Critical study of anime films and others’ perspectives of the films
How cultural context shapes perspectives and ideas
Filmic techniques in anime
Reading/writing/speaking/viewing & representing
A variety of anime films and extracts:
2. Uses a range of processes for responding to and composing texts
3. selects, uses, describes and explains how different technologies affect and shape meaning
6. experiments with different ways of imaginatively and interpretively transforming experience, information and ideas into language
10. Questions, challenges and evaluates cultural assumptions in texts and their effects on meaning.
Rationale This stage 5 year 10 unit focuses critically on anime – its cultural influences, filmic techniques and its ideas and values. The students will begin by examining extracts from an early anime such as Astro Boy and then studying one or two modern animes. Anime may feature robots, monsters, space boys and big eyed characters, but its core values and issues continue a tradition of Japanese mythology thousands of years old. These tales are simply being told and retold in exciting and innovative ways. The students will be researching Japanese culture and creating their own anime story, characters and story board of a key scene. There are even some simple drawing activities so that the students can create their own anime characters.
The students will also be examining others’ perspectives of the anime/s such as resistant and feminist readings.
Extension activities will include independent viewing and reviewing of other animes and researching manga – Japanese comics and their values and ideas.
Learning content and activities
Students learn to:
Combine processes of representation to create cohesive texts
Identify and articulate their own processes of responding and composing
Respond to and compose increasingly complex texts in different technologies considering the effects of the technology including layout and design on meaning
Importing data from the internet
Explore imagined worlds through close and wide engagement with increasingly demanding texts
Respond imaginatively and interpretively to increasingly demanding range of texts
Use the Internet to find out about aspects of Japanese culture such as http://web-japan.org/kidsweb/ which includes traditional Japanese myths.
Prepare a report (using the work sheet provided) for the class on one of the following:
Buddhism and Shinto
Japanese customs and traditions
Cultural knowledge: Appreciation of the influential presence of Japanese culture in anime
Connectedness: Critical awareness of the Internet
Short for "animation" - refers to "Japanese Animation", a genre/medium that has its roots in the 1960's when the Japanese began making television versions of their version of comics (manga). Unlike the "cartoon", America and other culture's counterpart to anime, much of the Japanese animation shown is one of deeper, sometimes more mature themes, including developed storylines, linear plots, and aspects of violence, sex, drama, and comedy (not unlike live-action films in the States).
In Japan, the medium is as much respected as the "live-action" genre of movies. In other cultures, anime has achieved a mostly cult following, though with the mainstream acceptance and awareness of such anime as Pokemon, Dragonball Z and Astro Boy.
Anime may feature robots, monsters or space boys but its core values and issues continue a tradition of Japanese mythology thousands of years old. These tales are simply being told and retold in exciting and innovative ways.
Lesson 2: Revisiting Filmic Techniques Angles: Canting – dutch tilt; tilted up – empowers; tilted down – disempowers; wide-angle – all of scene in focus
Auteur: a director with a recognisable style such as Hayao Miyazaki
Camera Shots: Close-up – tight framing such as a face; extreme close-up – eye; medium shot – torso; long shot – whole body; point of view shot – view of the character; crane shot or bird’s eye view – high shot; establishing shot – long shot establishes the setting, scene and mood of a film
Context: personal, social, historical, workplace and cultural circumstances of a composer, responder or the when the text is set
Editing: cut – end of a shot; jump cut – quick, non-sequential cut to another shot; montage – director deliberately drawing attention to editing through the combination of a number of shots from different scenes; split screen – more than one frame can be seen at once
Focus: depth of field – what is in focus in the shot; narrow depth of field – object in foreground in focus; pull focus – change focus from one object to another
Genre: a classification that is made according to the conventions of the text, e.g. western, fantasy, crime fiction. Some texts are nebulous and difficult to classify or are hybrid texts as they employ the conventions of many genres
Iconography: using images in texts as symbols
Ideology: beliefs, ideas or assumptions
Mise-en-scene: what is placed in the frame such as: lighting, colour, costumes, setting, voice and body language of the characters, symbolism, etc
Sound: diegetic – natural to the world of the narrative; non-diegetic – outside of the world of the narrative such as theme music and voice over
Researching Japanese Culture & Traditions - Assessment Task 1 Outcomes to be assessed: 3 & 10 Task:
Use the Internet to find out about aspects of Japanese culture such as http://web-japan.org/kidsweb/ which includes traditional Japanese myths or http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/at_japan_soc/index.htmlthat contains information on past and modern Japanese culture. Prepare a report (using the work sheet provided) for the class on one of the following:
Buddhism and Shinto
Japanese customs and traditions
Your report must contain the following:
An Explanation: a half page introduction about what you have chosen to report on and why you chose this aspect of Japanese life.
Body of Report: A one to two page report using sub-headings providing information on the aspect you have selected. E.g.
Relevance in Modern Times
You must complete the Authenticating websites sheet and briefly report on it along with the information you have found.
You will be assessed on how well you:
Clearly and simply report on the aspect of Japanese culture
Demonstrate understanding of the aspect of Japanese culture
Complete the research and present the reports on an aspect of Japanese culture and traditions.
Lessons 3 - 4: Critical Study of a Film
Viewing of the anime
As you view the anime complete the work sheet focusing on:
Key issues and messages
Others’ perspectives: a resistant reading and one other such as a feminist reading
Personal response to the film
After you have viewed the film and completed your notes attempt one of the following tasks:
A resistant or feminist review of the anime
An exposition on how traditional Japanese culture and beliefs are evident in the anime
A character profile of one of the characters, including a description of his or her appearance, actions, attitudes, relationships and beliefs
A close analysis of two significant scenes detailing the filmic techniques and why they are used and their impact on the viewer
“Anime may be just a cartoon, but that does not stop it from exploring significant issues in society and conveying important messages to its viewers.”
“The Japanese culture is strongly evident in the anime.”
Discuss this statement by discussing the
cultural and traditional aspects in the anime.
Free choice negotiated with your teacher.
Deep knowledge: focus on key concepts of cultural context, others’ perspectives and representation through filmic techniques
Sustained response to the anime
Weeks 3 - 4: “He was my childhood hero. He was a symbol of justice, of good over evil. Astro Boy encouraged me that even a kid can correct bad behaviour by big adults."
Learning and teaching activities
Spelling – look, cover and write. Select 15-20 words related to animation techniques. You can find these on the Internet. Use five effectively in sentences.
6.2 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4
Lessons 1- 3: Critical Study of a Film
Continue viewing of the anime and complete the notes and the activity.
Lessons 4 – 1& 2 in Week 4: View Second Anime
Notes on genre and conventions.
As you are viewing the second anime complete these activities:
Focus on the lead character and compare this character with the lead character from the first anime:
Compare and contrast their appearance
Compare and contrast the challenges they face and how they cope with them
Compare and contrast their attitude, actions and behaviour
Which character do you prefer and why?
Genre, issues and messages:
Compare and contrast one main issue
Compare and contrast the genre
Compare and contrast the message
Filmic and animation techniques:
Analyse the filmic techniques of the opening scene
Compare and contrast the animation techniques of the two animes: drawings, use of colour, set design, style, etc
Justification: One page justification on which anime you prefer and why. You could refer to:
Setting and focus
Issues and message
Animation and filmic techniques
Deep knowledge: focus on genre and filmic techniques
Deep understanding: demonstrating understanding of filmic techniques
Learning and teaching activities
Spelling – look, cover and write. Select 15-20 words that you have encountered during this unit of work.
Lessons 1 - 4: Assessment Task 2 Viewing & Representing: Create you own Anime!
Preparation for the Assessment Task:
You have been asked to create an anime for an Australian teenage audience. Before the project gets financial backing you need to provide an outline of what the anime will be like. You have to include a description of the following:
Genre: Decide if it is going to be a Sci-Fi or a Thriller, etc. This will shape the characters you decide to use, the setting and what happens. Describe the genre and the conventions you will be using.
Setting: You have to set your anime in Australian setting such as Lismore or Sydney so describe the locations you will be using: the time of the day, the buildings, the surroundings, etc.
Characters: Describe the main characters: appearance, clothing, actions, attitudes, relationships with others, challenges they face, etc.
Story line & Ideas: Decide what happens in the story: the main events, the climax, the ideas and the denouement.
You also need to provide at least ONE of the following:
Sketches of at least two of the characters (See the sheet provided on how to draw anime characters)
A story board of a key scene
A sketch of one of the settings.
A film script of the opening, ending or a key scene.
Submit the descriptions for the proposal of the genre, setting, characters and story line.
Submit one or more of the four tasks outlined above.
Include an explanation of your proposed film
You will be assessed on how well you:
Convey the ideas, originality and creativity of the proposal
Articulate the process of composing & your vision
Demonstrate awareness of the cultural elements
Higher-order thinking: drawing together a range of concepts and skills
High-expectations: a challenging task
Deep understanding: demonstration of understanding of elements of a film
Student direction: freedom of choice in tasks and in focus for anime
Inclusivity: a task that all students will be able to demonstrate understanding and skills
Marking Guidelines For Assessment Task 1
Sophisticated demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression
Sophisticated explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture
Sophisticated evaluation of the data imported from the internet
Effective demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression
Effective explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture
Effective evaluation of the data imported from the internet
Sound demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression
Sound explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture
Sound evaluation of the data imported from the internet
Satisfactory demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression
Satisfactory explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture
Satisfactory evaluation of the data imported from the internet
Limited demonstration of the report form and clarity of expression
Limited explanation and understanding of an aspect of Japanese culture
Limited evaluation of the data imported from the internet
Sophisticated explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision
Sophisticated evidence of originality and creativity
Sophisticated awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime
Sophisticated understanding of the interests of the teenage audience
Effective explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision
Effective evidence of originality and creativity
Effective awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime
Effective understanding of the interests of the teenage audience
Sound explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision
Sound evidence of originality and creativity
Sound awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime
Sound understanding of the interests of the teenage audience
Satisfactory explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision
Satisfactory evidence of originality and creativity
Satisfactory awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime
Satisfactory understanding of the interests of the teenage audience
Limited explanation of proposal, ideas and composer’s vision
Limited evidence of originality and creativity
Limited awareness of the cultural elements to be represented in the proposed anime
Limited understanding of the interests of the teenage audience
Little or no attempt to satisfy the demands of the task
Week 1: Others’ Perspectives – Anime Images
Discuss the following images from a range of Japanese animes. Note the following:
Body language: facial expressions, gestures, stance, position, etc
Impact on viewer
How To Draw Anime Style Art http://animeworld.com/howtodraw/faces.html
The first step in drawing "anime style" is just that--style. What kid of character are you drawing, and for what purpose? Style is completely a matter of preference, but it's a good idea to be aware of some of the main archetypes before going on to facial structure and body proportion.
Here are some examples:
Cute - Round cheekbones, large eyes, facial parts set close together.
Evil - Drawn more 'realistically'. Sharp cheekbones, very small pupils.
Stupid - Round head and body, very simplistic features, tiny little eyes.
Fighter (a la DBZ) - Simplistic features, exaggerated body proportions, small head.
There is no one, right way to go about drawing Japanese-style characters, but here are some steps you might want to try for a start:
1. The Shape One way to start is with a realistically proportioned head. Just a simple, egg shaped oval divided vertically with a line so everything ends up symmetrical. A line to mark the eyes should be half way up, no higher. The line for the nose should be half way between the eyes and the chin; then one for the mouth about half way between the nose and then chin.
2. Exaggerate The trick to this style is exaggeration. Now that you have the start of a normal head, there are a couple major changes. First, exaggerate the shape of the head by sharpening the chin so the jaw tapers down abruptly from the eye level. Then the eyes: unlike a normal face where the eye line marks the middle of the eyes, the eyes are stretched down to a little above the nose. An easy way to block in eyes is with lines for the upper and lower lashes, and a rectangle for the iris.
3. Add Details Simplicity is part of the trick: a small mark for a hint of a nose, keep the mouth small, with a little shadow to suggest the lower lip. Give the lashes some flare and a downward turn and the end. The Pupil should be elongated and black, the iris somewhat shaded, and there should be a highlight (on the same side of both eyes). Add simple lines for the eyebrows, and you can block in the hair.
4. Clean Up Clean up any stray lines, and add the neck (keep it thin). The bottoms of the ears should be about level with the nose. The hair should be very exaggerated--think big: if there is a part that curls up, it should curl WAY up. Don't draw individual hairs, think of hair as volumes that can be defined. The steps are pretty much the same for a profile-view. Don't worry too much about the ears, keep it simple and suggest the structure. The hard part is the profile edge of the face. It might take some practice to get it down, but just remember to keep it simple--it's all subtlety. The forehead slopes down and curves in at the eyebrow. The nose should be delicate, sharp and slightly upturned. The face then slopes gently down to the chin, with a little nick for the mouth
Faces - Styles and Design Examples
Here are some eyes:
Here are some noses:
Here are some mouths:
Here are some ears:
Here are some face shapes:
Here are some hairstyles:
Faces - The Structure
1. You take your circle...
2. Add a line down the direction the head is facing.
3. Then add a horizontal line. Important: This is where the eyes go!
4. Then add the lower jaw. This can be any shape or size you want, as long as its relatively symmetrical
8. Now, sit back and admire your work, basking in the sheer pleasure of self-satisfaction that comes from knowing that you have indeed mastered everything there is to learn about drawing anime.
If you want your character to be facing in a direction other than straight forward, you're going to have to make other arrangements.
The basic method is the same...
But certain facial proportions are going to be a bit different.
Here are some examples.
The hardest part about drawing bodies is getting the proportions right. If you use the height of the head as a unit of measurement, the average human is about seven heads tall. The bottom of the torso is general about half way up. Women usually have longer legs and smaller torsos than men.
As with faces, the Japanese animation style body is just an exaggeration of a regular person. The amount you want to exaggerate your figures is up to you and the style you like. Vertically, the main changes are a shorter torso and longer legs. Other than that, you just have to take the features of an idealized woman and make them even more ideal: long and thin arm and legs, small body and slim waist, usually the hips are pretty slim, and a long thin neck. Make sure to keep the head fairly large--the human head doesn't change in size over a life time as dramatically as the rest of the body.
1. Block it out: Just scribble in some ovals like the ones in the diagram to rough out the form, keeping it as lose and light as possible. Make sure you get the proportions like you want them before you move on. If you are not sure about something you can use the proportional diagram to check. You might want to draw a line right down the middle so it’s easy to make sure both sides are symmetrical.
2. Contours You might want to do all the details on the head before you move on; getting the face in proportion to the body can be hard and it is easier to modify the roughed in body to match a finished face than to try and correct things latter on. Once you have the figure all roughed in you just need to draw the nice smooth contours of a person over the bubbles.
Now you have the basics of proportion to work with. When you're trying to draw a complicated pose, or elaborate clothes, it can be really helpful to find a picture in a magazine that's close to what you want, or get a friend to pose for you. That way, you can see where one arm crosses the other, or how a leg would look foreshortened from that angle, or whatever. It also makes figuring out how clothes fold or pull a lot easier.
Resources: Ancestor Worship, http://www.wowessays.com/dbase/af1/nyv39.shtml (Contains information about Shinto and Buddhism)
Ancestor Worship – Facts, info, http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/a/an/ancestor_worship.htm Birthday Boy, http://www.birthdayboymovie.com/ Buddhism in Japan, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/japan/japanworkbook/religion/jbuddhis.html
Contemporary Japan: Culture and Society, http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/at_japan_soc/index.html
History of Anime, http://www.answers.com/topic/history-of-anime (History of anime in Japan)
Japanese Animation Information, http://www.public.iastate.edu/~rllew/anlinks1.html Metropolis, http://www.sonypictures.com/cthv/metropolis/ (Official site)
Philtar – East Asia, http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/regional/east-asia/ (Japanese ancestor worship and folklore)
Pioneers of Japanese Animation, http://www.midnighteye.com/features/pioneers-of-anime2.shtml (History of anime in Japan)
Shinto, http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2056.html Shinto and Buddhism, http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/r000009.htm Spirited Away, http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/sen/ The Anime Critic – Metropolis, http://www.animecritic.com/metropolis/anr-metropolis.html The Hayao Miyazaki Web, http://www.nausicaa.net/miyazaki/sen/reviews_fan.html The Role of the Samurai, http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/culture/samurai.html