Semantics-vocabulary skills



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Alignment of Communication Skills and MN Standards

Kindergarten through Fifth Grade


SEMANTICS-VOCABULARY SKILLS



STANDARD: Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency

The student will understand and apply knowledge of the sounds of the English language (phonemic awareness), the sound-symbols relationship (phonics), and word recognition strategies to decode unfamiliar multisyllabic words and read with fluency and expression.
BENCHMARKS:


  • (1st)- I.A.1. Identify letters, words and sentences.6. Use letter sounds, word patterns and parts of simple compound words to decode unfamiliar words when reading.

  • (2nd)- I.A.2. Identify individual word parts to decode and determine the meaning of compound and multi-syllabic words.5. Notice when reading breaks down, reread and use phonetic and other strategies to self-correct






STANDARD: Vocabulary Expansion

The student will use a variety of strategies to expand reading, listening, and speaking vocabularies.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (K) I.B.1. Use words to describe and name people, places, and things.2. Use words to describe location, size, color, shape and direction.3. Use words to describe actions.4. Use context to predict and infer word meanings5. Learn new words through explicit instruction
  • (1st) I.B.1. Learn new words through explicit instruction and independent reading.2. Use descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events.3. Identify and generate antonyms and synonyms, and use them to understand and express word meaning.4. Use context to predict and infer word meanings.


  • (2nd) I.B.1. Learn and use new words through explicit instruction and independent reading.2. Use a growing range of descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events.3. Use context and word structure to help determine a word's meaning.4. Identify prefixes and suffixes.5. Generate and use antonyms, synonyms, and multiple-meaning words to express meaning.

  • (3rd) I.B.1. Acquire, understand and use new vocabulary through explicit instruction and independent reading.2. Identify and correctly use antonyms, synonyms, homonyms and multiple-meaning words.3. Use context and word structure to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

  • (4th) I.B.1. Acquire, understand and use new vocabulary through explicit instruction and independent reading.2. Identify and understand root words, derivations, antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homonyms and multiple-meaning words to determine word meanings and to comprehend texts.3. Use dictionaries or glossaries to find the meaning of new words.4. Use context and word structure to determine word meanings.5. Use knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine the meaning of unknown words.
  • (5th) I.B.1. Acquire, understand and use new vocabulary through explicit instruction as well as independent reading.2. Use knowledge of root words, derivations, antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homonyms and multiple-meaning words to determine word meanings and to understand texts.3. Use word reference materials, such as dictionaries, thesauruses, to understand and express word meaning.4. Analyze word structure and use context clues in order to understand new words.






STANDARD: Comprehension

The student will listen to and understanding the meaning of the text. The student will actively engage in the reading process and use a variety of comprehension strategies to understand the meaning of the text. The student will demonstrate literal, interpretive, evaluative, and inferential comprehension.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (K) I.C.1. Demonstrate literal comprehension by asking and answering questions about narrative and informational text.2. Make predictions from illustrations and story content.3. Write or draw a response that demonstrates comprehension.4. Relate texts to prior knowledge and experiences.

  • (1st)) I.C.1. Demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension by asking and answering questions about narrative and informational text.2. Recall and use prior learning and preview text to prepare for reading.3. Monitor comprehension and reread as needed at points of difficulty, using strategies to self-correct when needed.4. Make predictions of outcomes and verify from texts.5. Identify or infer topic.6. Make simple inferences and draw and support conclusions.7. Use story illustrations to enhance comprehension.8. Write or draw a response that shows comprehension of a story that has been read.9. Relate texts to prior knowledge and experiences.
  • (2nd) I.C.1. Read aloud grade-appropriate texts (that have not been previewed) with accuracy and comprehension.2. Recall and use prior learning and preview text to prepare for reading.3. Analyze text by using pictures, diagrams, titles and headings.4. Monitor comprehension, reread and use strategies to self-correct when necessary.5. Restate the sequence of events or ideas in a text, and summarize.6. Identify the topic, facts and supporting details in non-fiction texts.7. Demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension by asking and answering questions about narrative and informational texts.8. Make predictions about text and verify outcomes.9. Summarize text.10. Follow two-step written directions.


  • (3rd) I.C.3. Generate and answer literal, inferential, interpretive and evaluative questions to demonstrate understanding about what is read.4. Retell, restate or summarize information orally, in writing, and through graphic organizers.5. Infer and identify main idea and determine relevant details in non-fiction text.6. Monitor comprehension and use strategies to self-correct when needed.7. Follow three-step written directions.

  • (4th) I.C.2. Recall and use prior learning and preview text to prepare for reading.3. Generate and answer literal, inferential, interpretive and evaluative questions about what is read to demonstrate understanding.4. Summarize and paraphrase what is read.7. Demonstrate relationships between ideas or events in the texts using graphic organizers.10. Compare and contrast information on the same topic from two sources.

  • (5th) I.C.2. Recall and use prior learning and preview text to prepare for reading.3. Summarize and paraphrase key ideas from text.4. Identify main idea and supporting details in fiction text.5. Infer main ideas and determine relevant details in non-fiction texts.6. Generate graphic organizers to enhance comprehension of texts and to describe text structure and organization.7. Generate and answer literal, inferential, interpretive and evaluative questions to demonstrate understanding about what is read.8. Distinguish fact from opinion and provide evidence to support conclusions.9. Determine cause and effect and draw conclusions.10. Compare and contrast information on the same topic from multiple sources.11. Critically read and evaluate text to identify author’s point of view and purpose.12. Notice when comprehension breaks down, reread and use strategies to self-correct.13. Follow multiple-step written directions.

STANDARD: Literature


The student will actively engage in the reading process and read, understand, respond to and appreciate a wide variety of fiction, poetic, and non-fiction texts.
BENCHMARKS:


  • (K) I.D.1. Listen to and understand the meaning of texts representing a variety of genres (such as poetry, folk tales, drama, fantasy, realistic fiction, informational and biographical texts) from America, as well as from other countries.2. Identify main characters and story events and actions.3. Retell familiar stories using beginning, middle and end.4. Respond to literature using details from the story to make personal connections.

  • (1st) I.D.2. Identify and describe main characters setting and sequences of story events.3. Respond to text and use details from stories to support interpretation and make personal connections.4. Retell familiar stories using a beginning, middle and end. III.A.2. Follow two- or three-step oral directions.3. Attend to and understand the meaning of messages.4. Communicate needs, feelings and ideas to peers and adults in complete sentences.7. Ask and respond to questions.

  • (3rd) I.D.1. Read from and listen to American literature, as well as literature from other countries.2. Identify, describe and respond to literary elements of characterization, plot, setting and theme.6. Identify and determine the meanings of similes and metaphors.

  • (4th) I.D.7. Identify and determine the meanings of similes and metaphors.
  • (5th) I.D.2. Identify and analyze literary elements and devices in works of fiction including characterization, plot, tone and theme and the ways they convey meaning.3. Evaluate nonfiction texts by analyzing structure, concept development, design and style.4. Interpret literature by answering questions that ask for analysis and evaluation.5. Distinguish among various literary genres and subgenres.7. Identify and determine the meanings of similes and metaphors.8. Respond to literature using ideas and details from the text to support reactions and make literary connections.







STANDARD: Elements of Composition

The student will engage in a writing process with attention to organization, topic, quality of idea, audience, and a purpose.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (1st) III.B.1. Follow print from left to right and top to bottom.

  • (5th) II.B.1. Write topic sentences.2. Create multiple paragraph compositions that include :a. correct paragraph indentation style b. an introductory paragraph formulating a thesis or opinion c. supporting evidence in paragraph form that upholds the overall thesis or opinion d. a concluding paragraph as a summary.






STANDARD: Spelling, Grammar, and Usage

The student will apply standard English conventions when writing.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (2nd) II.C.1. Identify and correctly use nouns, verbs and pronouns.2. Identify and use descriptive words such as adjectives and adverbs




STANDARD: Research

The student will locate and use information in reference materials.

BENCHMARKS:


  • (4th) II.D.1. Locate information in various reference materials including dictionaries, online dictionaries, glossaries, encyclopedias, and the Internet.

  • (5th) II.D.2. Formulate research questions and collect relevant information.






STANDARD: Speaking and Listening

The student will demonstrate understanding and communicate effectively through listening and speaking.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (2nd) III.A.3. Follow two- or three-step oral directions.6. Recite and respond to stories, poems, rhymes and songs with expression.8. Ask and respond to questions.

  • (3rd) III.A.5. Organize and express ideas sequentially or according to major points.

  • (4th) III.A.2. Demonstrate active listening and comprehension.4. Organize and summarize ideas, using evidence to support opinions or main ideas.5. Perform expressive oral readings of prose, poetry or drama.

  • (5th) III.A.2. Demonstrate active listening and comprehension.3. Distinguish between speaker’s opinion and verifiable facts.5. Restate or summarize and organize ideas sequentially using evidence to support opinions and main ideas.


  • Identify and use target vocabulary words:


Identify and label familiar objects.


Identify and label familiar pictures.
Identify and label nouns.
Identify and label verbs.
Identify and label adjectives.



  • Identify and use relational/basic concepts (spatial, attribute, quantify, time, comparisons)

Label concepts given pictures illustrating target concepts.


Answer questions using correct concept using the target concepts
Demonstrate understanding given directions containing academic concepts by completing worksheets, pointing, or manipulating objects.
Provide the correct linguistic concept given multiple-choice, fill in the blank, open-ended sentences, spontaneous sentences, and story telling.

  • Classify words by function, category, attribute:

The student will choose an object or picture to match a given category.


Sort cards or objects into 2 main categories given cards or objects.
Choose the correct object or picture that belongs given designated categories.
The student will name a category to describe a set of objects or pictures.
Find one card or word that does not belong to the specific category given sets of 3-4 pictures or words and explain why it does not belong.
Label at least (number) associated objects given specific functions, categories, or attributes.
Given an object or picture, label (number) functions and/or attributes and name the category.
Label the category to which they belong given a selection of pictured objects or a list of words.
The student tells how two objects, pictures, or events from the same category are different.
The student will tell how two objects, pictures, or events from the same category are alike.

The student will describe a category by listing some of its functions or attributes



  • Make word associations:

Given picture cards, match pairs that are related or go together .


The student will answer yes/no questions comparing objects.
Given names, occupations, or objects, state an action commonly associated with names occupations, or objects.
Given sets of two items, answer questions comparing a range of characteristics for the two items
Given definitions, identify the objects defined
Given words, state a word commonly associated with each word
The student will point to the picture that shows the meaning of a comparative relationship given a sentence.
Given fill in the blank statements, complete the analogous statements
Given “If…then” statements, provide a logical consequence for the occurrences
Given facts concerning situations, provide a logical explanation of the occurrences
The student will describe a picture using a designated word relationship.
The student will write a sentence to describe a picture using a designated word relationship.
The student will explain the logic of the word relationship within a sentence


  • Making comparisons and exclusions (same and different) :

Given descriptions using basic modifiers, comparatives, or superlatives from various attribute groups (color, size, shape, length, height, width, age, taste, smell, sound, speed, temperature, quality, quantity, affect, and distance), select the person, picture, or object being described


Given objects, pictures, or events, describe each one with the appropriate modifier, comparative, or superlative
Use a modifier, comparative, or superlative, and an associated noun correctly in sentences

Given 10 sets of two nouns from the same category, give one similarity and one difference

The student will name the shared category to tell how two words from the same category are similar/different.
The student will name shared critical actions or functions to tell how two words are similar/different
The student will name shared attributes to tell how two words are similar/different
Given characteristics in the form of questions, choose the items which exhibit the specific characteristics
The student will tell two different sentences (one with each word) that show the similarities/differences between the two words.
The student will tell word definitions of the words that have been compared.


  • Defining Words:

Given a target word and definitions provide in multiple choice statements, choose the correct definition of a word


Given lists of words in a word bank along with a list of definitions, match the definitions with the words
Given definitions, identify the words.
Given words, name a categorical grouping the defined words fit into.
Given words, give 2-3 multiple meanings (synonyms) for each word.
Given words, give the opposite meaning for each word
Cluster definition words according to common prefixes/suffixes to find similarities
Given vocabulary words, put each in a complete and meaningful sentence.
Use context to write/state the definitions of selected vocabulary words from a story.


  • Identifying synonyms, antonyms, homophones (pronounced the same as, but differ in meaning, whether spelled the same or not), homographs (same written form but of different origin and meaning):

Given pairs of related words, demonstrate understanding of the pairs by matching pictures

Given sets of two pictures, produce the pair of related words
Given one pair of sets of related words, produce the other pair member
Given sets of two words, state if they are synonyms or antonyms
Create sentences using at least 2 synonyms, antonyms, homophones, or homographs.
Choose a correct word from an opposite pair to complete a sentence
Use a pair of synonyms is the same sentence
Write the appropriate opposites/synonyms/homophones/homographs in fill-in-the-blank sentences
When given a paragraph, change the meaning slightly by substituting a synonym for the designated word
Change a written sentence or story by substituting opposites or changing inappropriately used opposites
Explains riddles based on multiple-meaning words

Alignment of Communication Skills and MN Standards



Kindergarten through Fifth Grade
Syntax

Grammatical/Language Structure Skills




STANDARD: Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency

The student will understand and apply knowledge of the sounds of the English language (phonemic awareness), the sound-symbols relationship (phonics), and word recognition strategies to decode unfamiliar multisyllabic words and read with fluency and expression.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (K) I.A.4. Identify beginning consonant sounds and ending sounds in single-syllable words.5. Identify, produce and say rhyming words in response to an oral prompt.





STANDARD: Vocabulary Expansion

The student will use a variety of strategies to expand reading, listening, and speaking vocabularies.

BENCHMARKS:


  • (1st) I.B.2. Use descriptive words when speaking of people, places, things, actions and events.

  • (2nd) I.B.4. Read aloud grade-appropriate text with accuracy, fluency and expression.

  • (3rd) I.B.2. Use knowledge of root words, derivations, antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homonyms and multiple-meaning words to determine word meanings and to understand texts.4. Analyze word structure and use context clues in order to understand new words.






STANDARD: Comprehension

The student will listen to and understanding the meaning of the text. The student will actively engage in the reading process and use a variety of comprehension strategies to understand the meaning of the text. The student will demonstrate literal, interpretive, evaluative, and inferential comprehension.
BENCHMARKS:

  • I.C.1. Demonstrate literal comprehension by asking and answering questions about narrative and informational text.

  • (1st) I.C.1. Demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension by asking and answering questions about narrative and informational text.

  • (2nd) I.C.5. Restate the sequence of events or ideas in a text, and summarize.7. Demonstrate literal and inferential comprehension by asking and answering questions about narrative and informational texts.9. Summarize text.

  • (4th) I.C.4. Summarize and paraphrase what is read
  • (5th) I.C.2. Recall and use prior learning and preview text to prepare for reading.


STANDARD: Literature

The student will actively engage in the reading process and read, understand, respond to and appreciate a wide variety of fiction, poetic, and non-fiction texts.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (K) I.D.1. Listen to and understand the meaning of texts representing a variety of genres (such as poetry, folk tales, drama, fantasy, realistic fiction, informational and biographical texts) from America, as well as from other countries.2. Identify main characters and story events and actions.3. Retell familiar stories using beginning, middle and end.4. Respond to literature using details from the story to make personal connections. 3. Write or draw a response that demonstrates comprehension.

  • (1st) I.D.4. Retell familiar stories using a beginning, middle and end.

  • (3rd) I.D.1. Read from and listen to American literature, as well as literature from other countries.2. Identify, describe and respond to literary elements of characterization, plot, setting and theme.

  • (4th) I.D.6. Identify first person and third person point of view.

  • (5th) I.D.3. Evaluate nonfiction texts by analyzing structure, concept development, design and style.6. Distinguish between third person omniscient and first person point of view.






STANDARD: Elements of Composition

The student will engage in a writing process with attention to organization, topic, quality of idea, audience, and a purpose.
BENCHMARKS:
  • (1st) II.B.1. Write simple sentences using a process and strategies to plan, compose, revise and edit.


  • (4th) II.B. 1.Write topic sentences.






STANDARD: Spelling, Grammar, and Usage

The student will apply standard English conventions when writing.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (1st) II.C.4. Compose simple sentences.

  • (2nd) II.C.1. Identify and correctly use nouns, verbs and pronouns.2. Identify and use descriptive words such as adjectives and adverbs.3. Write sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

  • (5th) II.C.4. Apply grammar conventions correctly in writing, including: a. verb tense b. prepositional phrases c. adverbs d. subject and verb agreement with simple subjects e. possessive pronouns and plural possessives.





STANDARD: Research

The student will locate and use information in reference materials.
BENCHMARKS:

  • (5th) II.D.2. Formulate research questions and collect relevant information or perform.

STANDARD: Speaking and Listening

The student will demonstrate understanding and communicate effectively through listening and speaking.
BENCHMARKS:
  • (K) III.A.2. Follow two–step directions.3. Attend to and understand the meaning of messages. 5. Recite and respond to poems, rhymes and songs. 6. Respond orally to language patterns in stories and poems. 8. Ask and respond to questions.


  • (1st) III.A.2. Follow two- or three-step oral directions.3. Attend to and understand the meaning of messages.4. Communicate needs, feelings and ideas to peers and adults in complete sentences.7. Ask and respond to questions.

  • (2nd): III.A.4. Explain and clarify needs, feelings and ideas to peers and adults in complete sentences.5. Report on a topic by sharing facts, opinions, ideas, prior knowledge or personal experiences in a logical sequence.

  • (4th) III.A.4. Organize and summarize ideas, using evidence to support opinions or main ideas.5. Perform expressive oral readings of prose, poetry or drama.

  • (5th) III.A.5. Restate or summarize and organize ideas sequentially using evidence to support opinions and main ideas.



  • Use standard English grammar to the speaking context

Given pictures/stories/questions, _____ will identify ______(choose specific target skills from syntax menu) in phrases and sentences

Given pictures/stories/questions, ______will use ______(choose specific target skills from syntax menu) in phrases and sentences

Given words/phrase strips, _____ will categorize ______(choose specific target skills from syntax menu) under agent/action/object to formulate sentences that generate into a paragraph.


Given opportunities for conversational speech, ______will spontaneously use ______(choose from syntax menu)
Given pictures/stories/questions, ______will produce grammatically correct phrases and sentences
Given opportunities for conversational speech, ______will produce grammatically correct phrases and sentences

Syntax Menu
Verbs:


  • Present progressive

  • 3rd person singular

  • Regular past tense

  • Irregular past tense

  • Future tense

  • Modals-can, could, would, may, might, should, will

  • Passive

  • Infinitive-to


Nouns:

  • Regular plurals

  • Irregular plurals

  • Possessives

  • Derivational nouns


Prepositions:

  • In, on

  • At, to

  • Up, down

  • Over, under

  • With, for

  • Out of, off, near

  • Away from

  • In front of , in back of

  • Next to

  • Around

  • Toward

  • Beside

  • Ahead of, behind


Adjectives;

  • Comparatives

Superlatives

Syntax Menu
Pronouns:

  • Subjective- I, you, he she, it, you, they, we

  • Objective- me, you, her, him, them

  • Possessive- my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, its, our/ours, their/theirs

  • Reflexive- myself, yourself, herself, himself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves

  • Demonstrative- this, that, these, those


Conjunctions:

  • Coordinating- and, but, or, so

  • Subordinating- after, although, as, as much as, because, before, if, in order that, since, that, though, unless, until, when, where, while

  • Correlative- either/or, neither/nor, whether/or



Articles:

A/an


The



Syntax Menu
Question forms:

Is, can, would, would, should

What

Who/whose



Where

When


Why

How


Do

Does


Did
Negatives:

  • No

  • Not

  • Contractions- don’t, can’t, won’t, wouldn’t, shouldn’t, couldn’t, isn’t, doesn’t


Sentence Structures:

  • I ____(want, see, need, like)

  • Noun is adjective

  • Noun is verbing

  • Nouns are verbing

  • Noun verbs

  • Nouns verb

  • Subject-verb agreement

  • Compound sentences

  • Complex sentences

  • Correct word order

Etc

Syntax Menu
Adverbs:

Use with a verb, adjective, or another adverb:


Tells

  • When (always sad)

  • Where (go down there)

  • How (run quickly)

  • What Kind (bright red dress)

  • How Much (run very quickly)

  Examples:



  • Away

  • There

  • So

  • Out

  • All

  • Where

  • No/yes

  • As

  • Here

  • How

  • When

  • Down/up

  • Just

  • Not





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