Slide #1: Cover Page: Women’s Health in Massachusetts

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Slide #1: Cover Page: Women’s Health in Massachusetts

This set of slides contains most recent female socio-demographic characteristics, as well as natality, morbidity, and mortality health indicators. It also includes department service program data for women’s health in Massachusetts from programmatic units of the division of health promotion and disease prevention. Women’s health indicators and services are compared with those of men and presented by race and Hispanic ethnicity. Women’s Health in Massachusetts was prepared by the Center for Health Information, Statistics, Research, and Evaluation and the Center for Community Health for Secretary JudyAnn Bigby’s presentation on March 15, 2007 in recognition of Women’s History Month.

Note: 1. unless otherwise specified all rates presented are per 100,000 population, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population. 2. Unless otherwise specified all racial and Hispanic ethnic groups are mutually exclusive.
Slide #2: Section Title Page: Socio-demographic Characteristics of Women in Massachusetts.

Slide #3: Population by Gender and Race/ Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

This slide shows the race/Hispanic ethnicity composition of the population in 2005, by gender. Eighty one percent of the female population is white non-Hispanic, 8% Hispanic, 6% black non-Hispanic, 5% Asian non-Hispanic, and 0.2% American Indian. Similar racial and Hispanic composition is seen among men.

Source: Massachusetts Department of Public Health Modified Age, Race, and Sex 2005 Estimates

Slide #4: Percentage of Women Ages Under 35 yrs and Over 64 yrs of Age, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

This slide shows the proportion of young women (under 35 yrs of age) and the proportion of senior women (over 64 yrs of age) among the overall population of women in MA, and for each of the five racial/ Hispanic groups: white non-Hispanics, Hispanics, black non-Hispanics, Asian non-Hispanics, and American Indians. Hispanics have the highest proportion of women under 35 yrs of age (64%), followed by Asians (58%), Black (55%), American Indian (49%), and white non-Hispanics (40%). White non-Hispanics have the highest proportion of senior women (14%) followed by American Indian (8%), while the lowest was seen among Hispanics (4%).

Source: Massachusetts Department of Public Health Modified Age, Race, and Sex 2005 Estimates

Slide #5: Percentage of Women with More than a Bachelor’s Degree and with More than $50,000 Earnings, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

This slide shows the proportion of women with more than a Bachelor’s degree for education and the proportion of women with more than $50,000 earnings in the past 12 months (in 2005 inflation-adjusted dollars) among women population 16 years and over. Overall women, 15% have more than a bachelor’s degree of education and 22% earn more than $50,000. Asian (28% and 30%, respectively) and white women (15% and 24%, respectively) have the highest proportions of these two socio-demographic indicators. Hispanic women have the lowest values (6% and 7%, respectively). Black (8% and 15%, respectively) and American Indian (9% and 9%, respectively) women have in between values for these two indicators.

Note: In this slide White, Black, Asian, and American Indian racial categories include Hispanic and non-Hispanic ethnicities.

Source: Massachusetts Department of Public Health Modified Age, Race, and Sex 2005 Estimates

Slide #6: Regions Where Women Reside by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

The overall geographic distribution of women in MA in 2005 indicates that 24% live in the Metro West region of the state, followed by 22% in the South East, 20% in the North East, 14% in the Central, 13% in the Western, and only 7% in the Boston region of MA. This varied by race and Hispanic Ethnicity. Among Black non-Hispanic women 40% live in the Boston region, while among Hispanic women, 26% live in the North East region followed by 23% in Boston region. Among Asian women, 37% live in the Metro West region, followed by 22% in the North East region. Among American Indian women 28% live in the South East region followed by 15% in Boston region.



Slide #7: Section Title Page: Maternal and Perinatal Indicators

This section includes data from 2005 Massachusetts birth records, Registry of Vital Records, Center for Health Information, Statistics, Research, and Evaluation.


Slide #8: Maternal Characteristics by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

This slide shows a table of 5 maternal indicators, overall mothers, and by race/Hispanic ethnicity. The indicators are



  1. Age at first Birth: overall , the average age wad 28 yrs, 29 for White non-Hispanic, 25 for Black non-Hispanic, 23 for Hispanics, 29 for Asian non-Hispanic, and 25 for American Indian non-Hispanic.
  2. Not married: overall, 30% of mothers were not married, compared with 21% among White non-Hispanic, 58% among Black non-Hispanic, 64% among Hispanic, 15% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 46% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers


  3. Less than high school education: overall, 8% of mothers had less than high school education, compared with 4% among White non-Hispanic, 10% among Black non-Hispanic, 29% among Hispanic, 9% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 8% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers

  4. Medicaid Insured for prenatal care: overall, 24% of mothers were not married, compared with 17% among White non-Hispanic, 46% among Black non-Hispanic, 47% among Hispanic, 20% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 31% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers

  5. Teen births(age 15-19): overall, 6% of mothers were teen mothers, compared with 4% among White non-Hispanic, 10% among Black non-Hispanic, 15% among Hispanic, 3% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 10% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers


Slide #9: Perinatal Indicators by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

This slide shows a table of 6 perinatal indicators, overall mothers, and by race/Hispanic ethnicity. The indicators are



  1. Adequate Prenatal Care (Kotelchuck Index): overall, 83% of all mothers received adequate prenatal care services, compared with 86% among white non-Hispanic, 73% among Black non-Hispanic, 75% among Hispanics, 81% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 83% among American Indian non-Hispanic.

  2. Cesareans: overall, 32% of mothers delivered by cesarean, compared with 33% among White non-Hispanic, 34% among Black non-Hispanic, 27% among Hispanic, 29% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 31% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers
  3. Low Birthweight (less than 5.5 lbs): overall, 8% of births were low birthweight, compared with 7% among White non-Hispanic, 12% among Black non-Hispanic, 8% among Hispanic, 8% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 13% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers


  4. Breastfeed: overall, 78% of mothers report planning to breastfeed at time birth certificate was completed, compared with 76% among White non-Hispanic, 80% among Black non-Hispanic, 80% among Hispanic, 85% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 70% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers

  5. Multiple Births: overall, 5% of births were multiples, compared with 5% among White non-Hispanic, 4% among Black non-Hispanic, 3% among Hispanic, 3% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 9% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers

  6. Smoking: overall, 7% of births were smoking during pregnancy, compared with 8% among White non-Hispanic, 6% among Black non-Hispanic, 5% among Hispanic, 1% among Asian non-Hispanic, and 19% among American Indian non-Hispanic mothers


Slide #10: Section Title Page: Morbidity

This section includes data hospitalization and emergency visit rates, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Sources are Hospital Discharge Dataset System and Hospital Emergency Visits, Massachusetts Division of Health Care Finance and Policy.
Slide #11: Heart Disease Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have lower heart disease hospitalization rates than men (987 vs. 1,589). White women have a rate of 886, Black women have a rate of 1,160, Hispanic women have a rate of 1,005, and Asian women have a rate of 354.

Slide #12: Heart Disease Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have lower heart disease emergency visit rates than men (211 vs. 313). White women have a rate of 201, Black women have a rate of 281, Hispanic women have a rate of 249, and Asian women have a rate of 76.

Slide #13: Alcohol/Substance Abuse Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have lower Alcohol/Substance Abuse hospitalization rates than men (466 vs. 222). White women have a rate of 223, Black women have a rate of 165, Hispanic women have a rate of 181, and Asian women have a rate of 27.


Slide #14: Alcohol/Substance Abuse Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have lower Alcohol/Substance Abuse emergency visit rates than men (378 vs. 797). White women have a rate of 388, Black women have a rate of 473, Hispanic women have a rate of 274, and Asian women have a rate of 53.


Slide #15: Diabetes Mellitus Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have lower heart disease hospitalization rates than men (112 vs. 159). White women have a rate of 92, Black women have a rate of 346, Hispanic women have a rate of 202, and Asian women have a rate of 40.


Slide #16: Diabetes Mellitus Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have lower Diabetes Mellitus emergency visit rates than men (118 vs. 161). White women have a rate of 89, Black women have a rate of 445, Hispanic women have a rate of 371, and Asian women have a rate of 41.

Slide #17: Asthma (based on primary diagnosis) Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have higher Asthma hospitalization rates than men (163 vs. 113). White women have a rate of 133, Black women have a rate of 374, Hispanic women have a rate of 371, and Asian women have a rate of 63.


Slide #18: Asthma (based on primary diagnosis) Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have higher Asthma emergency visit rates than men (650 vs. 549). White women have a rate of 513, Black women have a rate of 1,513, Hispanic women have a rate of 1,568, and Asian women have a rate of 116.


Slide #19: Asthma Related (based on any mentioned diagnosis) Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have higher Asthma related hospitalization rates than men (1,024 vs. 582). White women have a rate of 892, Black women have a rate of 2003, Hispanic women have a rate of 1,919, and Asian women have a rate of 253.


Slide #20: Asthma Related (based on any mentioned diagnosis) Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have higher Asthma related emergency visit rates than men (1,047 vs. 830). White women have a rate of 865, Black women have a rate of 2,179, Hispanic women have a rate of 2,364, and Asian women have a rate of 171.


Slide #21: Injuries and Poisonings Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have lower injuries and poisonings hospitalization rates than men (766 vs. 896). White women have a rate of 761, Black women have a rate of 618, Hispanic women have a rate of 577, and Asian women have a rate of 306.

Slide #22: Injuries and Poisonings Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have lower injuries and poisonings emergency visit rates than men (770 vs. 870). White women have a rate of 763, Black women have a rate of 622, Hispanic women have a rate of 534, and Asian women have a rate of 314.

Slide #23: Hip Fractures Hospitalization Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, women have higher hip fractures hospitalization rates than men (107 vs. 68). White women have a rate of 109, Black women have a rate of 37, Hispanic women have a rate of 40, and Asian women have a rate of 35.


Slide #24: Hip Fractures Emergency Visit Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002

Overall, women have higher hip fractures emergency visit rates than men (118 vs. 76). White women have a rate of 119, Black women have a rate of 44, Hispanic women have a rate of 47, and Asian women have a rate of 55.


Slide #25: Section Title Page: Mortality

This section includes data mortality rates, age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Source: Preliminary 2005 MA Death file, Registry of Vital records and Statistics, Center for Health Information, Statistics, Research, and Evaluation, Massachusetts Department of Public Health.
Slide #26: Leading Causes of Death by Gender, MA 2005

Based on total number of deaths, the 10 leading causes of death overall, and by gender are the same but the rankings are different. For instance, heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death among women, while these are in reverse order; cancer and heart disease the leading causes among men. The 3rd leading cause of death among women is stroke while unintentional injuries are among men. Alzheimer’s is the 5th leading cause of death for women and the 10th leading cause among men.

Slide #27: Leading Causes of Death among Women by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Based on total number of deaths, the 10 leading causes of death among women have some differences by race and Hispanic ethnicity. Cancer and heart diseases are the leading causes of death for Black, Hispanic, and Asian women, while heart Disease and cancer are for white women. Stroke is the 3rd leading cause of death for White, Black, and Asian women, while diabetes is for Hispanic women. Alzheimer’s is among the 10 leading causes of death only for White women. Suicide is among the 10 leading causes of death only for Asian women. Perinatal condition is among the 10 leading causes of death only for Hispanic women and hypertension is among the 10 leading causes of death only for Black women.

Slide #28: Leading Causes of Death among Women, Death Rates by Gender, MA 2005

This slide presents the 5 leading causes of death among women and compares their deaths rates with that of men’s. Women have lower mortality rates than men for cancer (160 vs. 223), heart disease (138 vs. 216), stroke (37 vs. 38), and chronic lower respiratory disease (34 vs. 39). However, women have a higher Alzheimer’s mortality rate than men (22 vs. 16).


Slide #29: Heart Disease Mortality by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall, women have lower heart disease mortality rates than men (138 vs. 216). This gender pattern is also true by race and Hispanic ethnicity: 139 vs. 221, among Whites; 174 vs. 234, among Blacks; 84 vs. 119 among Hispanics; 48 vs. 77, among Asians. Black, men and women, have the highest heart disease mortality rates compared with, men and women of the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups.


Slide #30 Diabetes Mortality by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall, women have lower diabetes mortality rates than men (15 vs. 21). This gender pattern is also true by race and Hispanic ethnicity, except for Hispanics. Hispanic women have higher diabetes mortality rate than Hispanic men (31 vs. 27). Also, Hispanic women have the highest rate compared with women of other racial and non-Hispanic ethnic groups.

Slide #31: Unintentional Injury (‘Accidents’) Mortality by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall, women have lower Unintentional Injury mortality rates than men (18 vs. 37). This gender pattern is also true by race and Hispanic ethnicity: 19 vs. 38, among Whites; 14 vs. 35, among Blacks; 9 vs. 44 among Hispanics; 6 vs. 14, among Asians. White women have the highest rates compared with women of the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups. However, Hispanic men have the highest rate compared to men of the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups.

Slide #32: Leading Causes of Cancer Death among Women, Death Rates by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

This slide presents the 10 leading causes of cancer death among women by race and Hispanic ethnicity in 2005. Lung was the leading cause among white and black women, while it was the 2nd leading cause among Hispanic and Asian women. Breast cancer was the leading cause among Hispanic women and 2nd among White and Black women. Cancer to the pancreas was the leading cause of cancer death among Asian women while it was the 4th among White and Black women, and the 5th among Hispanic women. Colorectal cancer was the 3rd leading cause of cancer death for all groups. Leukemia was the 4th leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic women, while it was the 7th among White and Asian women, and the 10th among Black women. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was the 4th leading cause of cancer death among Asian women, and the 6th among White and 7th among Hispanic women.

Slide #33: Lung Cancer Mortality by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall, women have lower lung cancer mortality rates than men (44 vs. 64). This gender pattern was also true by race and Hispanic ethnicity: 46 vs. 65, among Whites; 40 vs. 84, among Blacks; 12 vs. 27 among Hispanics; 11 vs. 42, among Asians. White women have the highest rates compared with women of the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups. However, Black men have the highest rate compared to men of the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups.

Slide #34: Female Breast Cancer Mortality by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall women, the breast cancer rate was 23. Black women have highest breast cancer mortality rate (31) than women in the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups, followed by White women (24), Hispanic (16) and Asian women (6).



Slide #35: Colorectal Cancer Mortality by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall, women have lower colorectal cancer mortality rates than men (16 vs. 20). This gender pattern was also true for all the race and Hispanic ethnic groups: 16 vs. 20, among Whites; 20 vs. 26, among Blacks; 10 vs. 12 among Hispanics; 9 vs. 10, among Asians. Black men and women have the highest rates compared with men and women of the other racial and Hispanic ethnic groups.


Slide #36: Pancreatic Cancer Mortality by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

Overall, women have lower pancreatic cancer mortality rates than men (10 vs. 14). This gender pattern was also true for Whites (10 vs. 14) and Blacks (13 vs. 15). However, for Hispanics and Asians, women have higher rates than men: 6 vs. 4 among Hispanics and 16 vs. 7, among Asians. Asian women have the highest rate of pancreatic cancer compared with women and men from any other racial and Hispanic ethnic group.



Slide #37: Ovarian Cancer Mortality by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, MA 2005

The women overall ovarian cancer mortality rate was 8. The highest rate was seen among White women (9), followed by Hispanic women (6), and Black women (5). The numbers for Asians were too small to report.

Slide #38: Section Title Page: Cancer Incidence

Cancer incidence data was collected by the Cancer Registry.

Cancer incidence rates are presented as the number of cases per 100,000 population.

Rates are age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.

Slide #39: Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2003

Overall, lung cancer incidence rates are 62 for women and 83 for men in Massachusetts. White women have a higher incidence rate than Black, Hispanic, and Asian women. White women have an incidence rate of 64, Black women have an incidence rate of 50, Asian women have an incidence rate of 33, and Hispanic women have incidence rate of 31.


Slide #40: Female Breast Cancer Incidence Rates by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2003

The overall incidence of female breast cancer is 130 in Massachusetts. The incidence rate for White women is 135, higher than the overall rate. Black women have an incidence rate of 95, Hispanic women have an incidence rate of 88, and Asian women have an incidence rate of 59.


Slide #41: Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2003

In each race/Hispanic ethnicity category, men have a higher colorectal cancer incidence rates than women. Overall, men have an incidence rate of 68, while women have a rate of 48. Black women have an incidence rate of 51, Hispanic women have an incidence rate of 29, and Asian women have an incidence rate of 22.


Slide #42: Pancreatic Cancer Incidence Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2003

Overall, women have lower incidence of pancreatic cancer than men (11 vs. 14). White women have an incidence rate of 11, Black women have an incidence rate of 10, Hispanic women have an incidence rate of 5, and Asian women have an incidence rate of 9.

Slide #43: Ovarian Cancer Incidence Rates by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2003

The overall incidence rate of ovarian cancer among women is 14. Black women have the lowest incidence of ovarian cancer (5), while White women have an incidence rate of 15. Hispanic women have an incidence rate of 9 and Asian women have an incidence rate of 7.

Slide #44: Section Title Page: Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

The BRFSS is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of Massachusetts adults age 18 and older about health risks and behaviors. The percentages presented here are crude.


Slide #45: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who Reported Having Insurance by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, 93% of women reported having health insurance compared to 90% of men. Eighty-six percent of Hispanic women reported having insurance, while only 65 percent of Hispanic men reported having insurance. 94 versus 93 % of White women and men reported having health insurance. 88 versus 89 % of Black women and men reported having health insurance.


Slide #46: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who Reported Not Seeing the Doctor Due to Cost by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Overall, the percentage of women not seeing a doctor due to cost is ten, compared to eight percent of men. There are differences by race and gender: 21% of Hispanic women report not seeing a doctor due to cost compared to 15% of Hispanic men. 11% of Black women and 8% of White women report not seeing a doctor due to cost compared to 19% of Black men and 6% of White men.


Slide #47: Self-Reported Health Status

Slide #48: Self-Reported Health Status by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005: Limited by Physical or Mental Health

For both poor mental health and physical health days, respondents were asked the number of days, during the past 30 days, their physical or mental health was not good. For this analysis, we look at respondents who reported 15 or more days of poor physical or mental health. Overall, 6% of women reported poor mental or physical health. 9% of Hispanic women (5% of Hispanic men) reported poor mental or physical health compared to 6% of White women and 6% of Black women.

Slide #49: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who Reported Having Fair or Poor Health by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Fair or poor health is a self-reported health question with respondent categories including: excellent, very good, good, fair, and poor - for this analysis, we look at the number of respondents reporting fair or poor health. Overall, 14% of women reported fair or poor health compared to 12% of men. 26% of Hispanic women and 21% of Hispanic men reported fair or poor health. 17% of Black women (16% of Black men) and 13% of White women (11% of White men) reported fair or poor health.


Slide #50: Self-Reported Disease Prevalence
Slide #51: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults, Reported Having Disability, Heart Disease* and Arthritis by Gender, 2005

Heart disease is defined as having had a heart attack or myocardial infarction, or angina or coronary heart disease. 21% of women report having a disability for at least one year compared to 18% of men. A disability was defined as (1) having an impairment that limited activities or caused cognitive difficulties, (2) use of special equipment or require help from others to get around, or (3) reported a disability of any kind. 7% of women ages 35 and older reported having heart disease compared to 11% of men. 31% of women reported having arthritis compared to 21% of men.

Slide #52: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults, ages 35+, who Reported Having a Stroke by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

All respondents ages 35 and older were asked if they had been told by a doctor, nurse, or other health professional that they had had a stroke. Overall, 3% of women and 3% of men over the age of 35 reported having a stroke. The percentage of Black and Hispanic women reporting stroke was 5% for each group.

Slide #53: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who Reported Having Asthma by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

The percentage of women reporting asthma is higher than men across all races and Hispanic ethnicity. Overall, 12% of women and 7% of men reported having asthma. 16% of Hispanic women report having asthma compared to 4% of men. White women reported asthma 12% of the time compared to White men who reported asthma 7% of the time. Black women reported asthma 12% of the time compared to 3% of Black men who reported having asthma.


Slide #54: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who Report Diabetes by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

All respondents were asked if they had ever been told by a doctor that they had diabetes. Women who reported they had diabetes only during pregnancy were excluded from this analysis.


Slide #55: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who are Obese by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Obesity is calculated using self reports of height and weight converted to the body mass index--the BMI. Body Mass Index (BMI): a measure of weight in relation to height

= weight (kg) / height (m) 2


  • Classification:

Underweight: BMI < 18.5

Overweight: BMI 25.0-29.9

Obese: BMI > 30.0
For example, ...

Examples: Overweight Obese

5’4” 145 174

6’0” 184 221

There are dramatic differences in the race-sex patterns of obesity. The greatest disparity between men and women exists among Blacks; 37% of Black women and 28% of Black men are obese. Hispanic women are also more obese (30%) than Hispanic men (25%); and the percentage of White women who are obese is less than White men (17% for women and 23% for men).

Slide #56: Self-Reported Risk Factor Prevalence
Slide #57: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who are Current Smokers* by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

A current smoker was defined as someone who has smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smokes regularly or not. Overall, 18% of women and 19% of men reported currently smoking. Hispanic women reported the lowest smoking prevalence with 12% compared to 15% of Black women and 19% of White women.


Slide #58: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who are Heavy Drinkers by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

The effects of alcohol on the body are directly related to the amount of alcohol consumed. Respondents were asked about their consumption of alcohol in the past month. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of more than 60 drinks in the past month for men and 30 drinks in the past month for women. Overall, 6% of women reported heavy drinking. 2% of Black women reported heavy drinking compared to 14% of Black men. 2% of Hispanic women reported heavy drinking compared to 4% of Hispanic men. 6% of White women and 8% of White men reported heavy drinking.


Slide #59: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who are Regularly Physically Active* by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Regular physical activity was defined as participating in 30 minutes of moderate physical activity 5 days per week or 20 minutes of vigorous activity 3 days per week. Overall, 51% of women and 54% of men report regular physical activity. 40% of Black women report regular physical activity compared to 43% of Hispanic women, and 53% of White women.

Slide #60: Percentage of Massachusetts Adults who Consume 5+ Fruits and Vegetables per day by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Respondents were asked about their consumption of fruits and vegetables. This included fruit juice, fruit, green salad, carrots, potatoes, and other vegetables. Overall 33% of women consume 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day compared to 24% of men. 34% of White women, 25% of Black women, and 18% of Hispanic women consume 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day.

Slide #61: Percentage of Women Ages 40+ Who Had a Mammogram in the Past Two Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Mammography has been a success story in Massachusetts: the overall rate in MA is 84% and women in all race groups are using this important screening tool. A mammogram is an x-ray of each breast to look for breast cancer. 87% of Black women, 84% of White women, and 83% of Hispanic women ages 40 and older had a mammogram in the past two years.


Slide #62: Trend in the Percentage of Women Ages 40+ who had a Mammogram in the Past 2 Years, Massachusetts vs. US, 1992-2005

Not only are mammography rates high for all race groups but the overall rate is continuing to climb. From 1992 to 2000, the mammography rate for women age 40+ has gone up 24%, from 68% to 84%. The Massachusetts rate continues to be higher than the US rate.


Slide #63: Trend in the Percentage of Women Ages 40+ who had a Mammogram in the Past 2 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 1992-2005

Mammography rates continue to climb for White and Black women.

Slide #64: Percentage of Women Who Reported Sufficient Calcium Intake, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2000-2004

Sufficient calcium intake was defined as consuming three or more servings of dairy products per day or consuming 1-2 servings of dairy products per day plus regularly taking a calcium supplement. Calcium intake promotes bone formation and reduces the occurrence of osteoporosis. In this slide, we can see that there are differences by race and age group. The highest reported % of sufficient calcium intake, 44%, was among White women. Black women have the lowest reported percentage of sufficient calcium intake, 23%. The percentage of Hispanic women reporting sufficient calcium intake was 33%.

Slide #65: Percentage of Women, Age 18-44, Who Reported Birth Control Use, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2002-2005

This slide examines the use of birth control by race for women of reproductive age. Women who have not had a hysterectomy, were not currently pregnant, and were sexually active were asked what type of birth control they were currently using. Overall, 88% of these women reported using birth control. Again, there is variation by race. White women were much more likely to report using birth control (at 88%) than Black (77%), Hispanic (89%) or Asian (87%) women.


Slide #66: Percentage of Women, Age 18-44, Who had an Unplanned Pregnancy in the Past 5 years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2000

All women ages 18-44 who were currently pregnant or had been pregnant in the last five years were asked if they wanted to be pregnant sooner, later, or not at all. Unplanned pregnancy was defined as wanting to be pregnant at a later time or not at all. This slide shows that Hispanic women had the highest percentage of unplanned pregnancy at 46%, while White women had the lowest at 25%. 33% of Hispanic women reported an unplanned pregnancy.


Slide #67: Reported Experiencing Lifetime Sexual Violence by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Sexual violence was defined as any sexual parts of the body touched without consent or attempted or completed sex without consent. Overall, 17% of women reported experiencing sexual assault in their lifetime. 31% of Black women reported sexual violence in their lifetime compared with 16% of White women and 12% of Hispanic women.

Slide #68: Reported Experiencing Lifetime Intimate Partner Violence by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2005

Intimate partner abuse is defined as: being frightened for safety due to angry threats of an intimate partner, physically hurt by an intimate partner or made to take part in unwanted sexual activity by an intimate partner. All women ages 18-59 were asked questions about intimate partner abuse in the past 12 months. Overall, 22% of Massachusetts women report that they have ever experienced intimate partner abuse compared to 14% of men. 24% of Hispanic women reported the intimate partner violence. 18% of Black women reported intimate partner violence, compared to White women who reported 23 and Black women who reported 18%.

Slide #69: High School Students Reporting Dating violence or Unwanted Sexual Contact by Gender, 2003

15% of women reported dating violence compared to 7% of men. 14% of women reported unwanted sexual contact compared to 6% of men.


Slide #70: Section Title Page: Services Provided
Slide #71: Substance Abuse Services by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2006

Populations served by the Substance Abuse Services include the homeless, those involved with the criminal justice system, youth, those with or are risk for HIV, pregnant and parenting women, those involved with other state agencies, particularly DSS and DYS. Narcotics treatment patients were 42% female and comprised of 85% White, 3% Black, 9% Hispanic, and 3% other women. Detox patients were 28% female and comprised of 78% White, 9% Black, 9% Hispanic, and 4% other women. 34% of patients treated as outpatients are women and 32% treated as residential are women.

Source: Bureau of Substance Abuse Services
Slide #72: Women, Infants & Children (WIC) Nutrition Program Active Participants

by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2006

The WIC Nutrition Program is designed to influence child growth at critical times of development and influence lifetime nutrition and health behaviors. WIC provides nutrition education and counseling, checks for specific nutritious foods, and access to health care for low-to moderate-income pregnant, breastfeeding and post-partum women, infants and children under five. The WIC Program serves 40% White mothers, 32% Hispanic mothers, 18% Black mothers, and 6% Asian mothers. The distribution of WIC infants and children is similar to the mothers’ race/Hispanic ethnicity.

Source: Nutrition Division, Center for Community Health

Slide #73: Screenings from Women’s Health Network Services by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2006

The Women’s Health Network provides statewide community-based education and outreach to women regarding cardiovascular disease and breast and cervical cancer. Low-income, uninsured or under insured women age 40-64 years who reside in MA are eligible for cardiovascular risk factor screening as well as for breast and cervical cancer screening and , diagnostic services and referral to treatment through MassHealth. The race/Hispanic ethnicity of females who received breast cancer screening and/or diagnostic services through the program was 79% White, 11%Black, 7% Hispanic, and 3% Asian. The race/Hispanic ethnicity of females who received cervical cancer screening and/or diagnostic services through the program was 84% White, 9% Black, 4% Hispanic, and 3% Asian. White women made up 83% of the women who received cardiovascular risk screening and lifestyle intervention service compared to 6% Black, 5% Hispanic, and 6% Asian.

Source: Women’s Health Network Program, Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, Center for Community Health
Slide #74: Family Planning Program Data by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2006

Family Planning Program provides comprehensive confidential clinical care (including screening for cervical cancer and sexually transmitted diseases), health education and counseling, provision of contraceptives, and community education, and outreach for low-income women, men, and adolescents. The patients of the Family Planning Program are 92% female. Of those women, 53% are white, 14% Black, 19% Hispanic, and 6% Asian.

Source: Family Planning Program, Division of Primary Care and Health Access, Center for Community Health

Slide #75: Sexual Assault Prevention and Survivor Services by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2006

Sexual assault survivors1 who reported an incident were 95% women (67% White, 8% Black, 16% Hispanic, and 2% Asian). 95% of those attending individual counseling and/or advocacy services2 were 95% female (67% White, 11% Black, 13% Hispanic, and 2% Asian).

Source: 1. Sexual Assault Surveillance System. Data are only presented for reports where the survivor herself made the report and when race/ethnicity was not missing. 2. Sexual Assault Prevention & Survivor Services, Service Delivery Reports, Division of Violence and Injury Prevention. Data are only presented for new clients when the survivor is the client and when race/ethnicity was not missing or unknown.

Division of Violence and Injury Prevention, Center for Community Health.

Slide #76: HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education, and Counseling by Gender and Race/Hispanic Ethnicity, 2006

The HIV/AIDS programs span the range of primary prevention of HIV infection, testing and screening for HIV and related conditions (STDs, viral hepatitis), the provision of high-quality health services, and the provision of non-medical support services (including case management, transportation, housing, nutrition services, peer support, and emergency assistance). As of 12/31/05 the number of women living with aids1 was 4,598 (29%). Black women represented 40% of those living with aids, White women made up 30%, Hispanic women represented 29%, and Asian women accounted for 1%. Attendees of the HIV Prevention and Education program2 consisted of 33% women. Women account for 26% of those who participate in the needle exchange program3 (63% White, 3% Black, 6% Hispanic, and <1% Asian). Women made up 35% of the patients who attend HIV Counseling and Testing4 (40% White, 18% Black, 26% Hispanic, and 3% Asian).



Sources:

    1. MDPH HIV/AIDS Surveillance Program, People Living with HIV/AIDS as of December 31, 2005 (midpoint of FY), data as of 7/1/2006

    2. MDPH HIV/AIDS Prevention and Education Data, July 1, 2005 – June 30, 2006, data as of 3/6/07

    3. MDPH HIV/AIDS Needle Exchange Data, July 1, 2005 – June 30, 2006, data as of 3/6/07

    4. MDPH HIV Counseling and Testing Site Data, July 1, 2005 – June 30, 2006, data as of 3/6/07




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