Stage 5 Year 10 Anime



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Stage 5 Year 10 - Anime











Concept: Perspectives


Critical study of anime films and others’ perspectives of the films


Deep knowledge

  • How cultural context shapes perspectives and ideas

  • Filmic techniques in anime

  • Others’ perspectives



Cross Curricular


Literacy

Language modes


Reading/writing/speaking/viewing & representing

Texts


A variety of anime films and extracts:

Spirited Away

Astro Boy


Metropolis


Memories


Birthday Boy

Outcomes

A student:

2. Uses a range of processes for responding to and composing texts

3. selects, uses, describes and explains how different technologies affect and shape meaning

6. experiments with different ways of imaginatively and interpretively transforming experience, information and ideas into language

10. Questions, challenges and evaluates cultural assumptions in texts and their effects on meaning.


Rationale
This stage 5 year 10 unit focuses critically on anime – its cultural influences, filmic techniques and its ideas and values. The students will begin by examining extracts from an early anime such as Astro Boy and then studying one or two modern animes. Anime may feature robots, monsters, space boys and big eyed characters, but its core values and issues continue a tradition of Japanese mythology thousands of years old. These tales are simply being told and retold in exciting and innovative ways. The students will be researching Japanese culture and creating their own anime story, characters and story board of a key scene. There are even some simple drawing activities so that the students can create their own anime characters.
The students will also be examining others’ perspectives of the anime/s such as resistant and feminist readings.
Extension activities will include independent viewing and reviewing of other animes and researching manga – Japanese comics and their values and ideas.



Syllabus content

Learning content and activities

Quality teaching




Students learn to:




2.4

  • Combine processes of representation to create cohesive texts

Higher-order thinking

2.7

  • Identify and articulate their own processes of responding and composing


Deep understanding

3.2

  • Respond to and compose increasingly complex texts in different technologies considering the effects of the technology including layout and design on meaning

Connectedness

3.3

  • Importing data from the internet

Connectedness

6.1

  • Explore imagined worlds through close and wide engagement with increasingly demanding texts

Connectedness

6.2

  • Respond imaginatively and interpretively to increasingly demanding range of texts

High-expectations

6.3

  • Compose texts that demonstrate originality, imagination and ingenuity in content and language

High expectations

6.4

  • Compose texts using a range of texts as models

High expectations

10.1


  • Identify cultural elements expressed in the language, structure and content of texts

Cultural knowledge

10.2

  • Identify, explain and challenge cultural values, purposes and assumptions in texts

Cultural knowledge

10.3

  • Interpret texts from a range of perspectives and justify interpretations

Problematic knowledge

10.4

  • Engage with details of texts to respond and compose from a range of social and critical perspectives

Higher-order thinking




Students learn about:




2.9

  • Processes of representation including use of visual techniques including those of camera, design and sound, to create cohesive texts

Higher-order thinking

2.10

  • The ways composers uses processes of representation in composing texts

Deep knowledge


2.12

  • The ways media and cultural representation affect their personal and critical responses to texts

Cultural knowledge

3.8

  • Advanced tools and uses of information and communication technologies – importing data from the internet

Connectedness

6.8

  • Ways in which film-makers transform concepts into film, including consideration of script, story lines, sustained perspective, and visual and aural components of film-making and their interaction

Deep knowledge

6.9

  • The ways in which imaginative texts can explore universal themes and social reality

Connectedness

10.8

  • The effects of personal, social, historical perspectives on language and communication

Deep knowledge

10.9

  • The ways in which particular texts relate to their cultural expressions and the culture of others

Cultural knowledge

10.10


  • The ways situational and cultural elements of context shape texts

Cultural knowledge

10.11

  • The beliefs and value systems underpinning texts from different cultures

Cultural knowledge

Week 1: “You don't have to die; heaven and hell are in this world too." Japanese proverb

Content:

Learning and teaching activities

Quality teaching




Spelling – look, cover and write. Find 15-20 words that you have found during your research.

Metalanguage

Learn to:

6.1




Lesson 1 - Introduction to the unit:

Notes and discussion on anime. View the extracts from Astro Boy.



Discussion questions – working in pairs as you view the extract discuss and respond to these questions:

  1. What do you know about anime?

  2. What are some well known anime films?

  3. Describe the main characteristics of anime characters.
  4. Identify the key issues and values in the extracts.


  5. Why would Astro Boy have been so successful? Discuss the appealing features of the extracts.

Background knowledge: drawing on prior knowledge of anime


Learn to:

6.2


Learn about:

6.8



Lesson 2: Background knowledge of filmic techniques:

  1. View the establishing sequence of the anime film you are studying and complete the viewing sheet focusing on:

  1. Lighting

  2. Sound: diegetic & non-diegetic

  3. Camera shots, movement & angles

  4. Editing

  5. Body language




  1. Discuss the impact of these techniques

Background knowledge:

Revisit filmic techniques


Deep understanding: building on understanding of filmic techniques


Learn to:

10.3


10.4
Learn about:

10.8


Lesson 3: Others’ Perspectives

Look at the images provided in Resource 2:



  • How do you personally respond to the images?

  • What visual features have influenced your reaction?

  • Compare your response to the person next to you; are there any differences?

  • How do you think a feminist would respond to some of the images?




Problematic knowledge: consideration of others’ perspectives

Learn to:

3.3


10.1

Learn about:

3.8

10.9


10.10

10.11



Lesson 4: Researching Japanese Culture & Traditions – Assessment Task 1

  1. Use the Internet to find out about aspects of Japanese culture such as http://web-japan.org/kidsweb/ which includes traditional Japanese myths.

  2. Prepare a report (using the work sheet provided) for the class on one of the following:

    1. Buddhism and Shinto

    2. Samurais

    3. Ancestor worship

    4. Japanese customs and traditions

Cultural knowledge: Appreciation of the influential presence of Japanese culture in anime
Connectedness: Critical awareness of the Internet


Anime

Short for "animation" - refers to "Japanese Animation", a genre/medium that has its roots in the 1960's when the Japanese began making television versions of their version of comics (manga). Unlike the "cartoon", America and other culture's counterpart to anime, much of the Japanese animation shown is one of deeper, sometimes more mature themes, including developed storylines, linear plots, and aspects of violence, sex, drama, and comedy (not unlike live-action films in the States).

In Japan, the medium is as much respected as the "live-action" genre of movies. In other cultures, anime has achieved a mostly cult following, though with the mainstream acceptance and awareness of such anime as Pokemon, Dragonball Z and Astro Boy.

Common Themes

Anime may feature robots, monsters or space boys but its core values and issues continue a tradition of Japanese mythology thousands of years old. These tales are simply being told and retold in exciting and innovative ways.



  1. Respect for ancestors and elders

  2. Value of education

  3. Loyalty

  4. Importance of resilience

  5. H

    onesty and integrity

Lesson 2: Revisiting Filmic Techniques
Angles: Canting – dutch tilt; tilted up – empowers; tilted down – disempowers; wide-angle – all of scene in focus
Auteur: a director with a recognisable style such as Hayao Miyazaki
Camera Shots: Close-up – tight framing such as a face; extreme close-up – eye; medium shot – torso; long shot – whole body; point of view shot – view of the character; crane shot or bird’s eye view – high shot; establishing shot – long shot establishes the setting, scene and mood of a film
Context: personal, social, historical, workplace and cultural circumstances of a composer, responder or the when the text is set
Editing: cut – end of a shot; jump cut – quick, non-sequential cut to another shot; montage – director deliberately drawing attention to editing through the combination of a number of shots from different scenes; split screen – more than one frame can be seen at once
Focus: depth of field – what is in focus in the shot; narrow depth of field – object in foreground in focus; pull focus – change focus from one object to another

Genre: a classification that is made according to the conventions of the text, e.g. western, fantasy, crime fiction. Some texts are nebulous and difficult to classify or are hybrid texts as they employ the conventions of many genres

Iconography: using images in texts as symbols
Ideology: beliefs, ideas or assumptions
Mise-en-scene: what is placed in the frame such as: lighting, colour, costumes, setting, voice and body language of the characters, symbolism, etc
Sound: diegetic – natural to the world of the narrative; non-diegetic – outside of the world of the narrative such as theme music and voice over

Researching Japanese Culture & Traditions - Assessment Task 1
Outcomes to be assessed: 3 & 10
Task:

Use the Internet to find out about aspects of Japanese culture such as http://web-japan.org/kidsweb/ which includes traditional Japanese myths or http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/at_japan_soc/index.html that contains information on past and modern Japanese culture.
Prepare a report (using the work sheet provided) for the class on one of the following:


    1. Buddhism and Shinto

    2. Samurais

    3. Ancestor worship

    4. Japanese customs and traditions

Your report must contain the following:



  1. An Explanation: a half page introduction about what you have chosen to report on and why you chose this aspect of Japanese life.

  2. Body of Report: A one to two page report using sub-headings providing information on the aspect you have selected. E.g.

  • History

  • Features

  • Relevance in Modern Times

You must complete the Authenticating websites sheet and briefly report on it along with the information you have found.


You will be assessed on how well you:
  • Clearly and simply report on the aspect of Japanese culture


  • Demonstrate understanding of the aspect of Japanese culture





Authenticating Websites


  1. Record the URL address

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  1. Who has produced this site?

  2. Is it a government (org) or educational site (edu)? If not, what organisation has sponsored the site?

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  1. Is there any evidence of bias? If so, give some examples.

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  1. Evaluate the contents and reliability of the page.

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Week 2: Chihiro- Daddy, are we lost?

Chihiro's Father- Don't worry, I've got four-wheel drive. (Spirited Away)

Content:

Learning and teaching activities

Quality teaching




Spelling: look, cover & write

Metalanguage

Learn to:

3.3, 10.1

Learn about:

3.8, 10.9

10.10, 10.11


Lessons 1 - 2: Research – Assessment Task 1

Complete the research and present the reports on an aspect of Japanese culture and traditions.



Cultural knowledge

Learn to:

3.2


6.1

6.2


10.1

10.2


10.3

10.4


Learn about:

6.8


6.9

10.8


10.9

10.10


10.11

Lessons 3 - 4: Critical Study of a Film


  • Viewing of the anime

  • As you view the anime complete the work sheet focusing on:

  1. Key issues and messages

  2. Values

  3. Characters

  4. Setting

  5. Cultural aspects

  6. Key scenes

  7. Filmic techniques

  8. Others’ perspectives: a resistant reading and one other such as a feminist reading

  9. Personal response to the film

After you have viewed the film and completed your notes attempt one of the following tasks:



  1. A resistant or feminist review of the anime

  2. An exposition on how traditional Japanese culture and beliefs are evident in the anime

  3. A character profile of one of the characters, including a description of his or her appearance, actions, attitudes, relationships and beliefs

  4. A close analysis of two significant scenes detailing the filmic techniques and why they are used and their impact on the viewer

  5. “Anime may be just a cartoon, but that does not stop it from exploring significant issues in society and conveying important messages to its viewers.”

  6. “The Japanese culture is strongly evident in the anime.”

Discuss this statement by discussing the

cultural and traditional aspects in the anime.



  1. Free choice negotiated with your teacher.

Deep knowledge: focus on key concepts of cultural context, others’ perspectives and representation through filmic techniques

Substantive communication:

Sustained response to the anime


Weeks 3 - 4: He was my childhood hero. He was a symbol of justice, of good over evil. Astro Boy encouraged me that even a kid can correct bad behaviour by big adults."


Content:

Learning and teaching activities

Quality teaching




Spelling – look, cover and write. Select 15-20 words related to animation techniques. You can find these on the Internet. Use five effectively in sentences.

Metalanguage

Learn to:

3.2, 6.1


6.2 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

Learn about:

6.8, 6.9

10.8


10.9

10.10


10.11

Lessons 1- 3: Critical Study of a Film

Continue viewing of the anime and complete the notes and the activity.





Higher-order thinking

Learn to:

3.2


6.1

6.2


10.1

10.2


10.3

10.4


Learn about:

6.8


6.9

10.8

10.9

10.10


10.11

Lessons 4 – 1& 2 in Week 4: View Second Anime

Notes on genre and conventions.


As you are viewing the second anime complete these activities:

  • Focus on the lead character and compare this character with the lead character from the first anime:

  • Compare and contrast their appearance

  • Compare and contrast the challenges they face and how they cope with them

  • Compare and contrast their attitude, actions and behaviour

  • Which character do you prefer and why?

  • Genre, issues and messages:

  • Compare and contrast one main issue

  • Compare and contrast the genre

  • Compare and contrast the message

  • Filmic and animation techniques:

  • Analyse the filmic techniques of the opening scene

  • Compare and contrast the animation techniques of the two animes: drawings, use of colour, set design, style, etc

  • Justification: One page justification on which anime you prefer and why. You could refer to:

  • Setting and focus

  • Characters

  • Issues and message

  • Animation and filmic techniques




Deep knowledge: focus on genre and filmic techniques

Deep understanding: demonstrating understanding of filmic techniques



Week 5:

Content:

Learning and teaching activities


Quality teaching







Spelling – look, cover and write. Select 15-20 words that you have encountered during this unit of work.

Metalanguage




Learn to:

2.4


2.7

3.2


6.3

6.4


10.1

Learn about:

6.8

6.9


10.8

10.9


10.10

10.11




Lessons 1 - 4: Assessment Task 2 Viewing & Representing: Create you own Anime!

Preparation for the Assessment Task:

You have been asked to create an anime for an Australian teenage audience. Before the project gets financial backing you need to provide an outline of what the anime will be like. You have to include a description of the following:



    1. Genre: Decide if it is going to be a Sci-Fi or a Thriller, etc. This will shape the characters you decide to use, the setting and what happens. Describe the genre and the conventions you will be using.
    2. Setting: You have to set your anime in Australian setting such as Lismore or Sydney so describe the locations you will be using: the time of the day, the buildings, the surroundings, etc.


    3. Characters: Describe the main characters: appearance, clothing, actions, attitudes, relationships with others, challenges they face, etc.

    4. Story line & Ideas: Decide what happens in the story: the main events, the climax, the ideas and the denouement.

You also need to provide at least ONE of the following:

  1. Sketches of at least two of the characters (See the sheet provided on how to draw anime characters)

  2. A story board of a key scene

  3. A sketch of one of the settings.

  4. A film script of the opening, ending or a key scene.

Task:

  • Submit the descriptions for the proposal of the genre, setting, characters and story line.

  • Submit one or more of the four tasks outlined above.

  • Include an explanation of your proposed film

You will be assessed on how well you:

  • Convey the ideas, originality and creativity of the proposal

  • Articulate the process of composing & your vision

  • Demonstrate awareness of the cultural elements

Higher-order thinking: drawing together a range of concepts and skills

High-expectations: a challenging task
Deep understanding: demonstration of understanding of elements of a film
Student direction: freedom of choice in tasks and in focus for anime
Inclusivity: a task that all students will be able to demonstrate understanding and skills





Descriptors

Marking Guidelines

For Assessment Task 1


Excellent

  • Sophisticated demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression

  • Sophisticated explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture

  • Sophisticated evaluation of the data imported from the internet




High



  • Effective demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression

  • Effective explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture

  • Effective evaluation of the data imported from the internet




Substantial



  • Sound demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression

  • Sound explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture

  • Sound evaluation of the data imported from the internet




Satisfactory

Demonstrated





  • Satisfactory demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression

  • Satisfactory explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture

  • Satisfactory evaluation of the data imported from the internet




Working Towards


  • Limited demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression
  • Limited explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture


  • Limited evaluation of the data imported from the internet




Not demonstrated







Descriptors

Marking Guidelines For Assessment Task 2

Excellent

  • Sophisticated explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision

  • Sophisticated evidence of originality and creativity

  • Sophisticated awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime

  • Sophisticated understanding of the interests of the teenage audience

High



  • Effective explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision

  • Effective evidence of originality and creativity

  • Effective awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime

  • Effective understanding of the interests of the teenage audience

Substantial



  • Sound explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision

  • Sound evidence of originality and creativity

  • Sound awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime

  • Sound understanding of the interests of the teenage audience

Satisfactory

Demonstrated





  • Satisfactory explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision

  • Satisfactory evidence of originality and creativity

  • Satisfactory awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime

  • Satisfactory understanding of the interests of the teenage audience

Working Towards


  • Limited explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision

  • Limited evidence of originality and creativity

  • Limited awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime

  • Limited understanding of the interests of the teenage audience

Not demonstrated

  • Little or no attempt to satisfy the demands of the task


Week 1: Others’ Perspectives – Anime Images

Discuss the following images from a range of Japanese animes. Note the following:



  • Body language: facial expressions, gestures, stance, position, etc

  • Costume/s

  • Gender roles

  • Impact on viewer













How To Draw Anime Style Art http://animeworld.com/howtodraw/faces.html

Style

The first step in drawing "anime style" is just that--style. What kid of character are you drawing, and for what purpose? Style is completely a matter of preference, but it's a good idea to be aware of some of the main archetypes before going on to facial structure and body proportion.

Here are some examples:


  • Cute - Round cheekbones, large eyes, facial parts set close together.

  • Evil - Drawn more 'realistically'. Sharp cheekbones, very small pupils.

  • Shoujo - Sharp chins, huge expressive eyes, elegant nose bridges, slender body.

  • Stupid - Round head and body, very simplistic features, tiny little eyes.

  • Fighter (a la DBZ) - Simplistic features, exaggerated body proportions, small head.

Faces



There is no one, right way to go about drawing Japanese-style characters, but here are some steps you might want to try for a start:

1. The Shape One way to start is with a realistically proportioned head. Just a simple, egg shaped oval divided vertically with a line so everything ends up symmetrical. A line to mark the eyes should be half way up, no higher. The line for the nose should be half way between the eyes and the chin; then one for the mouth about half way between the nose and then chin.

2. Exaggerate The trick to this style is exaggeration. Now that you have the start of a normal head, there are a couple major changes. First, exaggerate the shape of the head by sharpening the chin so the jaw tapers down abruptly from the eye level. Then the eyes: unlike a normal face where the eye line marks the middle of the eyes, the eyes are stretched down to a little above the nose. An easy way to block in eyes is with lines for the upper and lower lashes, and a rectangle for the iris.


3. Add Details Simplicity is part of the trick: a small mark for a hint of a nose, keep the mouth small, with a little shadow to suggest the lower lip. Give the lashes some flare and a downward turn and the end. The Pupil should be elongated and black, the iris somewhat shaded, and there should be a highlight (on the same side of both eyes). Add simple lines for the eyebrows, and you can block in the hair.

4. Clean Up Clean up any stray lines, and add the neck (keep it thin). The bottoms of the ears should be about level with the nose. The hair should be very exaggerated--think big: if there is a part that curls up, it should curl WAY up. Don't draw individual hairs, think of hair as volumes that can be defined. The steps are pretty much the same for a profile-view. Don't worry too much about the ears, keep it simple and suggest the structure. The hard part is the profile edge of the face. It might take some practice to get it down, but just remember to keep it simple--it's all subtlety. The forehead slopes down and curves in at the eyebrow. The nose should be delicate, sharp and slightly upturned. The face then slopes gently down to the chin, with a little nick for the mouth

Faces - Styles and Design Examples

Here are some eyes:



Here are some noses:



Here are some mouths:



Here are some ears:



Here are some face shapes:


Here are some hairstyles:




Faces - The Structure




1. You take your circle...



2. Add a line down the direction the head is facing.



3. Then add a horizontal line. Important: This is where the eyes go!



4. Then add the lower jaw. This can be any shape or size you want, as long as its relatively symmetrical




5. Then you just add eyes, ears, nose, and mouth



6. Erase junk lines and touch-up.



7. Add stuff.


8. Now, sit back and admire your work, basking in the sheer pleasure of self-satisfaction that comes from knowing that you have indeed mastered everything there is to learn about drawing anime.




If you want your character to be facing in a direction other than straight forward, you're going to have to make other arrangements.






The basic method is the same...



But certain facial proportions are going to be a bit different.



Here are some examples.

Body Proportion


The hardest part about drawing bodies is getting the proportions right. If you use the height of the head as a unit of measurement, the average human is about seven heads tall. The bottom of the torso is general about half way up. Women usually have longer legs and smaller torsos than men.

As with faces, the Japanese animation style body is just an exaggeration of a regular person. The amount you want to exaggerate your figures is up to you and the style you like. Vertically, the main changes are a shorter torso and longer legs. Other than that, you just have to take the features of an idealized woman and make them even more ideal: long and thin arm and legs, small body and slim waist, usually the hips are pretty slim, and a long thin neck. Make sure to keep the head fairly large--the human head doesn't change in size over a life time as dramatically as the rest of the body.



1. Block it out: Just scribble in some ovals like the ones in the diagram to rough out the form, keeping it as lose and light as possible. Make sure you get the proportions like you want them before you move on. If you are not sure about something you can use the proportional diagram to check. You might want to draw a line right down the middle so it’s easy to make sure both sides are symmetrical.

2. Contours You might want to do all the details on the head before you move on; getting the face in proportion to the body can be hard and it is easier to modify the roughed in body to match a finished face than to try and correct things latter on. Once you have the figure all roughed in you just need to draw the nice smooth contours of a person over the bubbles.

Now you have the basics of proportion to work with. When you're trying to draw a complicated pose, or elaborate clothes, it can be really helpful to find a picture in a magazine that's close to what you want, or get a friend to pose for you. That way, you can see where one arm crosses the other, or how a leg would look foreshortened from that angle, or whatever. It also makes figuring out how clothes fold or pull a lot easier.





Resources:
Ancestor Worship, http://www.wowessays.com/dbase/af1/nyv39.shtml (Contains information about Shinto and Buddhism)
Ancestor Worship – Facts, info, http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/a/an/ancestor_worship.htm
Birthday Boy, http://www.birthdayboymovie.com/
Buddhism in Japan, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/religion/jbuddhis.html

Contemporary Japan: Culture and Society, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/at_japan_soc/index.html

History of Anime, http://www.answers.com/topic/history-of-anime (History of anime in Japan)

Japanese Animation Information, http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rllew/anlinks1.html
Metropolis, http://www.sonypictures.com/cthv/metropolis/ (Official site)
Philtar – East Asia, http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/regional/east-asia/ (Japanese ancestor worship and folklore)
Pioneers of Japanese Animation, http://www.midnighteye.com/features/pioneers-of-anime2.shtml (History of anime in Japan)
Shinto, http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2056.html
Shinto and Buddhism, http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/r000009.htm
Spirited Away, http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/sen/
The Anime Critic – Metropolis, http://www.animecritic.com/metropolis/anr-metropolis.html
The Hayao Miyazaki Web, http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/sen/reviews_fan.html
The Role of the Samurai, http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/culture/samurai.html



Karen Yager Richmond River High School






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