Spotlights this section contains worksheets for Spotlights on five historic events and 11 articles on places and groups of people. Your textbook also includes biographies of famous Oklahomans


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This section contains worksheets for Spotlights on

five historic events and 11 articles on places and groups of people.

Your textbook also includes biographies of famous Oklahomans.

At the end of this section, there are guidelines for writing essays about them.


African-American Experience

Indian Boarding Schools

The Run of 1889

Trail of Tears

Tulsa Race Riot

Places and Groups of People

Autograph Rock

Chickasaw Cultural Center

Cultural Diversity

Kiowa Six

Men of Peace


Native Americans in the 20th Century

Oklahoma City Thunder

Outlaws and Lawmen

Route 66

Women with the Pioneer Spirit


David Boren

Garth Brooks

Kit Carson

Kristin Chenoweth

Angie Debo

Ralph Ellison

Vince Gill

Woody Guthrie

Allan Houser

Reba McEntire

Tom Palmore

Frank Phillips

T. Boone Pickens

Wiley Post

William S. Prettyman

Alice Mary Robertson

Will Rogers


Carrie Underwood

Stand Watie

Jimmy Webb

Charles Banks Wilson

These lists are alphabetical.

The Table of Contents lists Spotlights in the order they appear.

I. TRUE OR FALSE. Write a “T” if the statement is true; write “F” if the statement is false.

______ 1. To the Indian, his homeland was holy ground.

______ 2. Rather than withdrawing to the west, the Five Civilized Tribes adopted the ways of the white man.
______ 3. The Five Civilized Tribes refused to become farmers.
______ 4. The Indians in the Southeast were victims of illegal land seizures and yet had no redress in the courts.
______ 5. The Cherokees were the first tribe to remove to Indian Territory.
______ 6. The first Indians removed to Indian Territory were forcibly removed in manacles and chains.
______ 7. The removal decree allotted one blanket for each Indian family.
______ 8. There were no protests from white people who saw the sufferings of the Indians during the removals.
______ 9. The thousands of Indian exiles were victims of one disaster after another.
______10. After learning about the early removal disasters, several thousand Choctaws in Mississippi refused to emigrate.
______11. The Chickasaws were the most primitive of the Five Civilized Tribes.
______12. The Chickasaws were kinsmen of the Cherokees.
______13. The Chickasaws purchased land in Indian Territory from the Choctaws but refused to be governed by the Choctaw Nation.
______14. Alabama law forbade an Indian’s word from being entered into court against the word

of a white man.

______15. A minor Creek uprising successfully delayed removal for the Creeks.

______16. Many Creeks were manacled and linked together with chains and then marched westward with their women and children trailing behind.

______17. Some Creek warriors fought against the Seminoles.
______18. Stand Watie was the Cherokee leader with the greatest amount of tribal support.
______19. The Seminoles were less inclined to fight for their land because it was swampland and practically worthless.
______20. After the removal, not a single Seminole was left in the Southeast.

21. By the time the Creeks completed the removal, they had lost nearly 40 10 percent of their tribe.
22. The wealthiest of the Five Civilized tribes were the Creeks Chickasaws .
23. Cherokee law ordered prison death for anyone signing away Cherokee lands.
24. The Chickasaws were well known for their arts and crafts horses and cattle.
25. It was easy hard to convince the Seminoles to leave Florida.

III. MAP. On the map below, identify the states where each of the Five Civilized Tribes originally lived. Using colored pencils, mark the removal routes of each of the tribes. Use RED for Cherokees, BLUE for Creeks, GREEN for Chickasaws, ORANGE for Choctaws, and PURPLE for Seminoles.

I. CIRCLE THE ANSWER. If more than one answer is correct, circle all the correct answers.
1. The article concentrates on schools in

N. Dakota Nevada California Oklahoma Kansas
2. The federal government began off-reservation boarding schools in

1870s 1830s 1889

3. Lucy Toledo and Bill Wright say the schools emphasized

education learning a trade arts and crafts
4. The schools also emphasized

discipline punishment self-expression
5. What prevents smaller tribes from running their own schools?

interest budget or finance political organization
6. Which Indian Nation has the country’s largest reservation? ____________________________________
7. The national graduation rate for American Indians is about ___________ percent.
8. The head of American Indian Studies at a university says that, to “erase and replace” Native culture, schools changed “everything” about the students. She names six aspects of culture. They are:
9. Who or what began taking over the schools in the past few decades? ____________________________
10. Hershel Martinez does something in Sherman High School that shows how the school has changed.
What does he do? __________________________________________________________________
11. Steve Yankton says life at school can still be tough because of
12. According to the book, where was a boarding school in this state? ________________________________

I. TRUE OR FALSE? Put ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.
_____ 1. During the 19th century, Indian Territory was a kind of “dumping ground.”
_____ 2. Many Indians among the Five Civilized Tribes owned slaves.

_____ 3. Cattle drives across Indian Territory began long before the Civil War.

_____ 4. All Indians from all tribes opposed opening any land in Indian Territory for settlement.
_____ 5. The Boomer Movement was a loose organization of pro settlement people.
_____ 6. No women were allowed to file land claims.
_____ 7. No African-American people were allowed to file land claims.
_____ 8. The east bank of the South Canadian River was the dividing line between Indian Territory and the Unassigned Lands.
_____ 9. Would be homesteaders were not allowed to ride trains into the land to be opened for settlement.
_____ 10. Taking part in the Run was often dangerous.
_____ 11. Only about one in ten who took part in the Run actually won a claim.
______ 12. Sooner activity ceased after the Run of ’89.
_____ 13. The Panhandle became a kind of battle ground between cattlemen and outlaws.
_____ 14. Many homesteaders built homes from sod.
II. If you wanted cheap land, which of the land distributions would you have participated in? Why?


I. CIRCLE THE ANSWER. If more than one answer is right, circle all the correct ones.
1. There were dust storms before, but the first of the Black Blizzards happened in the year

1929 1935 1940
2. A dust storm might include changes in

wind visibility temperature
3. How many Okies left the state after 1935?

almost a million almost two million more than 2-1/2 million
4. Farmers had to deal with swarms of

ants grasshoppers bees
5. An illness that caused thousands of children and older people to die was called

flu measles brown lung

6. The president during the Dust Bowl years was ______________________________________.
7. Young men went to work in camps when they joined the _____________________________.
8. Three states that suffered from Black Blizzards were ________________________________.
9. Three causes of this disaster were _______________________________________________.
10. Solutions to the Dust Bowl disaster included “listing” the land, replacing nutrients, and (name one
example) _____________________________________________________________________.

I. CIRCLE THE ANSWER. If more than one answer is right, circle more than one.
1. The Tulsa Race Riot happened in

1921 1920 1931
2. To control the riot, Tulsa used

police National Guard infantry
3. On May 31, a mob of about 2000 white men gathered

at the train station at the Drexel Building at the courthouse

4. A white church group and some white employers tried to do this.

chase the victims protect the victims warn the victims
5. How many city blocks of homes burned?

30-40 3000 1997
6. When a grand jury investigated, how many white people were indicted?

one ten 89
7. How many black people were indicted?

one ten 88
8. According to the text, how many black people lost their homes? ____________________________
9. When officers disarmed the white people, where did they send the white people?
10. When officers disarmed the African-American people, where did they send the people?
11. In a few words, describe a mob mentality. __________________________________________

12. In 2001 a commission recommended reparations, scholarship, economic development, and a memorial. What do you think those recommendations are supposed to do?



I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.

______ 1. An African-American man named Paul accompanied Jacob Fowler on his expedition into what later became Indian Territory.

______ 2. The painter, George Catlin, reported that he did not see a single African-American woman or man

on his travels.

______ 3. There were often bad feelings between African-Americans and Indians.
______ 4. Often Indians were hired to catch runaway slaves.
______ 5. Throughout the Civil War, the Union Army refused to accept African-American recruits.
______ 6. In 1866, the United States Congress passed an act providing for six African-American regiments

in the regular United States Army.

______ 7. General George Custer was one of those who refused to serve with African- American regiments.
______ 8. The first African-American man to graduate from West Point served with the 10th Calvary, which

served in Indian Territory.

______ 9. Even before the Civil War, African-Americans in Indian Territory were, mostly, free men.
______10. Bill Pickett, the famous African-American rodeo performer, invented the sport of bulldogging.
______11. Pickett’s way of throwing the calves is still being used by rodeo cowboys today.
______12. None of the trail crews on cattle drives had African-American cowboys among their crews.
______13. Buffalo soldiers helped to patrol the Unassigned Lands and to keep Sooners out of the lands that

were to be opened for settlement.

______14. Ike Rogers and Bass Reeves were famous black outlaws.
______15. Edward McCabe opposed an African-American state.

______16. The first bill that came before the Oklahoma Senate was a “Jim Crow” measure that segregated the races in transportation.

______17. Even though the races were segregated, African-American teachers were paid as much as whites and African-American schools received as much money as did the white schools.
______18. Legislation called the “Grandfather Clause” denied voting privileges to African-American citizens.
______19. State leaders did not cease their efforts to deny voting rights to African-American citizens until after World War II.
______20. By 1970, nearly 80% of Oklahoma’s African-American citizens still lived on small rural farms.

21. A prominent African-American leader who helped the NAACP to develop as a major force against
discrimination was the editor of the Tulsa Tribune the Black Dispatch in OKC
22. Both African-American and white communities respected disliked Roscoe Dunjee.
23. “Alfalfa Bill” Murray was was not Roscoe Dunjee’s supporter and friend.
24. African-Americans were were not allowed to serve on juries from the time of statehood.
25. When Katz Drug Store ended discrimination at its lunch counters, the sit ins stopped did not stop.
26. The Ada Lois Sipuel case changed did not change barriers of discrimination in higher education.
27. In 1963, Federal Judge Luther Bohanon ruled that the Oklahoma City Public Schools were
truly integrated not truly integrated
28. Public school integration in Oklahoma began in 1955 1970.
29. Hannah Atkins wrote a law to require lunch immunization for children in public schools.

30. The first African-American man elected to the state Senate was E. Melvin Porter Charles Atkins.


TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.
______ 1. Sequoyah was a full blood Cherokee.
______ 2. Sequoyah spoke Cherokee, English, and French.
______ 3. Sequoyah was among the Western Cherokees who moved to Arkansas before the forced removals.
______ 4. Sequoyah began work on a written Cherokee language before he moved west.
______ 5. A willing learner is usually able to read and write the Cherokee language in just a few days.
______ 6. The Cherokee alphabet has fewer symbols (or letters) than the English alphabet.
______ 7. Sequoyah’s Cherokee alphabet is no longer in use today.
______ 8. Eastern and Western Cherokees sent messages across the miles to each other.
______ 9. At one time, Sequoyah lived near the road between Fort Gibson and Fort Smith.
10. Name three obstacles or problems that made Sequoyah’s success remarkable.

I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.
______ 1. Stand Watie believed removal was inevitable for the Cherokees and tried to arrange the best conditions possible.

______ 2. Stand Watie and Elias Boudinot were brothers.

______ 3. The long feud between Cherokees involved full-blood and mixed-blood families.
______ 4. Once the tribe was in Indian Territory, the inter tribal troubles and killings stopped.
______ 5. John Ross led the full blood faction of the Cherokees.
______ 6. Of the four leaders who opposed Ross, Stand Watie was the only one who was not assassinated.
______ 7. Watie was an enthusiastic supporter of the Southern cause.
______ 8. Watie confined his warfare to Indian Territory.
______ 9. Watie and his Cherokee soldiers lost more battles than they won.
______10. Watie was one leader of a successful raid on Fort Smith.

11. Before the Civil War, what did Watie try to negotiate with John Ross? ___________________________
12. What did Watie’s brother, Buck, do for a living? ____________________________________________
13. Watie’s soldiers outnumbered the Union forces but did not have the
________________________________________ to win their battles.
14. The most important Civil War battle in Indian Territory happened about 12 miles from Muskogee at a place
called ___________________________________________________________________________.
15. At the end of the Civil War, Watie was the last Confederate ____________________________ to surrender.


I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” if it is false.

_____ 1. Will Rogers was part Cherokee Indian.
_____ 2. To reach Argentina, Will Rogers had to go from New Orleans, back to Galveston, then to New York, and finally, by way of Liverpool, England.
_____ 3. His return trip from Argentina was even longer and more circuitous than his trip to the Argentine.
_____ 4. He got his start in show business in Argentina.
_____ 5. Will Rogers went to Africa and Australia before he returned home.
_____ 6. His friend, Dick Parris, stayed with him throughout his travels around the world.
_____ 7. Rogers was good in the Wild West Shows but was a failure in Vaudeville.
_____ 8. Rogers did not like politicians and often made fun of them.
_____ 9. Rogers was called the “Patron Saint of Aviation.”
_____ 10. Will Rogers realized the commercial importance of aviation but never saw the military possibilities.
_____ 11. Will Rogers was killed in a plane crash in Alaska.
_____ 12. Rogers would not have gone on that last flight had he known that the plane would fly over Siberia.
II. WRITING. A young man from another state is visiting Oklahoma. He has asked you, “Why was Will Rogers so famous?” How could you answer his question so that he would understand who Will Rogers was and why he was important?



1. Christian missionaries included Presbyterians, Methodists, _________________________ and
2. Samuel Worcester tried to translate the Bible into the ______________________________________.

3. An early convert to Christianity became a Choctaw chief and superintendent of the ________

4. The first textbook published in Indian Territory was for _____________ schools.
5. A Baptist missionary, opposed to slavery, influenced Chief __________________ before the Civil War.
6. The Society of Friends, or Quakers, worked among ___________________________________ tribes.
7. Many missionaries tried to get rid of Indian _______________________________________________.
8. In the early years after removal, two tribes, ________________________________________________,
opposed mission efforts.
9. Based on your textbook, name two Western tribes who resisted the teaching of the missionaries:
10. The first church in Indian Territory was called ______________________________________________.


1. Which part of the state is Cold Springs Creek in?

panhandle center southeast
2. It was a popular rest spot on the

Mountain Route Cimarron Route Arkansas Route

3. The travelers came from as far as Texas Mexico Canada.

4. The climate in the region is damp mild dry
5. What are the bluffs (around the springs) made of? _______________________________
6. Evidence shows that the Santa Fe trail often followed Indian trails from
_________________________________________ to another.
7. The oldest date on Autograph Rock is ________________.
8. Who was F.B. Delgado? ______________________________________________________________
9. What trail is Autograph Rock on? (5 words) _______________________________________________
10. There are definitely at least 300 500 700 names on the rocks in the area.


I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.
______ 1. The Kiowas called 1833 the “year of the cutthroat massacre” because it was the year when Osage warriors massacred many of their tribe.
_____ 2. Indians traded land in the East for an equal amount of land in the West.
_____ 3. The white man thought the Indian was a barrier to progress.

Chief Kickingbird

_____ 4. Major Edward W. Wynkoop was a trusted white man among the Plains Indians.

______ 5. Major Wynkoop and Chief Black Kettle were personal friends.

______ 6. Chief Roman Nose was a great leader despite his short stature and his warlike attitude.

______ 7. At the meeting at Medicine Lodge Creek, Black Kettle was the only Indian chief allowed to speak.
_____ 8. Wynkoop angrily denounced Custer’s massacre of the Southern Cheyennes at the Battle of

the Washita.

_____ 9. General Sherman also denounced Custer’s role in the Battle of the Washita.
______10. Kickingbird was known as the “Orator of the Plains.”
______11. Kickingbird tried to convince the Kiowas that they had to adapt or die.
______12. The peace that Kickingbird sought came to the Kiowas soon after his death.
______13. The Ponca Chief Standing Bear had to prove in court that Indians are human beings.
______14. Although Standing Bear won his court case, the judge and the white audience were against him.
______ 15. Standing Bear was forced to bury his son on the Ponca lands in Indian Territory.
II. EXPLAIN. Read about the Battle of the Washita, then answer these questions.
1. What difficulties did Major Wynkoop face when he tried to defend Black Kettle?
2. Do you think Major Wynkoop did the right thing when he resigned his position as an agent to some of

the Western tribes? Give reasons for your answer. _____________________________________________________________________________________


I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.

_____ 1. Bill Doolin was killed by U.S. Deputy Marshal Heck Thomas.
_____ 2. “Bitter Creek” was the place where the Doolin Gang hid from the law.
_____ 3. All of the Dalton Brothers were killed in Coffeyville, Kansas,

when they tried to rob two banks at the same time. Belle Starr

_____ 4. The Dalton Gang was also called the “Wild Bunch.”
_____ 5. Bill Tilghman had once been a government scout during the Cheyenne Arapaho War of 1874.
_____ 6. Bill Tilghman was once marshal of Dodge City, Kansas.
_____ 7. Bill Doolin had the chance to kill Tilghman but refused to shoot Tilghman in the back.
_____ 8. To add to his fame as a lawman, Tilghman wanted to shoot and kill Bill Doolin himself.
_____ 9. None of the famous lawmen or outlaws were African American.
_____ 10. “Cherokee Bill” was a member of the Cook Gang.
_____ 11. Ned Christie was probably innocent of the charge of murdering U.S. Deputy Marshal

Daniel Maples.

_____ 12. Belle Starr often dressed as a man and called herself “Tom King.”
_____ 13. Belle Starr was the only outlaw who was a woman during the outlaw days in Indian Territory.
_____ 14. Belle Starr was a beautiful woman.
_____ 15. Belle Starr died from being shot in the back by an unknown assailant.

I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.

______ 1. Wiley Post’s plane was named the “Winnie Mae.”

_____ 2. Post was a wealthy man who was able to fund his own projects.
_____ 3. Post lost the sight of his left eye in a plane crash in 1928.
_____ 4. Post always wore a black eye patch over his left eye socket.
_____ 5. Post was born and raised on a farm near Maysville, Oklahoma.
_____ 6. Post was among the first to notice high winds in the upper atmosphere.
_____ 7. Post never finished high school but was a self educated man.
_____ 8. Post built a pressurized suit for flight in the upper atmosphere.
______ 9. Will Rogers and Wiley Post planned an airplane trip around the world.
______10. Rogers and Post were killed when the “Winnie Mae” crashed in Siberia.
II. WRITING. How was Wiley Post a man “ahead of his time?”
1. Why was the group called Kiowa Five and Kiowa Six? _____________________________________
2. Five of the members attended a mission school in (location) _________________________________.

3. Later they all moved to (location) ___________________________________________.

4. They published a collection in 1929 about Kiowa daily life as well as _______________________
5. When these artists were born, they were living in a territory a state Chickasha
6. The Kiowa Six received formal art lessons family art lessons both.
7. They spent a lot of time perfecting their sculpture painting beadwork.
8. They created a new style of painting that portrayed ceremonies and

family portraits social scenes landscapes.
9. The director of the Art Department tried to ______________ the work of the Kiowa Six.

promote dictate ignore
10. The Kiowa Six succeeded in the international fine art world. Among successful Native American

artists, they were the first the last neither first nor last

1. The U.S. Highway System established Route 66 in (year) ______________.
2. Originally Route 66 ran from (city) ____________________ to (city) ___________________________.
3. The U.S. Highway System officially removed Route 66 from its system in (year) ________________.
4. What replaced Route 66? _____________________________________________________________
5. How was it important during the Dust Bowl years?


6. How did the route affect the economy of towns across the state?


7. How long was the route? about 240 miles about 2400 miles about 4000 miles

8. Other names for Route 66 are (name three or more): _______________________________________
9. How did the entertainment industry make Route 66 even more famous?
10. An animated film from Disney and Pixar takes places on Route 66. What is its name? ______________

II. DRAW ROUTE 66. Listen to the song, “Get Your Kicks on Route 66,” and refer to a national map to draw the route.

This excerpt from Wikipedia will help you find the towns in the song:

The lyrics read as a mini-travelogue about the major stops along the route, listing several cities and towns that Route 66 passes through, viz. St Louis; Joplin, Missouri; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Amarillo, Texas; Gallup, New Mexico; Flagstaff, Arizona; Winona, Arizona; Kingman, Arizona; Barstow, California; and San Bernardino, California. Winona is the only town out of sequence: it was a very small settlement east of Flagstaff, and might indeed have been forgotten if not for the lyric "Don't forget Winona," written to rhyme with "Flagstaff, Arizona." Many artists who have covered the tune over the years have changed the initial lyrics, usually to "It goes to St. Louis, down through Missouri..." then continuing on with Oklahoma City and so on. Of the eight states that the actual route passes through, only Kansas and its cities are not mentioned by the song.


I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.
______ 1. Many pioneer women had to educate their own children at home.
______ 2. Education and religion were important to the pioneer woman.
______ 3. Kate Barnard was one of the first women in the nation elected to a state office.
______ 4. When Kate took office, Oklahoma was boarding its prisoners in Kansas.

Wilma Mankiller
______ 5. The Oklahoma State Prison at McAlester was a model prison when it was built.
______ 6. Kate Barnard lost her power and retired when she tried to give Indian orphans their inheritances.
______ 7. The African-American children who took part in the Civil Rights “sit ins” in Oklahoma City had had no training in nonviolent protests.

______ 8. Mrs. Clara Luper led the young protesters.

______ 9. The first sit ins took place at the John A. Brown lunch counter in downtown Oklahoma City.
_____ 10. The John A. Brown Store was the first store to end discrimination in public accommodations.
______ 11. A boycott of downtown businesses by African-American citizens was ineffective.
______ 12. In the late 1960’s, five of the most famous dancers in the world were from this state.

______ 13. Yvonne Chouteau is the direct descendant of Jean Pierre Chouteau.

______ 14. Of the five Indian ballerinas, Maria Tallchief has maintained the closest ties with Oklahoma.
______ 15. The coach with the best “win loss” record in any sport in the nation is Mrs. Bertha Frank Teague, former girls’ basketball coach in Byng, Oklahoma.
______ 16. Mrs. Teague influenced changes in the rules for girls’ basketball that greatly improved the speed and quality of the game.
______ 17. The first African-American woman elected to the Oklahoma legislature was Hannah Atkins.
______ 18. The first woman to serve as a justice on Oklahoma’s Supreme Court is Alma Wilson from

Pauls Valley.

(continues on next page)
19. Alma Wilson was appointed to the State Supreme Court U.S. Supreme Court.
20. Mrs. Clara Waters was the first woman in the U.S. to serve as warden guard of a penitentiary.
21. The first woman elected chief of the Cherokee Nation was Winona Drumright Wilma Mankiller.
22. Ms Magazine named Chief Mankiller Clare Walters the Woman of the Year in 1987.
23. Dr. Jeane Kirkpatrick, from Duncan, served as Ambassador to Kenya the United Nations.
24. The first woman of any race to serve as Secretary of State for Oklahoma was

Alma Wilson Jeannette Edmondson
25. The first woman Governor of this state was Alice Mary Robertson Mary Fallin.


1. The state has various college sports teams. How many major (professional) sports teams are based here? _______________

2. Before moving to Oklahoma City, what city was the team’s home? _______________________

3. The team re-located to Oklahoma City in (year) ______________.
4. Players won their first division title (as the Thunder) in the ________________________ season.
5. In the 1012 playoffs, the Thunder beat the _____________________ in the Western Conference.
6. In 2012, when the Thunder reached the NBA Finals, it was the __________ time in their history.
7. They lost the 2012 Finals to the ________________________________.
8. Colors on the uniforms are white, ________________ and ______________________.
9. The Ford Center is now called (3 words) _____________________________________________________.
Option: Answer either 10a or 10b.
10a. The Thunder introduced its team mascot early in 2009. Its name is ______________.
10b. How is supporting a professional team different from supporting a school team?
I. TRUE or FALSE. Use “T’ if the statement is true; use “F” is the statement is false.
______ 1. The major influx of European settlers occurred before Oklahoma Territory was opened to

white settlement in 1889.

_____ 2. The largest groups of land seeking immigrants to come to Oklahoma were German in culture and


______ 3. The German people who came from the Volga River area in Russia were fishermen.

______ 4. Most German immigrants came directly to Oklahoma from various European sites because they heard about the land runs.

______ 5. Most Mennonite immigrants settled in north central counties of Oklahoma.
______ 6. Polish immigrants were mostly miners who came into the Choctaw Nation in the early 1870’s.
______ 7. Many Czech settlers were ‘Sooners’ who lost land claims because of hasty actions.
______ 8. Among the first settlers to come to Oklahoma were trappers from England, who settled near the trading posts at Fort Gibson.
______ 9. Many Irishmen came into Oklahoma to work on the railroads.
______ 10. In comparison with the other groups of immigrants, Italians were numerous.
______ 11. Italians settled in the McAlester and Krebs areas.
______ 12. During the 1920’s, Jewish immigrants who had come to the area for religious reasons found

themselves victims of persecution by the Ku Klux Klan.

______ 13. The latest influx of immigrants into Oklahoma brought people from Asia to the state.
______ 14. Many Mexicans lived in Oklahoma long before Oklahoma became a state.
_____ 15. The railroads brought the first large influx of Mexican immigrants.
_____ 16. Mexican immigrants have kept their character, language, and culture in their homes.
______ 17. Mexican Americans were the nation’s most highly decorated ethnic minority during World War II.
______ 18. Many ethnic groups have found profitable sources of income in restaurants that specialize

in ethnic foods.

______ 19. Of all people living in Oklahoma, only members of the Five Civilized Indian Tribes can claim to be indigenous.

_____ 20. Many African-American citizens came into Oklahoma during the Indian Removals.
II. MAP. On the map of Oklahoma below, use the following color code and color in the counties settled by immigrants from Europe.
Green   English Trappers Pink   Mennonites

Blue   Italians Orange   Poles

Yellow   Czechs
Following are the counties of settlement:

English trappers – Cherokee

Italians – Pittsburg

Czechs - Canadian, Kingfisher, Lincoln

Mennonites – Washita

Poles - Washington, Pittsburg, Rogers

I. DIRECTIONS. Write a sentence identifying each of these Native Americans. Include the person’s major area of success (such as the military, the arts, and so on).
1. Ann Shadlow __________________________________________________________________________
2. Harvey Pratt____________________________________________________________________________
3. Hal Muldrow ___________________________________________________________________________
4. M. Scott Momaday_______________________________________________________________________

5. LaDonna Harris ­­________________________________________________________________________

6. Charles Pratt____________________________________________________________________________
7. Ernest Childers__________________________________________________________________________
8. Allie Reynolds__________________________________________________________________________
9. Bert Seabourn___________________________________________________________________________
10. Enoch Kelly Haney_____________________________________________________________________


11. Alice Brown Davis____________________________________________________________________

12. Napoleon B. Johnson___________________________________________________________________
14. Muriel Wright_________________________________________________________________________
15. Jim Thorpe____________________________________________________________________________

II. WRITING. Select a Native American whom you most admire, from this article, textbook or a library source. Write a brief biographical sketch of that person in the space below. Tell why you admire this person.




1. The Chickasaw Cultural Center is south of the capital, between Ardmore and Ada, in ___________.

2. The Center teaches traditions, but it is not a traditional ___________________________.
3. It has both indoor exhibits and __________________________________________ to share the story
of the Chickasaw Nation.
4. What are two features of the area outside? __________________________________________


5. The exhibit center re-creates a council house from the ________________________.
6. What demonstrations happen in the traditional village? _________________________________
7. Visitors interact with artists making Native costumes as well as (3 items) __________________

8. The Holisso Research Center is useful for Chickasaws and _______________________________.
9. Besides genealogy collections, the Center has photo archives and _________________________.
10. In the storage room for artifacts, what gets controlled? __________________________________



I. CIRCLE THE ANSWER. If more than one answer is right, circle all the right ones.
1. Jim Thorpe’s family identified with the tribe called

Sac and Fox Pawnee Kickapoo
2. Thorpe was a natural

scholar athlete scholar-athlete
3. Thorpe’s childhood home was

in the city on a farm in a fishing village
4. Jim Thorpe first became successful when he was a student at

Haskell Carlisle Stockholm
5. As an adult he played professional

baseball football hockey

6. Jim Thorpe was born in the year _______________, before the first land run.
7. He made history at the Olympics in the year ________________.
8. When he lost his standing as an amateur, he lost his _____________________________.
9. In the 1980s, the Olympic medals were given to his _____________________________.
10. A building at the State _______________________________ is named for him.


Here are two worksheets to help you write your essay.

If your teacher does not assign one particular worksheet, you may choose the one that fits you best.


My essay will have (number) ______ paragraph(s). A paragraph should have four or five sentences. It will have one main idea and the other sentences will explain or give details about that main idea. None of the sentences are copied straight from the book.
I am reading the Spotlight about (name) ___________________________. I want to include these points in my essay (check the ones you want):

  • When and where the person grew up

    • Details about family life

    • Details about young life that affected later life

    • The person’s original name (Is it different now? Why?)

  • Where the person lived or still lives as an adult

  • What s/he is famous for

    • Titles of his/her songs, books, artwork

    • Names of his/her jobs or companies

    • A few of the awards or honors s/he earned

  • His/her personality (Quiet? Lively? Generous? Hard to please? etc.)

  • A quote from the person about his or her work

  • A quote from someone else about this person’s work or personality

  • Other interesting points I might include are:



My essay’s most important idea will be something like this (circle one):

__(name)_ is a role model because she was dedicated to her work as a…

__(name)_ is important because s/he has been a leader in government and education.

__(name)_ has an unusual place in history. He is best known for ______________.

Now that you have some ideas for your essay, start writing! Then go back and read your draft. Does it include everything you want? What will you change for the final essay?


This essay has a paragraph about the person’s childhood and family, a paragraph

about young adulthood, and a paragraph about accomplishments and importance.

Student’s name

Famous person’s name

1st paragraph

Start with something like:

________ was born (when and where). Growing up, s/he _________.

Fill in enough details to have four or five sentences in this paragraph.

2nd paragraph

After high school, (person) worked as a __________. His/her goal was

to __________________, but _______________. S/he was able to _________.

By (age or year) s/he got hired at / was learning more about / moving to _______________.

Fill in enough details to have four or five sentences in this paragraph.

3rd paragraph

S/he has won awards such as __________


S/he became (a writer? a business owner?) in the (1930s? 1990s?).

Fill in a few key points. End the paragraph with something like:

Today _________ is important because ___________.

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