Second Year practical examination



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PRAYAG SANGEET SAMITI: PROSPECTUS for KATHAK Dance

(Second Year)


PRACTICAL EXAMINATION:

1) Four difficult Tatkars with Hastak, 2 Thaats, one Salami, one Aamad, 5 difficult Toras, 1 Chakkardar Tora, 2 easy Gat-bhav, and 2 good Tihais in Teental.

2) 2 Tatkars, 1 Thaat, 1 Salami, 1 Aamad, 5 simple Toras, and 2 Tihais in Jhaptal.

3) Folk dances in Dadra and Kaharwa Tals.

4) Practice of clap-marked vocal demonstration of the Thekas in Sooltal and Ektal in basic, double and quadruple speeds.

5) Clap-marked vocal demonstration of Tatkar and Toras in the basic, double, and quadruple speeds.



THEORY EXAMINATION:

1) Definitions: Nritya, Natya, Nritta, Tandava, Lasya, Anga, Pratyanga, Parhant, Gat-bhav, Mudra and Chakkardar Tora.

2) Basic knowledge of Dhwani and Nada.

3) Basic knowledge of the two prevalent music notation systems of North - Indian Music, namely, Bhatkhande and Vishnu Digambar systems.

4) Knowledge of recording Tatkar, Taal Thekas, and Toras in Bhatkhande or Digambar style of Tal notation. . .

5) Full familiarity with Ektal and Sooltal. .

6) Brief history of Kathak

7) Brief biography of Maharaj Bindadin and Kalka Prasad.



1. Definitions:

A. NATYA: The theatrical or dramatic representation (Abhinaya) in dance is called "Natya". There are four kinds of Abhinaya.



  • Angika Abhinaya: In Angika Abhinaya the meaning or an idea is conveyed through bodily gestures.

  • Vachika Abhinaya: When the meaning is conveyed through words.
  • Aharya Abhinaya: Through costumes and appearance of actors.


  • Sattwika Abhinaya: This is the representation of eight psychic conditions arising from the vital principle itself. These eight conditions are: Motionlessness, perspiration, horrification, change in voice, change of color, trembling, tears, and fainting.

B. NRITYA: The dance, which suggests flavour (Rasa) and mood (Bhava), is called Nritya. Nritya is an important aspect of classical Indian dance and it implies the rendering of the meaning of a song or story through suggestive facial expressions, codified gestures of the hands, and symbolic postures of the body.

C. NRITTA: Nritta is meant to convey a sense of pure joy of movement and rhythm. In Nritta, a mood is conveyed through technical aspects of dance.

D. TANDAVA: Having being first performed by Tandu, an attendant of Shiva, the dance, is called Tandava. The aggressive and masculine aspects of dancing are called Tandava. The heroic sentiment (Veer Rasa) is prominent in this type of dancing. It is said that when Lord Shiva, destroyed the demon race, he danced the Tandava Nritya.

E. LASYA: The delicate and feminine aspects in dancing are called Lasya. Lasya was first performed by Shiva's counterpart "Parvati". The erotic sentiment (Shringar Rasa) is prominent in Lasya.

F. ANGA: The six major limbs of body, such as, head, hands, chest, torso, waist and feet. Many include neck among these.

G. PRATYANGA: The parts of body that connect the major limbs, such as, shoulder blades, arms, back, belly, thighs, and knees.



  1. PARHANT: The metrical recitation of the dance syllables or bols before executing pure dance number in Kathak. In Parhant, the clapping is maintained to indicate the beats of the taal.

I. GAT-BHAVA: Gat-bhava is a part of Gat. In gat-bhava emotions are expressed without any accompaniment of song or words. In Gat-bhava any action or theme is interpreted through mime. .

J. MUDRA: The word Mudra means a definite position of a definite part of body.

There are two types of Mudras - Bhava Mudra and Anukaran Mudra.

In Bhava Mudra different emotional and psychic reactions are portrayed through different parts of the face. In Anukaran Mudra the dancer shows any object through different parts of body. In dance there are 24 Hast Mudras (Hand gestures).

K. CHAKKARDAAR TORA: When a Tora or a Toda is performed three times; it is called a Chakkardar Tora.

2. Basic Knowledge of Dhwani and Nada:

DHWANI: Sound. The sensations received by our ears are called sound.

NADA: The musical sound. Frequencies of Nada are regular. There are three qualities of Nada: Nada ki Tarta (pitch), Nada ki Tivrata (intensity), and Nada ka Kaal (duration).

3. Basic knowledge of the two prevalent music notation systems of North Indian Music:

The system of musical notation in India is called "Swar-lipi". There are two prevalent


music notation systems in north Indian classical music: Bhatkhande Paddhati and Vishnu Digambar Paddhati.

BHATKHANDE PADPHATI: Bhatkhande Paddhati does not specify a script, therefore, it can be written in other scripts too. Hindi (Devnagri) is the most common script for this system. Bhatkhande system is a model of elegance and simplicity.

Sam is designated with a sign "X"


Khali is designated with a sign "0".
The various Talis of a Tal are designated with, their appropriate number (e.g. "2" for the second clap and three for the third clap etc.).
Vibhag ( | ) is just a vertical line.
A rest or a space is indicated with a dash (__).
Complex beats (more than two or two beats) are indicated by a crescent beneath them.

VISHNU DIGAMBAR PADDHATI: The Digambar system began at the turn of the
20th century. This system is very precise, but difficult. A few examples of Digambar

system:

Sam: 9

Khali: +


Tali: 2, 3, 8
One Beat: _
Two Beats: S
Half Beat: O
¼ Beat: horizontal crescent
1/8 Beat: two horizontal crescents separated by a space

1/16 Beat: three horizontal crescents separated by a space



4. Recording of Toras and Tatkar in Bhatkande Tal System

a) Recording of tatkaar in first speed:

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2

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16

Ta

s

Thai

s

Thai

s

Ta

Ta

Aa

s

Thai

s

Thai

s


Ta

ta

X

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

b) Recording of tatkaar in second speed:

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

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12

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16

Ta s

thai

thai

tata

Aa s

thai

thai

tata

Ta s


thai

thai

tata

Aa s

thai

thai

tata

X

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

c) Recording of Tora (Tukda) in Teentaal

1

2

3

4

5

6

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8

9

10

11

12

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14

15

16

x

 

 

 


0

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

ta

thai

ta

thai

tata

thai

aa

thai

aa

thai

tata

thai

thai

_

ta

thai

_

ta

thai

_

tat

tat

ta

tat

tat

ta

tat

tat

ta

_

thai

_

ta

thai

_


ta

thai

_

tat

tat

ta

tat

tat

ta

tat

tat

ta

_

thai

_

ta

thai

_

ta

thai

_

tat

tat

ta

tat

tat

ta

tat

tat

ta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tukda 2 in Teen Taal


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2

3

4

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8

9

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16

diga diga

diga diga

thai s

ta _

thai ta

thai _

_ thai

ta ka

tho _

diga diga

diga diga

thai s

ta s

thai ta

thai _

_ thai

x

 

 

 

2


 

 

 

0

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

ta ka

tho _

tig dha

ta tig

dha ta

diga diga

tig dha

ta tig

dha ta

tho _

tig dha

ta tig

dha ta

diga diga

tig dha

ta tig

x

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

dha ta

diga diga

ta thai


ta _

diga diga

aa thai

ta _

diga diga

ta thai

ta _

aa thai

ta _

ta thai

ta _

aa thai

ta _

x

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

diga diga

dhin

dhin

dha

dha

dhin

dhin

dha

dha

tin

tin

ta

ta

dhin


dhin

dha

x

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

3

 

 

 




  1. Recording of Theka in Teen Taal

TEENTAAL

Tal Teental has 16 Maatras (beats), 4 Vibhags (divisions), 3 Taalis (claps) and 1 Khali. Teental is the most common Taal in Indian music and dance and is played mostly with the Classical music.



1

2

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9

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13

14

15

16


Dha

dhin

dhin

Dha

Dha

dhin

dhin

Dha

Dha

tin

tin

Ta

Ta

dhin

dhin

Dha

X










2










0










3










5. Full Familiarity of Ektal and Sooltal

  1. TAAL EKTAL: 12 Matras (beats), 6 Vibhags (divisions), 4 Talis and 2 Khalis.

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7


    8

    9

    10

    11

    12

    Dhin

    Dhin

    Dhage

    Tirakita

    Tu

    Na

    Kat

    Ta

    Dhage

    Tirakita

    Dhi

    Na

    x




    0




    2




    0




    3




    4




  2. TAAL SOOLTAL: 10 matras, 5 vibhags, 3 Talis and 1 Khali

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Dha

Dha

Dhin

Ta


Kita

Dhage

Tita

Kata

Gadi

Gina

x




0




2




3










6. Brief History of Kathak Nritya:

Kathak is one of the leading forms of Indian classical dance. This ancient art of India derived it's name "Kathak" from "Katha", the art of storytelling. The Kathak dancers were excellent narrators and storytellers, and they interpreted incidence from the great epics with gestures and music. Through an aesthetically exquisite and continuously evolving style, these storytellers of the past combined dance and music and became the protagonists of the modern Kathak dance.

Like many aspects of the cultural life of northern India, Kathak developed through various phases of Indian social, religious and political history, thus reflecting their diverse impact. During the Hindu period,, this performing art of north India was nurtured in temples for the glory of God. The dancers were mainly Brahmins and were held in high esteem. Kathak dance suffused mainly with Vaishnava philosophy and the Radha-Krishna theme., passed through a period of renaissance and for some time became a powerful vehicle of entertainment for the Mogul courts. As a result of fusion of Indo-Mogul culture, Kathak emerged into a new form of dance. Though the basic graces of the old form were, retained, a new format and a new idiom inevitably came to be added. The Moguls brought their Persian art introducing the geometrical patterns and designs music and dancing with special emphasis on footwork and intricate rhythmic patterns. During this period, however, Kathak became a favorite royal past time, and a source of entertainment for rich and aristocrats, thus falling into disrepute, particularly for women.

The British showed little interest in Indian dance and music. Kathak was no exception. Maharaj Bindadin the greatest of Kathak gurus, provided the much needed integration of Hindu and Mogul influences in this dance form, and Kathak became a truly representative classical dance form. The post-independence or modern Kathak is a mixture of both the temple dance and the court dance. Kathak has north Indian classical music as its cultural counterpart. The rhythmic patterns and several other common areas for these two art forms have reinforced each other.

There are three main traditionally called "Gharanas" in Kathak - Jaipur Gharana, Lucknow Gharana, and Benaras Gharana, each having its own characteristics and peculiarities. Kathak today has regained its old glory, its rightful place amongst the classical arts of " India and has inspired a number of artist. Kathak has contributed to the modern cultural' renaissance in India, and deservingly is one of the most popular classical performing art forms in India.

7. Brief biography of Maharaj Bindadin and Kalka Prasad:


MAHARAJ BINDADIN

Bindadin Maharaj was born in 1830. He was the originator of his Gharana, popular/ known as Luknow Gharana. He togather with his brother Kalika Prasad; brought a renaissance in Kathak and raised to a high level of polished and extremely stylized dance. He was born in Handia Tehsil in Allahabad district, where his father Durga Prasad used to live. Bindadin. Maharaj had no children and he gave the utmost training to his .nephew Acchan Maharaj. Bindadin in his own turn, was trained by his father .and uncle Thakur Prasad. He started taking lessons in dance from the age of nine and practiced only Tig dha dig dig for three years, regularly practicing for twelve hours a day. It is said that once as a mere boy he had discussions regarding Tala with the Pakhawaz wizard Kudau Singh in the court of Nawab Wazid Ali Shah. Thakur Prasad was an employee at the court at that time. Thakur Prasad was very impressed and asked twelve year old Bindadin to performed in front of the whole court. Everyone was surprised to witness his dexterity of Bindadioi and acknowledged that Bindadin was much more in form than Kudau SinghL Nawab Saheb presented Bindadin with enormous wealth.

Bindadin Maharaj was gifted with poetic leanings and was an expert in singing and composing Thumris. The reputed Thumri singers of those days, Gauhar Jaan, Zohra Bai, and others were his disciples. He composed over 1500 new styles of Thumris. He was a man of character and used to lead a simple life. Due to the first war of independence he went out of Lucknow for some time with Thakur Prasad. Thereafter he went to Nepal and then to Bhopal.

Bindadin Maharaj was a devotee of Lord Krishna. His portraits show that at the time of dancing he used to put on. Achkan, Churidar, and Dupali cap. He died in 1918.


KALKA PRASAD

The Kathak maestro Achchan Maharaj's father and guru Kalka Prasad was a resident of Banaras. While his brother Bindadin was a court dancer at Nawab Saheb, Kalka Prasad preferred to reside at Banaras and propagate the Kathak dancing and Thumri singing of that Gharana from Banaras. Both these brothers were responsible for promoting Kathak to a high pedestal of art and aesthetic. Kalka Prasad's specialty lay in his mastery of

rhythm. He was an inimitable Tabla player and had specialized in "laykari". Kalka Prasad was an expert singer. He was also an expert in Abhinaya. He was a very simple person and led a life of austerity. He had three sons - Achchan Maharaj, Luchchu Maharaj, and Shambhu Maharaj.



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