Science unit plan year 13 (ncea level 3 biology) 9 lessons & activities migrations



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Te Hiringa i te Mahara




SCIENCE UNIT PLAN

YEAR 13

(NCEA LEVEL 3 BIOLOGY)

9 LESSONS & ACTIVITIES

MIGRATIONS

Plan for Unit of Work – Year 13 Biology – MIGRATIONS

Model:

ALL

Kaupapa Māori:

Teacher knowledge:

Moderate

Low

Essential Learning Area:

Science

Tāne

Curriculum – Subject

Science




Strand:

Living World

Tāne; Ranginui

Process:

All

All

Level:

8





Title:

Migrations

Maunutanga

Achievement Objective(s):

Students will:

  • understand the relationship between organisms and their environment.




 

  • explore the evolutionary processes that have resulted in the diversity of life on Earth and appreciate the place and impact of humans within these processes.







  • use accepted science knowledge and vocabulary when evaluating accounts of the natural world and consider the wider implications of the methods of communication and/or representation employed




 

  • use relevant information to develop a coherent understanding of socio-scientific issues that concern them and to identify possible responses at both personal and societal levels.




Key Competencies:

All




Perspective:

Migration, navigation, and human diversity





Setting:

Global; Aotearoa, local marae.

Global; Aotearoa.

Lessons:

9




Activities:

1. Whakapapa

Whakawhenua

 

2. Migration Patterns & Navigation

Tāhū kōrero

 

3. Migration & navigation – the words & examples

Reo Māori

 

4. Cooperative research

Rangahau

 

5. Cooperative research

Rangahau




6. Human Migration or Dispersal?

Tāhū kōrero



7. Polynesian navigation


Te Hao




8. Polynesian navigation

Te Hao




9. Polynesian navigation -

Te Hao

Māori Practice:

Kohinga 2 - Māori practice checklist

Wānanga, kauhau, whāinga tapuwae, mihi, whaikōrero

Reo Māori:

Kohinga 3 - Reo Māori checklist

Single words, sentences

Resources:

- Kohinga 1


HM Ngata: English-Māori Dictionary









http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/NgatiPorou/1/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/NgatiPorou/1/ENZ-Resources/Standard/7/en#breadcrumbtop

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/FirstPeoplesInMāoriTradition/en





http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/TuranganuiAKiwaTribes/1/en








http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/PacificMigrations/en http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/CanoeNavigation/1/en







http://folksong.org.nz/paikea/







Nga Iwi o te Motu, M. King, Reed, 1997







The Māori As He Was, E. Best, 1952







Polynesian Voyagers: the first Pacific navigators in The Seafarers – The Pacific Navigators, OE Adams, Time-Life Books, Amsterdam, 1982.






Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually) – pages 173-183 in 2007 edition.











http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/HumanEvolution.shtml#Trendsinhumanevolution







http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/faq/Encarta/diversity.htm






UNIT TITLE: Migrations
YEAR LEVEL: Year 13 (NCEA Level 3 Biology)

CURRICULUM DETAILS:

KEY COMPETENCIES: All

STRAND: Living World (Life, ecology, and evolution) Level 8

ACHIEVEMENT OBJECTIVES: Students will:



  • understand the relationship between organisms and their environment.

  • Explore the evolutionary processes that have resulted in the diversity of life on Earth and appreciate the place and impact of humans within these processes.

STRAND: Nature of Science (participating and contributing)

ACHIEVEMENT OBJECTIVES: Students will:



  • use relevant information to develop a coherent understanding of socio-scientific issues that concern them and to identify possible responses at both personal and societal levels.


RELATIONSHIP TO NCEA ASSESSMENT:

This unit may be used as part of the teaching programme that supports preparation of students for assessment against:


  • Achievement Standard 90716 v2 Describe animal behaviour and plant responses in relation to environmental factors (4 credits);


  • Unit Standard 8933 v3 Relate aspects of animal behaviour to environmental factors (3 credits);

  • Achievement Standard 90719 v2 Describe trends in human evolution (3 credits).

SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES:

The students should be able to:



  • explain what is meant by migration, distinguishing clearly between a true migration and a dispersal;

  • discuss migratory and dispersal behaviour in named examples of animals, explaining the adaptive value in each case;

  • identify the broad environmental cues important for migratory and dispersal behaviours, discussing how and why they might be different;

  • explain what is meant by navigation and discuss its purpose;

  • describe navigation methods used by a named animal in different conditions;

  • identify and discuss evidence of, and navigation methods used in human dispersal and migrations in the South Pacific, specifically pre-European.



EXPECTED PRIOR KNOWLEDGE:

Level 7 Biology – ecology

Level 8 Biology – molecular genetics, human evolution

RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS:


  • Students require a copy of Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually

  • Access to internet sites listed as well as search engines.

  • Choice Box (Lesson 3)

REFERENCE MATERIAL:

HM Ngata: English-Māori Dictionary

The Reed Dictionary of Modern Māori, PM Ryan, Reed, 1995

Nga Iwi o te Motu, M. King, Reed, 1997

The Penguin History of New Zealand, M King, Penguin, 2003.


http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/NgatiPorou/1/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/NgatiPorou/1/ENZ-Resources/Standard/7/en#breadcrumbtop

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/FirstPeoplesInMāoriTradition/en

http://folksong.org.nz/paikea/

The Māori As He Was, E. Best, 1952

The Seafarers: The Pacific Navigators, OE Allen, Time-Life, Amsterdam, 1980.

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/TuranganuiAKiwaTribes/1/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/PacificMigrations/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/CanoeNavigation/1/en

Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually) – pages 173-183, 358-359 in 2007 edition.



http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/HumanEvolution.shtml#Trendsinhumanevolution

http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/faq/Encarta/diversity.htm

LESSON PLAN 1

TIME: 60 minutes

KAUPAPA MĀORI: Whakawhenua

TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Depending on links within the community, this part of the unit could be a library or internet research assignment, or could involve conference with kaumātua or others.

  • The ancestors and tribal links could be adapted for the local iwi or knowledge.

  • Set up computer with speakers to play ‘Paikea’.

  • Internet access or library facilities required.

  • The lesson plan could be extended as the knowledge and confidence of the teacher, and students allow. For example, learning and/or performance of the action song ‘Paikea’; students’ own whakapapa.


  • Presentation could be in any form that the students feel most comfortable.

STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Use the Activity sheet to guide you for researching an aspect of Māori whakapapa. You may wish to extend this to encompass your own.

  • Work in groups to complete research and make presentation to the class.

  • Be prepared to listen well and ask thoughtful questions.

  • Work in small groups to complete the tasks on the Activity sheet in the time available.

ACTIVITY

"Ko Paikea te tipuna taniwha tangata."

The story of Paikea exemplifies the voyaging nature of the ancestors of the Māori.


The song ‘Paikea’ is known as the Ngāti Porou anthem and tells the story of Paikea’s journey on the back of a whale, and of his love for the beautiful Huturangi. Listen to this version which was recorded at the 1964 Gisborne annual Māori competitions.

In groups of 3, research the whakapapa (genealogical links) of:



  • Māui

  • Paikea

  • Porourangi

  • Ngāti Porou

  • Ngāi Tahu

  • Ngāti Kahungunu

  • Te Whānau-ā-Apanui

Try to trace descent of these iwi back to the occupants of one of the great immigrant canoes which travelled here from the mythical homeland of Hawaiki:

Aotea Arawa Tainui Kurahaupō Takitimu Horouta Tokomaru Matātua

You may like to use some of the following resources and the links within them, but there are many others. Your teacher will give you guidance on this.


http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/NgatiPorou/1/en http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/NgatiPorou/1/ENZ-Resources/Standard/7/en#breadcrumbtop.

Your group may choose a method of presentation to the class.





LESSON PLAN 2

TIME: 60 minutes

KAUPAPA MĀORI: Tāhū kōrero

TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Students require a copy of Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually) – page 173 in 2007 edition, provide the detail of the four pattern types of migration. This may otherwise be presented as a formal lecture.

  • Activity 2 requires either:

    • Access to internet for individual students: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/activities/02/popup/article.html, or

    • Printed copy of the internet article: “Secrets of Animal Navigation” (excerpts from full article), or

    • Printed copy of the full article from the June 1991 issue of National Geographic magazine - “Secrets of Animal Navigation”.

STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Use Activity 1 sheet to inform you about migration patterns. The summary of an investigation: Orientation versus navigation in juvenile and adult starlings, provides experimental evidence. You will become familiar with more experimental evidence for methods of navigation in the next lesson.

  • Use your copy of Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually) – page 173 in 2007 edition, to provide more detail of the different types of migration.


  • Activity 2 sheet provides you with the internet link to a summary of an article from National Geographic.

  • Use this information to take notes and discuss with another student.

ACTIVITY 1

Migration Patterns

The ability of an animal’s nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors is linked closely to its behaviour.

One of the most complex types of behaviour is that of movement over relatively long distances in response to environmental change. This is MIGRATION.
The biological or adaptive advantage of migratory behaviour is that it allows individuals to take advantage of a more favourable site for their resource requirements, e.g. feeding, breeding, overwintering.
These advantages of migration must outweigh the energy costs and the risks.
Migration is generally initiated by changes in day length and appears to be under genetic control.
Migrating animals use one or more of these techniques to find their way:


  • Piloting - movement from one familiar landmark to another

- used mostly for short-distance movements

  • Orientation - detection of compass directions

- travel in a particular straight-line path or until destination is

reached


  • Navigation - determination of present location relative to other locations

- also requires detection of compass direction (orientation)

Navigation requires a complex mental picture of your surroundings – a map sense.

The investigation sheet ‘Orientation versus navigation in juvenile and adult starlings’

demonstrates the distinction between orientation and navigation.



INVESTIGATE the different patterns of migration by reading page 173 in 2007 edition of Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually).and completing the questions.

Orientation versus navigation in juvenile and adult starlings











About 11,000 starlings were captured in the Netherlands on their migration from their breeding grounds in northeastern Europe to their wintering grounds in Great Britain, Ireland, and northern France.

After being transported due south to Switzerland (red arrow) and released, juvenile starlings, which had never made the journey before, continued to fly west and southwest (blue arrows), which brought them to Spain.

Adults, all of whom had made the trip at least once before, flew northwest (green arrow), an atypical direction but one that took them to their usual wintering grounds.

Members of both age groups were able to detect direction, but only the adults showed true navigation because they had developed a ‘map sense’ and could determine where their original goal was relative to the site to which they were transported.

ACTIVITY 2

METHODS OF NAVIGATION

Read the excerpts from the article “Secrets of Animal Navigation” from the June 1991 issue of National Geographic magazine: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/activities/02/popup/article.html.

Take notes on the scientific research being conducted and the evidence that has been found to indicate how these animals find their way over migration routes.


Discuss with a partner, the techniques scientists believe animals use to navigate.





LESSON PLAN 3

TIME: 60 minutes

KAUPAPA MĀORI: Reo Māori

TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Activity 1 requires:

    • English-Māori/Māori-English dictionaries;

    • Biology dictionaries (if possible but not essential).

  • Activity 2 requires:

    • Group sizes limited to 3;

    • Access to internet or other information sources;

    • Choice cards for student selection from Choice Box – organise number of choices to ensure one animal for each type of migration is covered by the class (do not include Polynesian migrations as these are the topic for Lessons 6. 7 and 8):

Type of migration

Example

Some information sources

Remigration

Pacific salmon

http://www.oneworldjourneys.com/salmon/high/main_window.html - select Saga of the Salmon from navigation bar on this page

Remigration

Eel


http://www.mtbruce.org.nz/eels_more.htm

http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjmfr/1979/2.pdf

Remigration

Monarch butterfly

http://www.learner.org/jnorth/tm/monarch/indexCurrent.html

http://butterflywebsite.com/Articles/uminn/monarchs.html

Return

Kuaka (godwit)

http://www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/BirdsOfSeaAndShore/BirdMigration/1/ENZ-Resources/Standard/1/en

Return

Koura (crayfish)

http://www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/SeaLife/CrabsCrayfishAndOtherCrustaceans/3/en

DVD: Tale of the Crayfish (to order, http://www.hippo.co.nz/1835,0,0.mel



Return

Titi (mutton bird-Shearwater sp)

http://www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/HarvestingTheSea/TitiMuttonbirding/1/en


Return

Humpback whale

http://www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/SeaLife/Whales/4/en


Nomadic

Inuit




Dispersal

Muskrat



STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS:


  • Use Activity 1 sheet, the instructions from your teacher and your own level of expertise in te reo to guide you in completing the VOCAB SQUARES.

  • Add any relevant words to the WORD LIST that you have come across for this topic. This activity will help you in the correct use and meanings of the terms.

  • Activity 2 sheet provides you with guidelines for a cooperative activity to become an expert on one animal that migrates.

  • Your teacher will organise the selection of the animal for each group and may provide you with some information sources to use. Make sure that you extend your research beyond these.

  • Each group’s information will be used to compare and contrast the migration with the movement of humans over long distances in the cultural evolution of Homo sapiens.


ACTIVITY 1

NAVIGATING THROUGH THE WORDS

I tino mātau ngā kaiwharau o te Moana Nui ā Kiwa kite whakatere.

The Pacific voyagers were highly skilled in navigation.


Kāore I hiahiatia he kapehu e ngā kaumoana Māori o neher a.

The Māori navigator of old did not need a compass.

Use the diagram below to create VOCAB SQUARES for the words listed (and any others related to the topic that you have come across).

Your teacher will guide you in this and provide dictionaries and resources as required.

Example:


WORD

Te Reo Māori: kapehu

Te Reo Pākehā: compass

DEFINITION

A device that allows orientation to a specific position.

EXAMPLE

Animals that travel at night seem to use the stars as a compass, in particular the position of the North or South Celestial Pole, which is the point about which all the stars appear to rotate as the Earth spins.



DIAGRAM TO HELP REMEMBER




WORD LIST

  • migration

  • sun compass

  • landmark

  • celestial compass

  • magnetic compass

  • orientation



ACTIVITY 2
Migration Patterns Cooperative Research

Establish your cooperative research group and select an animal from the Choice Box.


Use the template below as a check list for the information that will be required as a minimum. How you put the information together is a group decision.
Each group’s information will be used to compare and contrast with movement of humans over long distances. Your teacher will tell you when this research must be completed.

MIGRATION PATTERNS COOPERATIVE RESEARCH TEMPLATE
Tick box when

information

collected

Migration pattern type 
Animal showing this type of migration pattern 
Photo of animal 

Where do they feed? 

Where do they breed? 
Distance travelled 
Travel from 
Travel to 
Stop-over places 
Biological advantage of migration for this animal 
Navigational aids used 
Why these aids would be necessary 
Map of migratory route 
Bibliography 

LESSON PLAN 4 (& 5)

TIME: 60 minutes – depending on students, an extra lesson time may be required. (Homework time may also be required)

KAUPAPA MĀORI: Rangahau

TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS:


  • Provide resources to support cooperative group research from Lesson 3.

STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Carry out the research task that you planned with your group in the previous lesson.

  • Your teacher will tell you the deadline for completion of this work.

LESSON PLAN 6

TIME: 60 minutes

KAUPAPA MĀORI: Tāhū kōrero

TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Students require a copy of Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually) – pages 358-359 in 2007 edition. This may otherwise be presented as a formal lecture.

  • Access to internet for individual students: http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/faq/Encarta/diversity.htm or print copy from the document (file: TheoriesModernHumanOriginsDiversity.doc)

  • Access to internet for individual students: http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/HumanEvolution.shtml#Trendsinhumanevolution
  • Provide the environment for group and class brainstorm of the questions:


Was the movement of genus Homo migration or dispersal?

What are your reasons and evidence for your answer?

STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Use the resources listed and provided to clarify understanding of the theories and evidence for the movement of genus Homo.

  • Use your learning from the previous lessons in this unit to put forward your opinion of whether this was migration or dispersal. Be sure to justify your opinion by providing evidence.

ACTIVITY

HUMAN MOVEMENTS – theories and evidence

The Multi-Regional Hypothesis argues that our earliest hominid ancestors radiated out from Africa and Homo sapiens evolved from several different groups of Homo erectus in several places throughout the world. The main proponent of the multi regional hypothesis is Milford Wolpoff. This is one of two main theories of human evolution; the other is known as the African Replacement theory.

In contrast, the Out of Africa or African Replacement Hypothesis argues that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa, who then dispersed into the wider world displacing earlier forms such as Neanderthal. Major proponents of this theory are led by Chris Stringer.
The Out-of-Africa theory was bolstered in the early 1990s by research on mitochondrial DNA studies by Allan Wilson and Rebecca Cann which suggest that all humans ultimately descended from one female: the Mitochondrial Eve.

Use the following resources to ensure that you are able to link this with your previous Level 7 & 8 Biology learning in molecular genetics and human evolution.


  • Biozone International Yr 13 Biology Student Resource & Activity Manual (new edition annually) – pages 358 & 359 in 2007 edition.


  • Theories on Modern Human Origins And Diversity http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/faq/Encarta/diversity.htm (your teacher may give you a printed copy of this).

  • http://sci.waikato.ac.nz/evolution/HumanEvolution.shtml#Trendsinhumanevolution – scroll down to Mitochondrial DNA and read through to, and including mtDNA and the history of Polynesian migrations.

Brainstorm this question in your group and in the class as a whole:

WAS THE MOVEMENT OF GENUS Homo MIGRATION OR DISPERSAL?

WHAT ARE YOUR REASONS AND EVIDENCE FOR YOUR ANSWER?

LESSON PLAN 7, 8 & 9



TIME: 60 minutes each

KAUPAPA MĀORI: Te Hao

TEACHER INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Provide resources to support cooperative group research, ie.e. internet access, reference books etc.

  • Organise as a cooperative jigsaw activity (a form of wānanga):

    • Explain the process – each student is a member of two groups:

      1. an ‘expert group’ in which they acquire expertise on a particular aspect of the topic

      2. a ‘non-expert group’ which will be ‘taught’ by its constituent ‘experts’

  • Divide students into 5 equal-size groups: these are the ‘expert groups’. Each group will research a different aspect of the topic to become experts on that aspect.

  • Aspects to be researched (approximately 1 lesson to complete):

      1. Polynesian migrants – where did they come from? When? Why? What evidence is there for this?

      2. Waka construction and structure

      3. What and who was on board?
      4. Navigation methods. How do we know they didn’t get here by chance?


      5. Details of the Great Fleet and its destination(s)

  • Expert groups decide how their members will present their findings to the non-expert group they are part of, e.g. haka/waiata; whaikōrero; whakairo; kauhau. These presentations are prepared (approximately 1 lesson to complete).

  • Give each member of the expert group a number (tahi, rua, toru, whā …. ), all ‘tahi’ form a non-expert group, all ‘rua’ another, all ‘toru’ another, and so on.

  • Each member of a non-expert group makes their presentation to the other group members (approximately 1 lesson to complete).

STUDENT INSTRUCTIONS:

  • Follow the directions of your teacher to complete your part in this research activity.

  • Your teacher will tell you the deadline for completion of this work.

ACTIVITY

POLYNESIAN MIGRATIONS & NAVIGATION



TASK 1

Each group of students will research ONE aspect of this topic. Your teacher will give you the detail from:



      1. Polynesian migrants – where did they come from? When? Why? What evidence is there for this?

      2. Waka construction and structure

      3. What and who was on board? Special roles.

      4. Navigation methods. How do we know they didn’t get here by chance?

      5. Details of the Great Fleet and its destination(s)

Approximately one lesson period will be allowed for this.

TASK 2

When your research is complete, decide on a form of presentation that each member of the group will be able to use in their next group. You might like to consider: haka/waiata; whaikōrero; whakairo; kauhau. Each member to prepare and practise their presentation – approximately one lesson period will be allowed for this.


TASK 3

Each member of the group will be given a number (tahi, rua, toru, whā …. ).

All ‘tahi’ from the groups form a new group; all ‘rua’ form another, all ‘toru’ another, and so on.

Each member of a new group makes their presentation to the other group members, in the order:



  1. Polynesian migrants – where did they come from? When? Why? What evidence is there for this?

  2. Waka construction and structure

  3. What and who was on board? Special roles.

  4. Navigation methods. How do we know they didn’t get here by chance?

  5. Details of the Great Fleet and its destination(s)

Approximately one lesson period will be allowed for this.

Resources (do not be limited to these)

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/PacificMigrations/1/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/CanoeNavigation/1/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/FirstPeoplesInMāoriTradition/en

http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MāoriNewZealanders/TuranganuiAKiwaTribes/1/en

Chapter 1 in Nga Iwi o te Motu, M. King, Reed, 1997

Chapter 2 in The Māori As He Was, E. Best, 1952

Polynesian Voyagers: the first Pacific navigators (pages 98-105 in The Seafarers – The Pacific Navigators, OE Adams, Time-Life Books, Amsterdam, 1982.








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