Subdisciplines of Earth Science Geology; study of the earth



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CHAPTER 1




  1. Subdisciplines of Earth Science

    1. Geology; study of the earth

      1. Physical; materials of earth and the processes acting on it

      2. Historical; origin of earth and changes in planet; age of earth is 4.6 billion years

    2. Oceanography; application of sciences to the oceans

    3. Meteorology; study of atmosphere and the processes that produce climate and weather

    4. Astronomy; relate our planet to the universe




  1. Environmental Issues in Earth Science

    1. Resources

      1. Renewable

      2. Nonrenewable

    2. Population growth

    3. Environmental problems

      1. Natural

      2. Manmade




  1. Scientific Method of Study

    1. Collect facts through repeated observation and measurement

    2. Develop tentative explanation; hypothesis or model

    3. Repeated testing makes a hypothesis a theory

    4. Theory becomes law when no known exceptions exist

  2. Scales of Space and Time

    1. Formation of Solar System

      1. Nebular hypothesis

      2. Steps in formation




  1. The Scientific Method of Study

    1. Collect facts through repeated observation and measurement

    2. Develop tentative explanation; hypothesis
    3. Repeated testing makes hypothesis a theory


    4. Theory becomes law when no know exceptions exist


  1. Earth’s Spheres

    1. Hydrosphere: lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, glaciers

    2. Atmosphere: gases, weather, climate

    3. Biosphere: plant and animal life

    4. Geosphere




  1. Earth’s Internal Structure

    1. Composition

      1. Crust

        1. Ocean

        2. Continent

      2. Mantle

      3. Core

    2. Physical Properties

      1. Lithosphere

      2. Asthenosphere





  1. Mobile Geosphere

    1. Continental Drift

    2. Plate Tectonics

    3. Plate Motion




  1. Divisions of Earth

    1. Continents

      1. Mountain belts

      2. Shields

      3. Stable platforms

    2. Ocean Basins

      1. Continental Margin

      2. Continental shelf

      3. Continental slope

      4. Abyssal plains

      5. Trenches

      6. Ridges




  1. Earth System Science

    1. Systems

      1. Negative feedback mechanisms

      2. Positive feedback mechanisms

      3. Examples

    2. Cycles

      1. Hydrologic

      2. Rock

    3. Energy

      1. Sources

        1. External


        2. Internal

        3. Processes

    4. Interdependency of System Parts


CHAPTER 2




  1. General Information

    1. Crust: thinnest layer

    2. Mineral: any naturally occurring generally inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and unique set of physical properties

    3. Rock: aggregate of minerals




  1. Geochemistry

    1. All minerals are composed of elements (over 100 known)

    2. Atom; smallest part of matter that keeps characteristics of elements

      1. Nucleus

      2. Atom; smallest part of matter that keeps characteristics of elements

      3. Nucleus

        1. Proton

          1. Positive charge

          2. Determines element

        2. Neutron

          1. Neutral charge

          2. Determines isotope

      4. Electron; negative charge

      5. Ion


  1. Physical Properties of Minerals

    1. Crystal form: most minerals have crystal form however may not be perfect because crystals that form at the same time compete for space

    2. Luster; appearance or quality of light reflected from surface of mineral

      1. Metallic

      2. Nonmetallic

        1. Glassy

        2. Earthy

    3. Color; least reliable; light, intermediate, dark

    4. Streak; color of powdered form of mineral
    5. Hardness; resistance of a mineral to abrasion; rub a mineral against object of known hardness


      1. Mohs scale

      2. Talc

      3. Diamond

    6. Cleavage: tendency to break along a smooth, flat surface; represents planes of weak internal chemical bonds

    7. Fracture; tendency of mineral to break irregularly; mineral has no chemical bonds that are stronger than others (quartz); conchoidal fracture

    8. Specific gravity; weight of mineral to weight of equal volume of water

    9. Other properties

      1. Taste

      2. Smell

      3. Elasticity

      4. Feel

      5. Magnetism

      6. Reaction to HCL




  1. Silicates

    1. Most abundant mineral group

    2. Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

      1. Building block of silicates






    1. Common silicate minerals

      1. High iron silicates; pyroxene, amphibole, biotite

      2. Low iron silicates; quartz, feldspar, muscovite

      3. Feldspar is the most common mineral

      4. Most formed by crystallization of molten rock



  1. Nonsilicates

    1. Groups

    2. Carbonates

      1. Calcite

      2. Florida

      3. Cement building stone




  1. Mineral Resources

    1. Reserves

    2. Ores

    3. Economics





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