D. Enrollments & Funding: Sociology & Anthropology in the U.S.3
Enrollment in sociology undergraduate and graduate programs expanded during the mid-1960s to mid-1970s, contracted until the mid-1980s (as part of a broader shift away from the liberal arts), and has climbed since then. From 1990 to 1999 the number of degrees awarded in sociology grew as follows: bachelor’s, by 55%; master’s, by 44%; and doctoral, by 21%. The number of minorities enrolled in graduate sociology swelled during the same period: Hispanic Americans, by 113%; Asian Americans, by 88%; African-Americans, by 67%; and Native Americans, by 50%. This growth far exceeded that of the minority populations. While male graduate enrollment dipped by 13%, female enrollment rose by 25%. The recent success of sociology departments in attracting minority and female enrollment may be attributed at least partly to the discipline’s scholarly concern with minority and gender inequality.
From 1994 to 2001 federally financed R&D expenditures at doctorate-granting institutions leaped by a net 54 percent. The increase was 65 percent at public institutions (NSF, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Fiscal Year 2001).
Anthropology Anthropology enrollments have paralleled those of sociology. From 1987 to 1996 the number of undergraduate anthropology majors jumped by 109%. In 1998 there were approximately 16,000 anthropology majors, of which 58% were females and 10% minorities. In 2000 anthropology graduate enrollment reached 7,633 students, compared to 8,689 in sociology and 745 in joint anthropology-sociology Departments (NSF Division of Science Resources Statistics, December 21, 2000).
A yearly average of 400 anthropology doctorates were awarded in 1974-94; a record annual-high 577 were awarded in 1998-99. From 1972 to 1994 women’s share of anthropology doctorates leaped from 32% to 59%, while minority representation in anthropology Ph.D. cohorts swelled from 4% to 16%. These pronounced increases reflect the discipline’s own commitment to cross-cultural and gendered inquiry.
Summary National demand for degrees in sociology and anthropology, especially by women and minorities, has risen sharply during the past decade. Given global transformations and their attendant demands for cross-cultural awareness and analysis, this level of demand is likely to persist.
E. Joint Sociology-Anthropology Departments in the U.S. Of the country’s 218 graduate departments of sociology and 171 graduate departments of anthropology, approximately 40 are joint sociology-anthropology departments.4 The 40 or so joint departments have an average rougly 15 faculty members (versus FIU’s 22, four of whom serve as FIU administrators while another five are currently on leave) and 175 undergraduate majors (versus FIU’s 140). The 12 or so doctoral programs awarded 3-6 M.A.’s and 3-5 Ph.D.’s in 2000-01 (versus FIU’s average of 7.3 M.A.’s and 5.5 PhD’s in 1999-2003; see Table 7). Apparently all of the M.A. programs, however, are in either sociology or anthropology, and all of the Ph.D. programs are in sociology. We have found no graduate curriculum that is comparable to FIU’s program in Comparative Sociology, which regards sociology and anthropology as snugly intertwined.
Besides FIU’s program, Central Florida, Fordham, George Mason, Howard, Loyola (Chicago), Northeastern, and Santa Clara universities are evidently the only joint sociology-anthropology departments located in leading metropolitan areas. Of these programs, only Central Florida’s and George Mason’s program, which do not offer doctorates, are housed in public universities. Central Florida and George Mason are included in the later comparative reviews of undergraduate and graduate curricula (see sections VI.A & VI.B).
F. Sociology & Anthropology Programs in Florida
There are six graduate-degree granting sociology programs in Florida, four of which (FIU, University of Florida, Florida State University, and University of Miami) offer the doctorate (Table 1).5 The University of Florida’s program is the largest: 26 full-time faculty, 56 full-time graduate students, and 554 undergraduate majors (versus FIU’s 22 full-time sociology-anthropology faculty, 33 full-time graduate students, and 162 undergraduate majors). The University of Miami’s is the smallest Ph.D.-granting program: 11 full-time faculty, 16 full-time graduate students, and 232 undergraduate majors. The University of Central Florida and the University of South Florida house intermediate-size, master’s-granting Departments.
Of these programs, only FIU and the University of Central Florida offer sociology and anthropology as a joint major. Central Florida’s program differs from FIU’s, however, in key ways. First, unlike FIU’s combined sociology-anthropology curriculum for undergraduate majors, Central Florida offers separate tracks for sociology majors and anthropology majors. Second, unlike FIU’s M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Comparative Sociology, Central Florida offers only an M.A. degree in Applied Sociology, which emphasizes social deviance and community policy.
Florida has six graduate-degree granting programs in anthropology, four of which (FIU, University of Florida, Florida State University, and University of South Florida) award the Ph.D (Table 1). The University of Florida’s program is the largest: 38 full-time faculty, 188 full-time graduate students, and 476 undergraduate majors. Florida State’s is the smallest: 12 full-time faculty, 24 full-time graduate students, and 128 undergraduate majors. FIU, of course, offers Ph.D. training in anthropology as part of its Comparative Sociology program; none of the other anthropology programs offers a cross-disciplinary M.A. or Ph.D. Florida Atlantic University and the University of West Florida offer the M.A. in anthropology.
No graduate program in the state of Florida is comparable to FIU’s. The University of Central Florida does provide a comparison at the undergraduate level. Regarding the non-comparable programs, let us mention that the sociology departments at the University of Florida’s and Florida State University enroll far more graduate and undergraduate majors per full-time faculty member than does FIU and UCF. This is based on their large graduate programs and the fact that they teach high numbers of large-lecture courses with teaching assistant-led sections. It perhaps is also based on the demographic profiles of undergraduates at leading, non-commuter state universities versus the undergraduate demographic profiles at commuter-based FIU and UCF.
Beginning in 2003-04, FIU’s Department of Sociology & Anthropology has been teaching, per fall and spring semester, four 200-student sections of introductory sociology; one or two 200-student sections of introductory anthropology; and four 200-student sections of upper-division “Myth, Ritual, and Mysticism” (which is part of the University Core Curriculum). No more than an occasional other FIU upper-division sociology or anthropology course reaches as many as 90 students (principally Dr. Shearon Lowery’s regularly offered “Social Deviance,” “Juvenile Delinquency,” and “Criminology,” which is a testament both to the nationwide popularity of such courses and to Dr. Lowery’s teaching excellence). A large boost in the Department’s per faculty undergraduate enrollment would require much greater access to large lecture rooms and the possibility of offering teaching assistant-led sections. It is possible that more frequent teaching of deviance, criminology, and sexuality courses would substantially increase enrollments as well. On balance these courses do not mesh with the departmental graduate program’s strengths, but, the budget permitting, an alternative would be to hire lecturers and adjuncts to teach such courses.
Summary FIU’s joint program in sociology & anthropology is not comparable to any other graduate program in Florida or the nation. Hence the Curriculum Review section will compare FIU’s graduate program with the graduate sociology and anthropology programs of several universities, rather than Departmental, benchmarks: Arizona State University, University of Houston, University of Illinois-Chicago, and Temple University. In contrast, the Department’s undergraduate program is comparable to others. The Curriculum Review section will compare our undergraduate program with the joint sociology-anthropology curricula at Central Florida, George Mason, Howard, and Northeastern. Like FIU, these institutions are located in large metropolitan areas. Central Florida and George Mason are public institutions, while Howard is a minority institution and Northeastern is well known for its commuter work-study programs.
Comparison of Sociology and Anthropology Programs in Florida