|“The Ad-Hoc Committee to Oversee the use of the Catechism, National Conference of Catholic Bishops, has found this catechetical, copyright 2000, to be in conformity with the Catechism of the Catholic Church”.
STAFF AND CONTRIBUTORS
General Editor Dr. Gerald Lordan, Ph.D Director of Institutional Advancement, Fenwick High School, Oak Park, Illinois.
Manuscript Editor Mrs. Mary Lou Lammers, Mother, Teacher, Paralegal.
Art and Design Mr. John Sarsfield, M.Ed., M.A. Art Institute.
Sponsor Fr. William J. Bernacki, O.P., M.Ed., Past President-Principal, Fenwick High School.
THE AUTHORS OF THIS VOLUME
Fr. Benedict Ashley, O.P., Ph.D., STM, President Emeritus, Aquinas Institute, St. Linus, M.O.
Fr. Jordan Aumunn O.P., STD., Professor Emeritus, Anglicum in Rome, Prominent Author.
Fr. Robert Barry O.P., Ph.D University of Illinois in Chicago. Health Sciences Campus.
Fr. Brian Aluliady, O.P., S.T.D., Holy Apostles Seminary, Cromwell, CT.
EXCERPTS ARE TAKEN FROM
A History of the Church, Series Editor, Hubert Jedin, Published in New York by Crossroads, ten volumes beginning 1981.
A History of the Church, three volumes, Sheed and Ward, London, 1985.
A History of the Church, 4th Edition by Williston Walker, Richard Norris.
David Lotz, Robert Handy, Schribners, New York, 1985.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 00-108369
Copyright © 2000 AD
All Rights Reserved
ISBN Number 1-931161-00-3
Printed in the United States of American
Imprimi Protest: Very Reverend Edward M. Ruane, O.P Prior Provincial.
Nihil Obstat: Reverend Michael Mulball, O. Carm. Censor Deputatus.
January 23, 2001.
Imprimatur: Most Reverend Raymond E. Goedert, M.A., S.T.L., J.C.L. Vicar General Archdiocese of Chicago.
January 26, 2001.
January 28, 2011 Feast of St. Thomas Aquinas, O.P.
The Nihil Obstat and Imprimatur are official declarations that a book is free of doctrinal and moral error. No Imprimatur is contained therein that those who have granted the Nihil Obstat and Imprimatur agree with the content, opinions or statements expressed.
We are grateful to:
Very Reverend Edward M. Ruane, O.P., Prior Provincial.
Mr. Jack Sarsfield, for his cover design and art work.
Ms. Priscilla Borsch, Mr. William Gibbs and Mrs. Mary Henson for their computer technology.
Fr. Robert A. Kilbridge, O.P., Fr. Quentin Moriarty, O.P. and Fr. Brian Rejsek, Peoria Tribunal, for Doctrinal Refinement.
Mrs. Pat Weldon, for her financial assistance.
Mr. Thomas, Egan, Mr. Bartholomew Juncer, Mr. Joseph Konrad.
Mr. joseph Wemhoff and Mrs. Mary White, for their careful reading of the text.
Mr. Thomas Sommers and Mr. Dan Sommers, for their printing advice and expertise.
For the time, patience, unlimited self, giving of many truth lovers.
Scripture excerpts are taken from the New American Bible with Reversed New Testament and Psalms copyright © 1991, 1986, 1970 confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc. Washington, DC. Used with permission. All rights reserved. No part of the New American Bible, may be reproduced by any means without permission in writing from the copyright owner.
English translation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church for the United States of American copyright © 1994, United States Catholic Conference Inc. - Libraries Editrice Vaticana. English translation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church: Modifications from the Editio Typica copyrights © 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc. – Liberia Editrice Vaticana.
Scripture quotations with catechism quotes are adapted from the Revised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright © 1946, 1952, 1971, and the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright © 1989, by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of American, and are used by permission. All rights reserved.
Excerpts from the Code of Canon Law, Latin/English Edition, are used with permission, copyright © 1983 Canon Law Society of American, Washington, D.C.
Citations of official Church documents from Neuner, Josef, SJ and Dupuis. Jacques, SJ, eds., The Christian Faith: Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church, 5th ed. (New York: Alba House, 1992). Used with permission.
Excerpts from Vatican Counciliar and-Post Counciliar Documents, New Revised Edition edited by Austin Flannery, O.P, copyright © 1992, Costello Publishing Company, Inc., Northport, NY, are used by permission of the Publisher, all rights reserved. No part of these excerpts may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means-electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without express permission of Costello Publishing Company.
THE HOLY BIBLE GOD’S WORK IN HUMAN WORDS
UNIT: INTRODUCTION TO THE OLD TESTAMENT – 3
The Bible and the Truth it Conveys -3: True Wisdom -3: Divine Revelation -3: Scripture and Tradition -3: Dei Verhum (“The Word of God”) -4: Bible is without error -5: Senses of Scripture -6: Christians need the guidance of the Church – 8: Canon of the Bible? -8: Books of the Canon -10: Scripture and The Word of God -11: Thinking it over -12.
CHAPTER 1: CREATION THROUGH NOAH (GENESIS 1:11-13).
Creation -13: Religious message of Genesis -13: Adam and Eve (Genesis 2:3-14): Cain and Abel (Genesis 4)-15: Evil ways of the grew -16: Noah (Genesis 5-10)-16: Thinking it over -18.
CHAPTER 2: ABRAHAM AND SARAH THROUGH JOSEPH (GENESIS 12-50) -19.
Abraham and Sarah -19: The mysterious priest-king Melehzedek -19: Sarai persuaded Abram to have a son by Hagar -20: God renewed his covenant with Abram -20: Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah his covenant with Abraham, Isaac (the laughter) -21: Abraham’s sacrifice -22: Abraham father of jews, Christians and Muslims -22: Isaac and Jacob (Genesis 24-25:19) -22: Isaac and Rebekah -23: Rebekah’s scheme -23: Jacob and Rachel -23: Joseph eleventh son of Jacob -25: His brothers plot against Joseph -25: Joseph in Egypt -26: Silver cup in Benjamin’s luggage -27. Joseph a truly man -27: Thinking it over -28.
CHAPTER 3: MOSES (EXODUS, LEVITICUS, NUMBERS, DEUTRONOMY) -29.
Moses in book of Exodus -29; Moses raised in Pharaoh’s court -29: God speaks to Moses from a burning bush -30: “I AM” sent him -30: Moses and Aaron lead Israelites to the Red Sea -30: Pharaoh army drowned -31: Water and food in the desert -31: Moses receives commandments -32: Third book Leviticus liturgy of the sacrifices -33: Fourth book Numbers members of the twelve tribes descended from Jacob counted in a census -33: Isrealites rebelled against Moses –Fifth book Deuteronomy (the Second Law) -34: Moses entrusted Jewish people to Joshua -25: Moses buried -35: Book of Joshua -35: Chosen people occupied Promised Land under Joshua -35: Joshua’s men were victorious everywhere -36: Chapter summary -36: Thinking it over -37.
CHAPTER 4: JUDGES AND KINGS OF THE UNDIVIDED LAND -38
Book of Judges -38: Samson and Delilah -38: Book of Ruth -39: 1-2 Samuel (sometimes entitled 1 and 2 Kings) -40: Samuel and Eli -40: Saul, first King of all Twelve Tribes -41: Jesse’s youngest son David -41: David and Goliath -42: David marries Michol. Saul’s daughter -42: 2 Samuel David becomes king over South -43: David became king over all of Israel -43: David and Bathsheba -44: Absaiom plots against David his father -44: David succeeded by Solomon -45: Solomon to build a temple in Jerusalem -45: Solomon’s wisdom -45: Thinking it over -46.
CHAPTER 5: KINGS OF THE DIVIDED LAND -47
Solomon succeeded by his son Rehoboam -47: 1 and2 Kings is history of two kingdoms -47: The Northern Kingdom, called Israel -47: The Southern Kingdom, called Judah -17: Elijah angers King Ahab of Israel -18 Naaman the pagan general in Aramaen army -49: Elisha also powerful prophet -49: Amos and Hosea followed Elijah and Elisha, Prophets -50: The Southern Kingdom of single dynasty -51: Isaiah writes with power and beauty -53: The prophet Micah denounce social injustice -54: The prophet Habbakuk complains that God seems to overlook evil -55: Jeremiah warns of disasters to come -56: Thinking it over -57.
CHAPTER 6: THE EXILE AND RETURN -58
Prophet Ezekiel keeps the hope of the Jews alive -58: Second Isaiah wrote of he suffering servant -59: Problem of suffering, theme of job -59: Hope strengthened when Persians under Cyrus conquered Babylon -59: Prophet Nehemiah a great administrator -60: Zachariah saw eight visions -61: The Book of Proverbs and Qaheleth -61 Psalms most of which are attributed to David -61: Thinking it over -62.
CHAPTER 7: GREEK AND ROMAN OCCUPATION -63
Holy Land information is very vague from 400 B.C. to its conquest by Alexnder the Great -63: II Maccabees briefly notes the revolt against Antiochus, I Maccabees recounts it in detail -65: II Maccabees describes the purification of the Temple and its celebration -65: I Maccabees continues with the history after the rededication of the Temple -65: Romans would subjudge the Jewish nation -66: Speculative dates of other books -66: Sirach’s purpose is to demonstrate the superiority of Jewish morals -68. Wisdom themes of the great wisdom literature -68: Four great message emerge -69: Thinking it over -70.
HISTORICAL FACTS PRECEEDING THE NEW TESTAMENT -71
UNIT II: THE NEW TESTAMENT -77
CHAPTER 1: COMING OF THE PROMISED MESSIAH -77
Four Gospels, same story different viewpoints -77: Here modern harmony -77: Gospel of John written end of the first century (synoptic earlier) -77: Mark co-worker Peter -78: Synoptics before 70 AD -78: Gospels written within the life times of those who knew Jesus -78: Our calendar, mistake by 6th century author -78: Annunciation -79: Second person of Blessed Trinity -79: God’s preparation fulfilled in Mary -79: Mary believes and accepted her vocation to be Mother of God -79: Matthew tells us Joseph deeply troubled -80: In poverty Jesus was born? -82: Presentation -80: Matthew wrote for audience of Jews -81: Jesus lost in temple? 82: Obedient to Mary and Joseph -83: Little information before thirty years of age -83: Jesus in biblical discussions with Joseph -83: Numerous relatives in Nazareth -83: Thinking it over -84.
CHAPTER 2: BEGINNING OF JESUS PUBLIC MINISTRY -85
John the Baptist preaching repentance and baptizing with water -85: Jesus insisted on being baptized -85: Father declared, This is Beloved Son -85: Jesus began to call his disciples -85: Jesus to Cana in Galilee -85: Mary present, wine ran out -85: Fulfilled her request later -85: Drove money changers from the temple -85: Nicodemus -86: Thinking it over -86.
CHAPTER 3: JESUS MINISTRY IN GALILEE -87
Woman at well of Jacob -87: Capernaum: on sea of Galilee -87: Peter and Andrew called -87: Jesus heals a man possessed by demons -88.
Jesus -90 Penitent woman -92: Jesus began to preach in parables -93: Parable sermon (Mt 13:1-52) -94: Apostles sent to preach -95: Herod searches for Jesus -95: Peter walks on water -96: Jesus himself is the Bread of Eternal Life -96: Crippled man cured at Bethsaida pool -96: Increasing opposition from Pharisees -97: Deaf mute cured -98: Leaven of the Pharisees -99: Jesus promises to build Church on Peter -99: Jesus transfigured/tells of upcoming passion death and resurrection -100: Greatest in God’s Kingdom -101: Sin separates us from God -101: September, Feast of Tents (the Jewish harvest feast) -192: Thinking it over -103.
CHAPTER 4: PREACHING JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM -104
Jesus to Jerusalem for the final period of his life -104: Seventy two disciples sent to preach -104: Love of neighbor/good Samaritan -105: Mary and Martha -105: Jesus directly confronts leaders for failure -106: Jesus instructs the people on the identifies himself with God the Father -106 Jesus instructs the people on the new law of love -107: Jesus raises Lazarus from dead -107: Thinking it over -108.
CHAPTER 5: HOLY WEEK 109
Palm Sunday -109: Chief priest orders Jesus to disclose his authority -109: Elders kept trying to trap Jesus -109: Sadducees Non-belief in resurrection -110: Destruction of Jerusalem to take place in their lifetimes -111: Final plot to kill Jesus -111: Thursday Passover seder meal. Jesus washed apostles feet -112: Judas leaves to betray Jesus -112: Jesus changes bread and wine into his body and blood -113: After the meal they went out to Mount of Olives -113: Jesus in agony -114: Betrayal with a kiss -114: Jesus taken to Annas -114: Peter denied Jesus the third time -115: On Friday Sanhedrin met and heard witnesses -115: Jesus struck by an officer -115: Jesus before Pilate -116: “My Kingdom is not of this World” -116: Pilate sent Jesus to Herod Antipas -116: Barabbas released/Jesus sentenced to death -117: Jesus stripped and then soldiers roll dice for his clothing -118: “Father, into your hands I commend my spirit” and died -119: Water and blood flow out/Church recognizes these as types of Baptism and the Eucharist -119: Joseph of Arimathea obtained permission to bury Jesus -119: Resurrection -120: Mary Magdalen, Peter, others at tomb -120: Village of Emmaus, divine stranger -120: Resurrection night -121: “Peace be with you” as apostles given power to forgive sins -122: Make disciples of all nations -122: Thinking it over -123.
CHAPTER 6: FOUNDING OF THE CHURCH -124
Acts of the Apostles mainly of St. Peter and St. Paul -124: Jesus ascension -124: Matthias Judas -124: Prayer and the Eucharist -124: Pentecost -125: Peter addressed Sanhedrin -125: Practice of community life -125: Apostles boldly proclaim the Resurrection -125: Apostles continue to preach in temple and in private homes -126: Early deacons -126: Stoning of Stephen -127: Thinking it over -128.
CHAPTER 7: MISSIONS AND WRITTINGS OF ST. PAUL -129
Conversion of Saul/St. Paul -129: St. Paul’s problems -129: Persecution of the Christians by Sanhedrin lessened -129: Peter raised Tabitha from dead -130: Peter’s unique vision -130: By Peter’s action the Church officially opened to Gentiles -130: Believes in Jesus known as “Christians” -131: Herod imprisoned Peter, but Peter was freed by an angel -131: Paul’s first missionary journey -131: Epistle to the Galatians -131: Jewish Christians want Gentiles to be circumcised -132: First Ecumenical Council of the Church 49 A.D -133: Second Timothy to new territory in Phrygia and Galatia, then Northwest Turkey (Asia Minor) -134: Luke joins Paul -134: Paul and Silas imprisoned/earthquake released them -134: Athens -135: “The unknown God” -135: At Corinth Paul meets Aquila and Prisca -136: A “house-church” for Christians -136: First Epistle to the Thessalonians (c. 50-51 AD) -136: Nazirite vow -137: Third missionary journey 54-58 A.D -137: Epistle to the Philemon 55 AD -139: First Epistle to the Corinthians -139: Epistle to the Romans makes clear sex outside marriage, homosexual actions cannot be reconciled with the Christian understanding of why God created us male and female -139/140: Exhorts the Corinthians to be sober for the sober for the Eucharist -140: At Corinth Epistle to the Romans 57-58 A.D -140: Pagans should conclude that God exists from the world around them -141: Paul travels to Jerusalem -141: Imprisoned again, Paul demand, his rights as a Roman under arrest two years -143: Paul was martyred in Rome in 67 A.D during Nero’s persecution -143: Again, these dates are speculative -144: 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus -145: Cautionary note -145: Epistle to the Hebrews -145: Thinking it over -146.
CHAPTER 8: THE OTHER LETTERS -147
First Epistle of St. Peter -147: Epistle of James -147: Epistle of Jude -147: Second Epistle of St. Peter -147: First, second and third Epistles of St. John -147: Book of Revelation or Apocalypse -148: Revelation is divided into four parts -148: The other letters -149.
UNIT III: BASIC CATHOLIC TEACHING -153
CHAPTER 1: GOD’S EXISTENCE AND CREATION -153
God exists -153: God creates all things in making them -153: God is a Trinity of persons -154: God is Father in an unheard of sense -154: Jesus completed his work by sending the Holy Spirit -154: The Trinity is One -155: Man was created good and holy -156: At the instigation of the devil Adam and Eve disobeyed God and lost their own personal harmony -156: God tolerated the commission of Original Sin -157: The nature of sin -157: Sin is basically a free choice contrary to the law of God -157: Mortal and Venial Sins -158: Thinking it over -158.
CHAPTER 2: THE TEN COMMANDMENTS -159
Promise to send a redeemer -159: God set aside the Jewish people -159: Commandments to human race in the person of Moses -159: Commandments enumerated -159: (1) I am the Lord your God: you shall not have strange gods before me -160: (2) You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain -161: (3) Keep holy the Sabbath (Lord’s Day) -161: (4) Honor your father and your mother -162: (5) You shall not kill -162: (6) You shall not commit adultery -163: (7) You shall not steal -163: (8) You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor -163: (9) You shall not convet your neighbor’s wife -164: (10) You shall not convey your neighbor’s goods -164: Thinking it over -165.
CHAPTER 3: GRACE AND THE INCARNATION -166
Grace -166: Sanctifying grace -166: Actual grace -166: The incarnation -166: Mary free from Original Sin at the moment of her conception -167: Mary countered the sin of the disobedient Eve with her own obedience -167: Person and nature -168: Jesus has no earthly father/Joseph is only his foster father -168: Jesus performed miracles to prove that he was God -168: The atonement for our sins demanded that Christ suffer punishment for sin -168/169: After Jesus died on the cross “he descended into hell” -169: Appreciation of the Resurrection -170: Jesus prepared his disciples to be the foundation of the Church -170: Christ -170: Christ ascended body and soul into heaven -171: This is seen in a special way in every Mass -171: came to earth to save not to condemn us 171: Thinking it over -172.
CHAPTER 4: VIRTUES AND GIFTS -173
The Holy Spirit -173: On Pentecost Sunday Jesus completed his work on earth by sending the Holy Spirit to dwell in us -173: Pentecost is the reversal of the Tower of Babel -173: Holy Spirit proclaims the foundation of the church to the world -174: The virtues and gifts of the Holy Spirit -175: Three theological virtues faith, hope and charity -175: Infused prudence, justice, temperance and fortitude -175: Power given by Holy Spiritual are like our spiritual muscles -175: Faith -175: Hope -176: With Charity -176: Infused temperance -177: Gifts of the Holy Spirit directly move us to certain important actions -177: Wisdom -177: Science or knowledge -177: Understanding -178: Counsel -178: Piety -178: Fortitude -178: Fear of the Lord -178: Thinking it over -179.
CHAPTER 5: MARKS OF THE CHURCH/ONE HOLY CATHOLIC AND APOSTOLIC -180.
Christ prepared apostles for fullness of revelation of God and what he has done for us -180: Christ associated apostles directly with the work which he is doing in the Church -180. The Pope -180: Peter was the first pope and Vicar of Christ -181: Church is the congregation of all the baptized -181: Pope has the special aid of the Holy Spirit -181: Laity also called to participate in the mission of Christ -182: The Church is holy -183: The Church is catholic or universal -183: The Church is apostolic -184: The communion of saints and the forgiveness of sins -185: Church is a society based in the life of Christ -185: Three states of the Church -186: Corporal works of mercy -186: Spiritual works of mercy -186: Thinking it over -187.
CHAPTER 6: MARY MOTHER OF CHRIST AND MOTHER OF THE CHURCH -188.
The model of all communion -188: Mary conceives Christ and goes to visit and help the cousin Elizabeth -188: Jesus entrusts the Church to her -188: Several extraordinary privileges in her life -188: God gives power to created things to participate in his governing of the world -188: Different roles to various members -189: The forgiveness of sins – Baptism/Penance -189: Everyone still needs to struggle with moral weakness -189: The Resurrection and Life Everlasting -190: Our bodies will be gloriously reconstituted in heaven -190: Death completes our pilgrimage of grace and mercy -190: Two judgments pronounced by Christ, first hour of our death -191: Purgatory -191: A temporary purification of all the inclinations and evils -191: General judgments occurs in the presence of the assembled creation -192: Sincere search for truth and goodness here on earth -193: The two great commandments -193: The precepts of the Church -194: Mass obligation – why? -194: Confess sins once a year -194: Receive the Eucharist during the Easter Season -195: Days of fasting and abstinence -195: Provide for the needs of the Church -195: Thinking it over -196.
CHAPTER 7: THE SACRAMENTS -197
Our life of grace with Christ reflects our natural life -197: Outward sign instituted by Christ gives divine grace -197: Sacraments of initiation, reconciliation, service of communion -198: Baptism -198: Source of our new life in grace and spiritual rebirth -198: Members of the Mystical Body of Christ -199: Priest is ordinary minister but anyone in danger of death -199: Every person not yet baptized is able to be baptized -199: Confirmation -200: Confirmation Strengthens the life of Christ in us -200: Laying on of hands -200: Like Baptism, cannot be repeated -201: Appropriate for teenagers prior to adolescence -201: The sacrament of the Holy Eucharist -202: The source and summit of the Christian Life -202: At the last supper Christ left his great gift of the Eucharist to the Church -202: Christ is really present with us on earth through Eucharist -202: Bread and wine are necessary -202: Christ changed these into himself at the last supper -202: “This is my blood” -202. Holy Communion is spiritual nourishment -203: In Eucharist we relate directly to Christ -203: Makes present the sacrifice of the cross -204: New and eternal covenant -204: In the Mass priest is the same Christ who offers -204: Does not detract from the sacrifice on the cross -204: We must be prepared spiritually -205: A fitting preparation -205: Thinking it over -205.
CHAPTER 8: SACRAMENTS OF RECONCILIATION, ANOITING, HOLY, ORDERS, MARRIAGE -207
Christ rescues the lost sheep through the sacrament of Penance -207: Essentials of Penance -207: Truly sorry for his sins -208: Perfect and imperfect contrition -208: Christ gave priests a share in his power to forgive sins -208 which sins must be confessed? -209: We should prepare ourselves to make a good confession -209: How to confess sins -209: Misery caused to others demands punishment -210: Why indulgences? -211: Anointing of the sick -211 Sacraments of healing -211: Given to those who are seriously ill -211: In danger of death, illness or old age -212: Strengthening of the Holy Spirit/live with interior sadness -212: Holy orders -212: A sacrament to serve others -212: Three degrees of Holy Orders: bishops, priests, deacons -212: Sacred power can come only from Christ himself through his Church -212: Only Christ is the true priest, others only his ministers -212: Only ministerial priests power to consecrate and forgive sins -213: Bishops teach true doctrine and have jurisdiction over the Church -213: Matrimony or marriage -213: Marriage now flows from baptismal grace and service -213: Spouses mutually confer upon each other the sacrament if matrimony -213: Baptized man and baptized woman -214: Foundation of the family -214: Thinking it over -214.