StateReport Massachusetts Grades 4 and 8 Public Schools


Assessing Students With Disabilities and/or English Language Learners



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Assessing Students With Disabilities and/or English Language Learners
Testing accommodations, such as extra testing time or individual (rather than group) administration, are provided for students with disabilities (SD) or English language learners (ELL) who could not fairly and accurately demonstrate their abilities without modified test administration procedures. In 1996, administration procedures were introduced at the national level allowing certain accommodations for students requiring such accommodations to participate.
In state NAEP reading assessments prior to 1998, no testing accommodations or adaptations were permitted for SD or ELL students. In 1998, NAEP was administered using a split sample of schools—one sample in which accommodations were permitted for special-needs students who normally received them and another sample in which accommodations were not permitted. Therefore, there were two different sets of results available for 1998, and both are shown in the tables in this report. Results for the assessment years where accommodations were not permitted in state NAEP reading assessments (1992 and 1994) are reported in the same tables as the results where accommodations were permitted (1998, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, and 2009).

Even with the availability of accommodations, however, some students may still be excluded from the NAEP assessment. Due to differences in policies and practices regarding the identification and inclusion of SD and ELL students, variations in exclusion and accommodation rates should be considered when comparing students' performance over time and across states. The types of accommodations used in the 2009 NAEP reading assessment are available on the NAEP website at http://nationsreportcard.gov/reading_2009/type_accomm.asp

Page 9 of 61


NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)
Interpreting Results
The scores and percentages in this report are estimates based on samples of students rather than on entire populations. In addition, the collection of questions used at each grade level is only a sample of the many questions that could have been asked to assess the skills and abilities described in the NAEP framework. Comparisons over time or between groups are based on statistical tests that consider both the size of the differences and the standard errors of the two statistics being compared. Standard errors are margins of error, and estimates based on smaller groups are likely to have larger margins of error. The size of the standard errors may also be influenced by other factors such as how representative the assessed students are of the entire population. Statistical tests that factor in these standard errors are used to determine whether the differences between average scores or percentages are significant. All differences were tested for statistical significance at the .05 level using unrounded numbers.
NAEP sample sizes have increased since 2002 compared to previous years, resulting in smaller standard errors. As a consequence, smaller differences are detected as statistically significant than were detected in previous assessments. In addition, estimates based on smaller groups are likely to have relatively large standard errors. Thus, some seemingly large differences may not be statistically significant. That is, it cannot be determined whether these differences are due to sampling error, or to true differences in the population of interest.

Differences between scores or between percentages are discussed in this report only when they are significant from a statistical perspective. Significant differences between 2009 and prior assessments are marked with a notation (*) in the tables. Any differences in scores within a year or across years that are mentioned in the text as "higher," "lower," "greater," or "smaller" are statistically significant.

The reader is cautioned against making simple causal inferences between student performance and the other variables (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, and type of school location) discussed in this report. A statistically significant relationship between a variable and measures of student performance does not imply that the variable causes differences in how well students perform. The relationship may be influenced by a number of other variables not accounted for in this report, such as family income, parental involvement, or student attitudes.

Page 10 of 61



NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)
NAEP 2009 Reading Overall Scale Score and Achievement-Level Results for Public School Students
Overall reading results are reported in this section for public school students from Massachusetts along with regional and national results.
Prior to 1998, testing accommodations were not provided for students with special needs in NAEP state reading assessments. For 1998, results are displayed for both the sample in which accommodations were permitted and

the sample in which they were not permitted. Subsequent assessment results were based on the more inclusive samples. In the text of this report, comparisons to 1998 results refer only to the sample in which accommodations were permitted.


Overall Scale Score Results
Student performance is reported as an average score based on the NAEP reading scale, which ranges from 0 to

500 for grades 4 and 8, and from 0 to 500 for grade 12.

Tables 1-A and 1-B show the overall performance results of grades 4 and 8 public school students in

Massachusetts, the nation (public), and the region. The list of states making up a given region for NAEP prior to

2003 differed from the list used by the U.S. Census Bureau, which has been used in NAEP from 2003 onward. Therefore, the data for the state's region are given only for 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009. The first column of results presents the average score on the NAEP reading scale. The remaining columns show the scores at selected percentiles. A percentile indicates the percentages of students whose scores fell at or below a particular score. For example, the 25th percentile demarks the cut point for the lowest 25 percent of students within the distribution of scale scores.

Grade 4 Scale Score Results

 In 2009, the average scale score for students in Massachusetts was 234. This was higher than that of students across the nation (220).

 In Massachusetts, the average scale score for students in 2009 was not significantly different from that in

2007 (236). Similarly, the average scale score for students in public schools across the nation in 2009 was not significantly different from that in 2007 (220).

 In Massachusetts, the average scale score for students in 2009 was higher than the scores in 1992, 1994,

1998, and 2003. However, it was not significantly different from the scores in 2002, 2005, and 2007.


Grade 8 Scale Score Results

 In 2009, the average scale score for students in Massachusetts was 274. This was higher than that of students across the nation (262).

 In Massachusetts, the average scale score for students in 2009 was not significantly different from that in

2007 (273). However, the average scale score for students in public schools across the nation in 2009 was higher than that in 2007 (261).

 In Massachusetts, the average scale score for students in 2009 was higher than the score in 1998. However, it was not significantly different from the scores in 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007.

Page 11 of 61


NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)




Table

1-A

The Nation's Report Card 2009 State Assessment
Average scale scores and selected percentile scores in NAEP reading for fourth-grade public school students, by assessment year and jurisdiction: Various years, 1992–2009




Year and jurisdiction

Average 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th scale score percentile percentile percentile percentile percentile

19921 Nation (public) Massachusetts

19941 Nation (public)

Massachusetts

19981 Nation (public) Massachusetts

1998 Nation (public)

Massachusetts

2002 Nation (public) Massachusetts

2003 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2005 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2007 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2009 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts


215 *

226 *


212 *

223 *


215 *

225 *


213 *

223 *


217 *

234


216 *

223 *


228 *

217 *


224 *

231


220

227


236

220


227

234


168 *

188


156 *

177 *


165 *

184


161 *

178 *


169 *

193


167 *

176 *


183 *

169 *


178 *

189


173

181

194

173


183

192


192 *

207 *


187 *

202 *


192 *

206 *


189 *

203 *


194 *

214


193 *

201 *


206 *

194 *


202 *

211


198

206


215

198


206

214


217 *

228 *


217 *

226 *


218 *

227 *


215 *

226 *


219 *

236


219 *

226 *


230 *

220 *


226 *

233

222

230


237

222


229

236


240 *

247 *


241 *

248 *


242

248 *


241 *

247 *


242 *

256


243 *

248 *


251 *

243 *


248 *

253


244

252 *


258

244


250

256


259

263 *


261

265 *


261

265 *


260 *

264 *


261 *

273


262

266 *

269

262


266

271


263

270 *


276

263


268

273


* Value is significantly different (p < .05) from the value for the same jurisdiction in 2009.

1 Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.

2 Region in which jurisdiction is located. Regional data are not provided for years prior to 2003 to be consistent with the U.S. Census Bureau defined regions.

NOTE: The NAEP grade 4 reading scale ranges from 0 to 500.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational

Progress (NAEP), various years, 1992–2009 Reading Assessments.

Page 12 of 61


NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)



Table

1-B

The Nation's Report Card 2009 State Assessment

Average scale scores and selected percentile scores in NAEP reading for eighth-grade public school students, by assessment year and jurisdiction: Various years, 1998–2009




Year and jurisdiction

Average 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th scale score percentile percentile percentile percentile percentile

19981 Nation (public) Massachusetts

1998 Nation (public)

Massachusetts

2002 Nation (public) Massachusetts

2003 Nation (public)

Northeast2

Massachusetts

2005 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2007 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2009 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts


261

269 *


261

269 *


263

271


261 *

267 *

273

260 *


267 *

274


261 *

267 *


273

262


269

274


215

228


214

225


219

229


215 *

221 *


228

214 *


222 *

230


216 *

223


232

218


225

231


240

249


238 *

248 *


242

250


240 *

246 *


251

238 *


246 *

253


240 *

247

254

242


249

254


264

271 *


264

271 *


265

273


264 *

270 *


276

263 *


270 *

276


264 *

270 *


275

265


272

275


286

291 *


285

292 *


286

292


286

291 *


297

285 *


291

297


285 *

290 *


295

286


292

297


304

308 *

303

308 *


303

309 *


304

308


314

303


309

314


303 *

308 *


312

304


310

314


* Value is significantly different (p < .05) from the value for the same jurisdiction in 2009.

1 Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.

2 Region in which jurisdiction is located. Regional data are not provided for years prior to 2003 to be consistent with the U.S. Census Bureau defined regions.

NOTE: The NAEP grade 8 reading scale ranges from 0 to 500.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational

Progress (NAEP), various years, 1998–2009 Reading Assessments.

Page 13 of 61


NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)
Overall Achievement-Level Results

Student results are reported as the percentages of students performing relative to performance standards set by the National Assessment Governing Board. These performance standards for what students should know and be able to do were based on the recommendations of broadly representative panels of educators and members of the public.

Tables 2-A and 2-B show the percentage of students at grades 4 and 8 who performed below Basic, at or above Basic, at or above Proficient, and at Advanced. Because the percentages are cumulative from Basic to Proficient to Advanced, they may sum to more than 100 percent. Only the percentage of students performing at or above Basic (which includes the students at Proficient and Advanced) plus the students below Basic will sum to

100 percent.


Grade 4 Achievement-Level Results
 In 2009, the percentage of Massachusetts' students who performed at or above Proficient was 47 percent.

This was greater than the percentage of the nation's public school students who performed at or above


Proficient (32 percent).

 In Massachusetts, the percentage of students who performed at or above Proficient in 2009 was greater than the percentages in 1992, 1994, 1998, and 2003, but was not significantly different from the percentages in

2002, 2005, and 2007.

 In 2009, the percentage of Massachusetts' students who performed at or above Basic was 80 percent. This was greater than the percentage of the nation's public school students who performed at or above Basic (66 percent).

 In Massachusetts, the percentage of students who performed at or above Basic in 2009 was greater than the percentages in 1992, 1994, 1998, and 2003, but was not significantly different from the percentages in 2002,

2005, and 2007.

Grade 8 Achievement-Level Results
 In 2009, the percentage of Massachusetts' students who performed at or above Proficient was 43 percent.

This was greater than the percentage of the nation's public school students who performed at or above



Proficient (30 percent).

 In Massachusetts, the percentage of students who performed at or above Proficient in 2009 was greater than the percentage in 1998, but was not significantly different from the percentages in 2002, 2003, 2005, and

2007.

 In 2009, the percentage of Massachusetts' students who performed at or above Basic was 83 percent. This was greater than the percentage of the nation's public school students who performed at or above Basic (74 percent).



 In Massachusetts, the percentage of students who performed at or above Basic in 2009 was greater than the percentage in 1998, but was not significantly different from the percentages in 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007.

Page 14 of 61



NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)



Table

2-A

The Nation's Report Card 2009 State Assessment

Percentage of fourth-grade public school students at or above NAEP reading achievement levels, by assessment year and jurisdiction: Various years, 1992–2009




Year and jurisdiction

Below At or above At or above At

Basic Basic Proficient Advanced

19921 Nation (public) Massachusetts

19941 Nation (public)

Massachusetts

19981 Nation (public) Massachusetts

1998 Nation (public)

Massachusetts

2002 Nation (public) Massachusetts

2003 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2005 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2007 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts

2009 Nation (public) Northeast2

Massachusetts


40 *

26 *


41 *

31 *


39 *

27 *

42 *

30 *


38 *

20

38 *



31 *

27 *


38 *

30 *


22

34

27



19

34

27



20

60 *

74 *


59 *

69 *


61 *

73 *


58 *

70 *


62 *

80

62 *



69 *

73 *


62 *

70 *


78

66

73



81

66

73



80

27 *

36 *


28 *

36 *


29 *

37 *


28 *

35 *


30 *

47

30 *



36 *

40 *


30 *

36 *


44

32

40



49

32

39



47

6 *

7 *


7

8 *


6

8 *

6

8 *



6 *

13

7



9

10

7



9

12

7



11 *

16

7



10

13


* Value is significantly different (p < .05) from the value for the same jurisdiction in 2009.

1 Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.

2 Region in which jurisdiction is located. Regional data are not provided for years prior to 2003 to be consistent with the U.S. Census Bureau defined regions.

NOTE: The NAEP grade 4 reading scale ranges from 0 to 500. Achievement levels correspond to the following points on the NAEP reading scales: below Basic, 207 or lower; Basic, 208–237; Proficient, 238–267; and Advanced, 268 and above. At or above Basic includes Basic, Proficient, and Advanced. At or above Proficient includes Proficient and Advanced. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of

Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1992–2009 Reading Assessments.

Page 15 of 61


NAEP 2009 Reading Report for Massachusetts (Embargoed)





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