Various. The New Salafi Politics. POMEPS Briefing. Arab Uprisings. POMEPS, FP, October 16, 2012. (Please read at least 3 short articles).
Delong-Bas, Natana J. Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. I.B.Tauris, 2007.
Gauvain, Richard. ‘Salafism in Modern Egypt: Panacea or Pest?’ Political Theology 11, no. 6 (December 2010): 802–825.
Meijer, Roel. Global Salafism: Islam’s New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press, 2009.
Wagemakers, Joas. A Quietist Jihadi. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, 2012.
_________. ‘Framing the “Threat to Islam”: Al-wala’ wa Al-bara’ in Salafi Discourse’. Arab Studies Quarterly (Fall 2008).
Week 4 Violent Islamism
Why have Islamists turned to violence? What explains the shift in target from the ‘near’ to the ‘far’ enemy? How important has local context versus jihadist ideology been for Al Qaeda and/or other Islamist entities?
Essential Reading Gerges, Fawaz A. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2009. Chapter 3.
Hafez, Mohammed M. Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World. New edition. Lynne Rienner Publishers Inc, 2004. (Chapters 1 and 2)
Jones, Clive. ‘The Tribes That Bind: Yemen and the Paradox of Political Violence’. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 34, no. 12 (2011): 902–916. doi:10.1080/1057610X.2011.621117.
Wictorowicz, Quintan, “A genealogy of radical Islam” in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
Meijer, Roel “The ‘cycle of contention’ and the limits of terrorism in Saudi Arabia” in Aarts, Paul, and Gerd Nonneman eds. Saudi Arabia in the Balance: Political Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs. New York University Press, 2007.
Roy, Olivier. Globalised Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2004.
Sageman, Marc. Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century (Philadlephia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008).
Soriano, Manuel R. Torres. “The Evolution of the Discourse of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb: Themes, Countries and Individuals,” Mediterranean Politics 16 (July 2011): 279-298.
Stein, Ewan. “What does the Gama‘a Islamiyya want now?” Middle East Report 254 (Spring 2010).
_________. “An ‘uncivil’ partnership: Egypt’s Jama’a Islamiyya and the state after the jihad.” Third World Quarterly 33, no. 5 (June 2011).
Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda’s Road to 9/11. Penguin, 2007.
Zayyat, Montasser al-. The Road to al-Qaeda: the Story of Bin Laden’s Right-Hand Man. Pluto Press, 2004.
Week 5 The Iranian revolution and its impact What were the social and ideological underpinnings of the Iranian revolution? What influence did the Iranian Revolution have on the regional rise of political Islam from the 1980s?
Essential readings Abdelnasser, Walid M. ‘Islamic Organizations in Egypt and the Iranian Revolution of 1979: The Experience of the First...’ Arab Studies Quarterly 19, no. 2 (Spring97 1997): 25.
Alagha, Joseph. Hizbullah’s Documents: From the 1985 Manifesto to the 2009 Manifesto. Amsterdam University Press, 2010. (Please read the 1985 and 2009 ‘manifestos’)
Hunter, Shireen T. ‘Iran and the Spread of Revolutionary Islam’. Third World Quarterly 10, no. 2 (April 1, 1988): 730–749.
‘Khomeini: “We Shall Confront the World with Our Ideology”’. MERIP Reports no. 88 (June 1, 1980): 22-25. (Available here: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3011306
Abrahamian, Ervand. Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic. University of California Press, 1993.
___________. Iran between two revolutions. Princeton University Press, 1982.
Bayat, Asef. ‘Revolution Without Movement, Movement Without Revolution: Comparing Islamic Activism in Iran and Egypt’. Comparative Studies in Society and History 40, no. 1 (January 1, 1998): 136–169.
Esposito, John L ed. The Iranian Revolution: Its Global Impact. International University Press, 1990.
Halliday, Fred. Iran: Dictatorship and Development. Penguin Books Ltd, 1979.
Keddie, Nikki R., and Yann Richard. Modern Iran: roots and results of revolution. Yale University Press, 2006.
Moaddel, Mansoor. “The Social Bases and Discursive Context of the Rise of Islamic Fundamentalism: The Cases of Iran and Syria.” Sociological Inquiry 66, no. 3 (June 1996): 330-355.
Moghadam, Dr Valentine M. Modernizing Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2003. (Chapter 6)
Mottahedeh, Roy. The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran. Oneworld, 2000.
Zubaida, Sami. Islam, the People and the State: Political Ideas and Movements in the Middle East. I.B.Tauris, 1993.
Week Commencing 18 February 2012 No Lecture or Classes: Innovative Learning Week Part 2: Themes in Political Islam Week 6 Islamists in opposition Does political inclusion lead to moderation, and if so why? Why have Islamists competed in elections in authoritarian states? How important is ideology versus other factors in determining how Islamists behave when in power?
Albrecht, Holger. ‘How Can Opposition Support Authoritarianism? Lessons from Egypt’. Democratization 12, no. 3 (June 2005): 378–397.
El-Ghobashy, Mona. “The Metamorphosis of the Egyptian Muslim Brothers.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 37, no. 3 (2005): 373-395.
Langohr, Vickie. ‘Of Islamists and Ballot Boxes: Rethinking the Relationship Between Islamisms and Electoral Politics’. International Journal of Middle East Studies 33, no. 04 (2001): 591–610. doi:10.1017/S0020743801004068.
Schwedler, Jillian. ‘Can Islamists Become Moderates? Rethinking the Inclusion-Moderation Hypothesis’. World Politics 63, no. 02 (2011): 347–376.
Willis, Michael. ‘Morocco’s Islamists and the Legislative Elections of 2002: The Strange Case of the Party That Did Not Want to Win’. Mediterranean Politics 9, no. 1 (2004): 53–81.
Baker, Raymond William. Islam Without Fear: Egypt and the New Islamists. Harvard University Press, 2006.
Cavatorta, Francesco. ‘Civil Society, Islamism and Democratisation: The Case of Morocco’. The Journal of Modern African Studies 44, no. 02 (2006): 203–222.
Fadl, Khaled Abou El. Islam and the Challenge of Democracy. Edited by Joshua Cohen and Deborah Chasman. Princeton University Press, 2004.
Heristchi, Claire. “The Islamist Discourse of the FIS and the Democratic Experiment in Algeria.” Democratization 11, no. 4 (2004): 111-132.
Moaddel, Mansoor. “Religion and the State: The Singularity of the Jordanian Religious Experience.” International Journal of Politics, Culture & Society 15, no. 4 (June 2002): 527.
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky, “The Path to Moderation: Strategy and learning in the formation of Egypt’s Wasat party” in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
Bayat, Asef ‘ The politics of presence’ in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
Brown, Nathan J., and Amr Hamzawy. Between Religion and Politics. Carnegie Endowment, 2010.
___________. “Unrequited Moderation: Credible Commitments and State Repression in Egypt.” Studies in Comparative International Development 45, no. 4 (December 2010): 468-489.
Entelis, John P. “Islam, Democracy, and the State: The Reemergence of Authoritarian Politics in Algeria.” In Islamism and Secularism in North Africa, edited by John Ruedy. Palgrave Macmillan, 1996.
Ghanem, As’ad, and Mohanad Mustafa. “Strategies of electoral participation by Islamic movements: the Muslim Brotherhood and parliamentary elections in Egypt and Jordan, November 2010.” Contemporary Politics 17, no. 4 (December 2011): 393-409.
Roald, Anne Sofie. “From theocracy to democracy? Towards secularisation and individualisation in the policy of the Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan.” Journal of Arabic & Islamic Studies 8 (January 2008): 84-107.
Rutherford, Bruce K. Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World. Princeton University Press, 2008.
Sadiki, Larbi. “Reframing resistance and democracy: narratives from Hamas and Hizbullah.” Democratization 17, no. 2 (April 2010): 350-376.
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. ‘The Path to Moderation: Strategy and Learning in the Formation of Egypt’s Wasat Party’. Comparative Politics 36, no. 2 (January 1, 2004): 205–228.
Wiktorowicz, Quintan. The management of Islamic activism: Salafis, the Muslim Brotherhood, and state power in Jordan. SUNY Press, 2001.
Islamism in Power
How have Islamists behaved when in power? Does the manner in which Islamist groups ascend to power influence the character of subsequent governments? What are the implications of Islamist political ascent for Middle Eastern societies?
Abrahamian, Ervand. ‘Why the Islamic Republic Has Survived’. Middle East Report 39, no. 250 (Spring 2009). http://www.merip.org/mer/mer250/why-islamic-republic-has-survived.
Asad, Talal. ‘Fear and the Ruptured State: Reflections on Egypt after Mubarak’. Social Research 79, no. 2 (Summer 2012): 271–298.
Gallab, Abdullahi A. ‘The Religious State in the Sudan: A Preliminary Characterization of the Debacle’. New Political Science 23, no. 1 (March 2001): 11–24.
Milton-Edwards, Beverley. “The Ascendance of Political Islam: Hamas and consolidation in the Gaza Strip.” Third World Quarterly 29, no. 8 (December 2008): 1585-1599.
Turunc, Hasan. ‘Islamicist or Democratic? The AKP’s Search for Identity in Turkish Politics’. Journal of Contemporary European Studies 15, no. 1 (April 2007): 79–91. doi:10.1080/14782800701273417.
Abu Munshar, Maher Y. ‘In the Shadow of the “Arab Spring”: The Fate of non-Muslims Under Islamist Rule.’ Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 23, no. 4 (20121001): 487.
El-Affendi, Abdelwahab. Turabi’s Revolution: Islam and Power in Sudan. Grey Seal Islamic Studies. London: Grey Seal, 1991.
Chehab, Zaki. Inside Hamas: The Untold Story of the Militant Islamic Movement. Nation Books, 2007.
Gallab, Abdullahi A. The First Islamic Republic: Development and Disintegration of Islamism in the Sudan. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008.
Gunning, Jeroen. Hamas in Politics: Democracy, Religion, Violence. Columbia University Press, 2010.
Hale, William. “Christian Democracy and the AKP: Parallels and Contrasts,” Turkish Studies 6, no. 2 (Summer2005): 293-310.
Jeffrey Haynes, “Politics, identity and religious nationalism in Turkey: from Ataturk to the AKP,” Australian Journal of International Affairs 64, no. 3 (June 2010): 312-327.
Mecham, R. Quinn. “From the ashes of virtue, a promise of light: the transformation of political Islam in Turkey.” Third World Quarterly 25, no. 2 (March 2004): 339-358.
Milton-Edwards, Beverley, and Stephen Farrell. Hamas: The Islamic Resistance Movement. 1st ed. Polity, 2010.
Osman, Tarek. "Egypt's Islamists: asset and flaw", openDemocracy, 5 July 2011
Week 8 Islamism and society: class, gender and culture
What is the nature of Islamist politics at the societal level? How do social factors relate to Islamist ideology and mobilisation strategies? What does ‘Islamic revival’ mean for women in the Middle East?
Bayat, Asef. Making Islam democratic: social movements and the post-Islamist turn. Stanford University Press, 2007. (Chapter 5)
Gumuscu, Sebnem. “Class, Status, and Party: The Changing Face of Political Islam in Turkey and Egypt.” Comparative Political Studies 43, no. 7 (July 2010): 835-861.
Ismail, Salwa. Rethinking Islamist Politics: Culture, the State and Islamism. I.B.Tauris, 2006.
Mahmood, Saba. Politics of piety: the Islamic revival and the feminist subject. Princeton University Press, 2005. Chapter 2.
Deeb, Lara. An enchanted modern: gender and public piety in Shi’i Lebanon. Princeton University Press, 2006.
Eickelman, Dale F. and James P. Piscatori. Muslim politics. Princeton University Press, 2004. (Chapter 4)
Munson, Ziad. “Islamic Mobilisation: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.” Sociological Quarterly 42, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 487.
Eickelman, Dale F. and James P. Piscatori. Muslim politics. Princeton University Press, 2004.
Gilsenan, Michael. Recognizing Islam: Religion and Society in the Modern Arab World. 1st ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.
Gole, Nilufer. “Islam in public: new visibilities and new imaginaries” in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
Haenni, Patrick. L’ordre des caïds, conjurer la dissidence urbaine au Caire. Cairo: KARTHALA (CEDEJ), 2005.
Ismail, Salwa. Political life in Cairo’s new quarters: encountering the everyday state. U of Minnesota Press, 2006.
Meneley, Anne. “Fashions and fundamentalisms in fin de siècle Yemen: Chador Barbie and Islamic Socks.” Cultural Anthropology 22, no. 2 (May 1, 2007): 214-243.
Rougier, Bernard. Everyday Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam among Palestinians in Lebanon. Harvard University Press, 2008.
Roy, Sara. Hamas and Civil Society in Gaza: Engaging the Islamist Social Sector. Princeton University Press, 2011.
Tammam, Husam and Patrick Haenni, "Egypt: Islam in the insurrection", Religioscope, 22 February 2011. (http://religion.info/english/articles/article_519.shtml)
Wickham, Carrie Rosefsky. Mobilizing Islam: Religion, Activism, and Political Change in Egypt. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Week 9 Geopolitics and International Relations
How has political Islam related to regional and global politics? Is Islamism a revolt against the West or a partner with imperialism, or both, or neither?
Nahas, Maridi, ‘State-Systems and Revolutionary Challenge: Nasser, Khomeini, and the Middle East’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 17:4 (November 1985), pp. 507–27.
Amin, Samir. ‘An Arab Springtime?’ Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine 63, no. 5 (October 2011): 8–28.
Fuller, Graham E. ‘A Global Convergence against Globalization?’ New Perspectives Quarterly 26, no. 3 (2009): 20–31.
Mamdani, Mahmood, “Good Muslim, bad Muslim: A political perspective on culture and terrorism’ in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
Qassem, Sheikh Naim. ‘Hezbollah: Islamist Resistance Comes of Age’. New Perspectives Quarterly 26, no. 3 (2009): 8–11.
El Husseini, Rola. ‘Hezbollah and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran and Syria’. Third World Quarterly 31, no. 5 (July 2010): 803–815.
Kamrava, Mehran. ‘The Arab Spring and the Saudi-Led Counterrevolution’. Orbis 56, no. 1 (2012): 96–104.
Nasr, Vali. The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam Will Shape the Future. W. W. Norton & Co., 2006.
Piscatori, James. “Religion and Realpolitik: Islamic responses to the Gulf War” in Volpi, Frederic. Political Islam: A Critical Reader. 1st ed. Routledge, 2010.
__________, Islam in a World of Nation-States (Cambridge University Press, 1986).
Reza Pankhurst, “Muslim contestations over religion and the state in the Middle East,” Political Theology 11, no. 6 (December 2010): 826-845.
Pinto, Maria do Céu. Political Islam and the United States: a study of U.S. policy towards Islamist movements in the Middle East. Ithaca Press, 1999.
Qassem, Naim. Hizbullah: the story from within. Saqi, 2009.
Shakman Hurd, Elizabeth The politics of secularism in international relations (Princeton University Press, 2007).
Visser, Reidar. ‘Taming the Hegemonic Power: SCIRI and the Evolution of US Policy in Iraq’. International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies 2, no. 1 (January 2008): 31–51.
Yamao, Dai. ‘Iraqi Islamist Parties in International Politics: The Impact of Historical and International Politics on Political Conflict in Post-war Iraq’. International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies 6, no. 1 (January 2012): 27–52.
Volpi, Frédéric. Political Islam Observed: Disciplinary Perspectives. Columbia University Press, 2010. Chapter 3.
Willis, John. “Debating the Caliphate: Islam and Nation in the Work of Rashid Rida and Abul Kalam Azad,” The International History Review 32 (December 2010): 711-732.