1. Sri Sukadeva Gosvami said: My dear King, thereafter, at the request of Lord Brahma, Prajapati Daksa, who is known as Pracetasa, begot sixty daughters in the womb of his wife Asikni. All the daughters were very affectionate toward their father.
2. He gave ten daughters in charity to Dharmaraja [Yamaraja], thirteen to Kasyapa [first twelve and then one more], twenty-seven to the moon-god, and two each to Angira, Krsasva and Bhuta. The other four daughters were given to Kasyapa. [Thus Kasyapa received seventeen daughters in all.]
3. Now please hear from me the names of all these daughters and their descendants, who filled all the three worlds.
4. The ten daughters given to Yamaraja were named Bhanu, Lamba, Kakud, Yami, Visva, Sadhya, Marutvati, Vasu, Muhurta and Sankalpa. Now hear the names of their sons.
5. O King, a son named Deva-rsabha was born from the womb of Bhanu, and from him came a son named Indrasena. From the womb of Lamba came a son named Vidyota, who generated all the clouds.
6. From the womb of Kakud came the son named Sankata, whose son was named Kikata. From Kikata came the demigods named Durga. From Yami came the son named Svarga, whose son was named Nandi.
7. The sons of Visva were the Visvadevas, who had no progeny. From the womb of Sadhya came the Sadhyas, who had a son named Arthasiddhi.
8. The two sons who took birth from the womb of Marutvati were Marutvari and Jayanta. Jayanta, who is an expansion of Lord Vasudeva, is known as Upendra.
9. The demigods named the Mauhurtikas took birth from the womb of Muhurta. These demigods deliver the results of actions to the living entities of their respective times.
10-11. The son of Sankalpa was known as Sankalpa, and from him lust was born. The sons of Vasu were known as the eight Vasus. Just hear their names from me: Drona, Prana, Dhruva, Arka, Agni, Dosa, Vastu and Vibhavasu. From Abhimati, the wife of the Vasu named Drona, were generated the sons named Harsa, Soka, Bhaya and so on.
12. Urjasvati, the wife of Prana, gave birth to three sons, named Saha, Ayus and Purojava. The wife of Dhruva was known as Dharani, and from her womb various cities took birth.
13. From the womb of Vasana, the wife of Arka, came many sons, headed by Tarsa. Dhara, the wife of the Vasu named Agni, gave birth to many sons, headed by Dravinaka.
14. From Krttika, another wife of Agni, came the son named Skanda, Karttikeya, whose sons were headed by Visakha. From the womb of Sarvari, the wife of the Vasu named Dosa, came the son named Sisumara, who was an expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
15. From Angirasi, the wife of the Vasu named Vastu, was born the great architect Visvakarma. Visvakarma became the husband of Akrti, from whom the Manu named Caksusa was born. The sons of Manu were known as the Visvadevas and Sadhyas.
16. Usa, the wife of Vibhavasu, gave birth to three sons--Vyusta, Rocisa and Atapa. From Atapa came Pancayama, the span of day, who awakens all living entities to material activities.
17-18. Sarupa, the wife of Bhuta, gave birth to the ten million Rudras, of whom the eleven principle Rudras were Raivata, Aja, Bhava, Bhima, Vama, Ugra, Vrsakapi, Ajaikapat, Ahirbradhna, Bahurupa and Mahan. Their associates, the ghosts and goblins, who are very fearful, were born of the other wife of Bhuta.
19. The prajapati Angira had two wives, named Svadha and Sati. The wife named Svadha accepted all the Pitas as her sons, and Sati accepted the Atharvangirasa Veda as her son.
20. Krsasva had two wives, named Arcis and Dhisana. In the wife named Arcis he begot Dhumaketu and in Dhisana he begot four sons, named Vedasira, Devala, Vayuna and Manu.
21-22. Kasyapa, who is also named Tarksya, had four wives--Vinata [Suparna], Kadru, Patangi and Yamini. Patangi gave birth to many kinds of birds, and Yamini gave birth to locusts. Vinata [Suparna] gave birth to Garuda, the carrier of Lord Visnu, and to Anuru, or Aruna, the chariot driver of the sun-god. Kadru gave birth to different varieties of serpents.
23. O Maharaja Pariksit, best of the Bharatas, the constellations named Krttika were all wives of the moon-god. However, because Prajapati Daksa had cursed him to suffer from a disease causing gradual destruction, the moon-god could not beget children in any of his wives.
24-26. Thereafter the King of the moon pacified Prajapati Daksa with courteous words and thus regained the portions of light he had lost during his disease. Nevertheless he could not beget children. The moon loses his shining power during the dark fortnight, and in the bright fortnight it is manifest again. O King Pariksit, now please hear from me the names of Kasyapa's wives, from whose wombs the population of the entire universe has come. They are the mothers of almost all the population of the entire universe, and their names are very auspicious to hear. They are Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kastha, Arista, Surasa, Ila, Muni, Krodhavasa, Tamra, Surabhi, Sarama and Timi. From the womb of Timi all the aquatics took birth, and from the womb of Sarama the ferocious animals like the tigers and lions took birth.
27. My dear King Pariksit, from the womb of Surabhi the buffalo, cow and other animals with cloven hooves took birth, from the womb of Tamra the eagles, vultures and other large birds of prey took birth, and from the womb of Muni the angels took birth.
28. The sons born of Krodhavasa were the serpents known as dandasuka, as well as other serpents and the mosquitoes. All the various creepers and trees were born from the womb of Ila. The Raksasas, bad spirits, were born from the womb of Surasa.
29-31. The Gandharvas were born from the womb of Arista, and animals whose hooves are not split, such as the horse, were born from the womb of Kastha. O King, from the womb of Danu came sixty-one sons, of whom these eighteen were very important: Dvimurdha, Sambara, Arista, Hayagriva, Vibhavasu, Ayomukha, Sankusira, Svarbhanu, Kapila, Aruna, Puloma, Vrsaparva, Ekacakra, Anutapana, Dhumrakesa, Virupaksa, Vipracitti and Durjaya.
32. The daughter of Svarbhanu named Suprabha was married by Namuci. The daughter of Vrsaparva named Sarmistha was given to the powerful King Yayati, the son of Nahusa.
33-36. Vaisvanara, the son of Danu, had four beautiful daughters, named Upadanavi, Hayasira, Puloma and Kalaka. Hiranyaksa married Upadanavi, and Kratu married Hayasira. Thereafter, at the request of Lord Brahma, Prajapati Kasyapa married Puloma and Kalaka, the other two daughters of Vaisvanara. From the wombs of these two wives of Kasyapa came sixty thousand sons, headed by Nivatakavaca, who are known as the Paulomas and the Kalakeyas. They were physically very strong and expert in fighting, and their aim was to disturb the sacrifices performed by the great sages. My dear King, when your grandfather Arjuna went to the heavenly planets, he alone killed all these demons, and thus King Indra became extremely affectionate toward him.
37. In his wife Simhika, Vipracitti begot one hundred and one sons, of whom the eldest is Rahu and the others are the one hundred Ketus. All of them attained positions in the influential planets.
38-39. Now please hear me as I describe the descendants of Aditi in chronological order. In this dynasty the Supreme Personality of Godhead Narayana descended by His plenary expansion. The names of the sons of Aditi are as follows: Vivasvan, Aryama, Pusa, Tvasta, Savita, Bhaga, Dhata, Vidhata, Varuna, Mitra, Satru and Urukrama.
40. Samjna, the wife of Vivasvan, the sun-god, gave birth to the Manu named Sraddhadeva, and the same fortunate wife also gave birth to the twins Yamaraja and the River Yamuna. Then Yami, while wandering on the earth in the form of a mare, gave birth to the Asvini-kumaras.
41. Chaya, another wife of the sun-god, begot two sons named Sanaiscara and Savarni Manu, and one daughter, Tapati, who married Samvarana.
42. From the womb of Matrka, the wife of Aryama, were born many learned scholars. Among them Lord Brahma created the human species, which are endowed with an aptitude for self-examination.
43. Pusa had no sons. When Lord Siva was angry at Daksa, Pusa had laughed at Lord Siva and shown his teeth. Therefore he lost his teeth and had to live by eating only ground flour.
44. Racana, the daughter of the Daityas, became the wife of Prajapati Tvasta. By his semina he begot in her womb two very powerful sons named Sannivesa and Visvarupa.
45. Although Visvarupa was the son of the daughter of their eternal enemies the demons, the demigods accepted him as their priest in accordance with the order of Brahma when they were abandoned by their spiritual master, Brhaspati, whom they had disrespected.
Chapter Seven Indra Offends His Spiritual Master, Brhaspati.
1. Maharaja Pariksit inquired from Sukadeva Gosvami: O great sage, why did the spiritual master of the demigods, Brhaspati, reject the demigods, who were his own disciples? What offense did the demigods commit against their spiritual master? Please describe to me this incident.
2-8. Sukadeva Gosvami said: O King, once upon a time, the King of heaven, Indra, being extremely proud because of his great opulence of the three worlds, transgressed the law of Vedic etiquette. Seated on his throne, he was surrounded by the Maruts, Vasus, Rudras, Adityas, Rbhus, Visvadevas, Sadhyas, Asvini-kumaras, Siddhas, Caranas and Gandharvas and by great saintly persons. Also surrounding him were the Vidyadharas, Apsaras, Kinnaras, Patagas [birds] and Uragas [snakes]. All of them were offering Indra their respects and services, and the Apsaras and Gandharvas were dancing and singing with very sweet musical instruments. Over Indra's head was a white umbrella as effulgent as the full moon. Fanned by yak-tail whisks and served with all the paraphernalia of a great king, Indra was sitting with his wife, Sacidevi, who occupied half the throne, when the great sage Brhaspati appeared in that assembly. Brhaspati, the best of the sages, was the spiritual master of Indra and the demigods and was respected by the demigods and demons alike. Nevertheless, although Indra saw his spiritual master before him, he did not rise from his own seat or offer a seat to his spiritual master, nor did Indra offer him a respectful welcome. Indra did nothing to show him respect.
9. Brhaspati knew everything that would happen in the future. Seeing Indra's transgression of etiquette, he completely understood that Indra was puffed up by his material opulence. Although able to curse Indra, he did not do so. Instead, he left the assembly and in silence returned to his home.
10. Indra, the King of heaven, could immediately understand his mistake. Realizing he had disrespected his spiritual master, he condemned himself in the presence of all the members of the assembly.
11. Alas, what a regrettable deed I have committed because of my lack of intelligence and my pride in my material opulences. I failed to show respect to my spiritual master when he entered this assembly, and thus I have insulted him.
12. Although I am King of the demigods, who are situated in the mode of goodness, I was proud of a little opulence and polluted by false ego. Under the circumstances, who in this world would accept such riches at the risk of falling down ? Alas! I condemn my wealth and opulence.
13. If a person says, "One who is situated on the exalted throne of a king should not stand up to show respect to another king or a brahmana," it is to be understood that he does not know the superior religious principles.
14. Leaders who have fallen into ignorance and who mislead people by directing them to the path of destruction [as described in the previous verse] are, in effect, boarding a stone boat, and so too are those who blindly follow them. A stone boat would be unable to float and would sink in the water with its passengers. Similarly, those who mislead people go to hell, and their followers go with them.
15. King Indra said: Therefore with great frankness and without duplicity I shall now bow my head at the lotus feet of Brhaspati, the spiritual master of the demigods. Because he is in the mode of goodness, he is fully aware of all knowledge and is the best of the brahmanas. Now I shall touch his lotus feet and offer my obeisances unto him to try to satisfy him.
16. While Indra, the King of the demigods, thought in this way and repented in his own assembly, Brhaspati, the most powerful spiritual master, understood his mind. Thus he became invisible to Indra and left home, for Brhaspati was spiritually more powerful than King Indra.
17. Although Indra searched vigorously with the assistance of the other demigods, he could not find Brhaspati. Then Indra thought, "Alas, my spiritual master has become dissatisfied with me, and now I have no means of achieving good fortune." Although Indra was surrounded by demigods, he could not find peace of mind.
18. Hearing of the pitiable condition of King Indra, the demons, following the instructions of their guru, Sukracarya, equipped themselves with weapons and declared war against the demigods.
19. The demigods' heads, thighs and arms and the other parts of their bodies were injured by the sharp arrows of the demons. The demigods, headed by Indra, saw no other course than to immediately approach Lord Brahma with bowed heads for shelter and proper instruction.
20. When the most powerful Lord Brahma saw the demigods coming toward him, their bodies gravely injured by the arrows of the demons, he pacified them by his great causeless mercy and spoke as follows.
21. Lord Brahma said: O best of the demigods, unfortunately, because of madness resulting from your material opulence, you failed to receive Brhaspati properly when he came to your assembly. Because he is aware of the Supreme Brahman and fully in control of his senses, he is the best of the brahmanas. Therefore it is very astonishing that you have acted impudently toward him.
22. Because of your misbehavior toward Brhaspati, you have been defeated by the demons. My dear demigods, since the demons were weak, having been defeated by you several times, how else could you, who were so advanced in opulence, be defeated by them?
23. O Indra, your enemies, the demons, were extremely weak because of their disrespect toward Sukracarya, but since they have now worshiped Sukracarya with great devotion, they have again become powerful. By their devotion to Sukracarya, they have increased their strength so much that now they are even able to easily seize my abode from me.
24. Because of their firm determination to follow the instructions of Sukracarya, his disciples, the demons, are now unconcerned about the demigods. In fact, kings or others who have determined faith in the mercy of brahmanas, cows and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, and who always worship these three are always strong in their position.
25. O demigods, I instruct you to approach Visvarupa, the son of Tvasta, and accept him as your guru. He is a pure and very powerful brahmana undergoing austerity and penances. Pleased by your worship, he will fulfill your desires, provided that you tolerate his being inclined to side with the demons.
26. Srila Sukadeva Gosvami continued: Thus advised by Lord Brahma and relieved of their anxiety, all the demigods went to the sage Visvarupa, the son of Tvasta. My dear King, they embraced him and spoke as follows.
27. The demigods said: Beloved Visvarupa, may there be all good fortune for you. We, the demigods, have come to your asrama as your guests. Please try to fulfill our desires according to the time, since we are on the level of your parents.
28. O brahmana, the highest duty of a son, even though he has sons of his own, is to serve his parents, and what to speak of a son who is a brahmacari?
29-30. The acarya, the spiritual master who teaches all the Vedic knowledge and gives initiation by offering the sacred thread, is the personification of all the Vedas. Similarly, a father personifies Lord Brahma; a brother, King Indra; a mother, the planet earth; and a sister, mercy. A guest personifies religious principles, an invited guest personifies the demigod Agni, and all living entities personify Lord Visnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
31. Dear son, we have been defeated by our enemies, and therefore we are very much aggrieved. Please mercifully fulfill our desires by relieving our distress through the strength of your austerities. Please fulfill our prayers.
32. Since you are completely aware of the Supreme Brahman, you are a perfect brahmana, and therefore you are the spiritual master of all orders of life. We accept you as our spiritual master and director so that by the power of your austerity we may easily defeat the enemies who have conquered us.
33. The demigods continued: Do not fear criticism for being younger than us. Such etiquette does not apply in regard to Vedic mantras. Except in relationship to Vedic mantras, seniority is determined by age, but one may offer respectful obeisances even to a younger person who is advanced in chanting Vedic mantras. Therefore although you are junior in relationship to us, you may become our priest without hesitation.
34. Sukadeva Gosvami continued: When all the demigods requested the great Visvarupa to be their priest, Visvarupa, who was advanced in austerities, was very pleased. He replied to them as follows.
35. Sri Visvarupa said: O demigods, although the acceptance of priesthood is decried as causing the loss of previously acquired brahminical power, how can someone like me refuse to accept your personal request? You are all exalted commanders of the entire universe. I am your disciple and must take many lessons from you. Therefore I cannot refuse you. I must agree for my own benefit.
36. O exalted governors of various planets, the true brahmana, who has no material possessions, maintains himself by the profession of accepting silonchana. In other words, he picks up grains left in the field and on the ground in the wholesale marketplace. By this means, householder brahmanas who actually abide by the principles of austerity and penance maintain themselves and their families and perform all necessary pious activities. A brahmana who desires to achieve happiness by gaining wealth through professional priesthood must certainly have a very low mind. How shall I accept such priesthood?
37. All of you are my superiors. Therefore although accepting priesthood is sometimes reproachable, I cannot refuse even a small request from you. I agree to be your priest. I shall fulfill your request by dedicating my life and possessions.
38. Sri Sukadeva Gosvami continued: O King, after making this promise to the demigods, the exalted Visvarupa, surrounded by the demigods, performed the necessary priestly activities with great enthusiasm and attention.
39. The opulence of the demons, who are generally known as the enemies of the demigods, was protected by the talents and tactics of Sukracarya, but Visvarupa, who was most powerful, composed a protective prayer known as the Narayana-kavaca. By this intelligent mantra, he took away the opulence of the demons and gave it to Mahendra, the King of heaven.
40. Visvarupa, who was most liberal, spoke to King Indra [Sahasraksa] the secret hymn that protected Indra and conquered the military power of the demons.