One thousand and twenty eight studies were excluded. The reasons for exclusion are as follows: (1) the study was not primary research on ASD (n= 83), (2) the study did not assess a cognitive/behavioural intervention for ASD (n= 15), (3) the study did not report adequately on any measurable data for health related outcomes relevant to the review (n= 101), (4) the study did not examine an ASD population (n= 46), and (5) the study design was not an RCT or an observational analytical cohort study (n= 783).
Excluded – Not primary research on ASD (N = 83) The following studies were excluded because they were not primary research on ASD.
1. Keep your eye on .Lego building blocks to teach social skills in autistic children. Brown Unive Child Adolesc Behav Lett 2006;22(10):2.
2. Aldred C, Stockport NHS Foundation Trust. Child's talk: intensive communication and interactive therapy for children with autism. A pilot study to measure outcome of therapy: do the social communication skills of an intervened group of autistic children differ significantly from a non-intervened group and are the skills maintained 6 months post-invention? Oxford (UK): Steve Shirley Foundation, 2000.
3. Aldred C, Pollard C, Phillips R, et al. Multidisciplinary social communication intervention for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder: the Child's Talk project. Educ Child Psychol 2001;18(2):76-87.
4. Attwood T. Cognitive behaviour therapy for children and adults with Asperger's syndrome. Behav Change 2004;21(3):147-61.
5. Baker BS. The use of music with autistic children. J Psychos Nurs 1982;20(4):31-4.
6. Barnett A. Misapplications reviews: dealing with autism. Interfaces 1989;19(3):27-32.
7. Bell CM. Music therapy with autistic spectrum disorder . Bazian Ltd (Editors): Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development, University of Southampton, 2003.
8. Biklen D, Schubert A. New words: the communication of students with autism. Rem Spec Educ 1991;12(6):46-57.
9. Billard A, Robins B, Nadel J, et al. Building Robota, a mini-humanoid robot for the rehabilitation of children with autism. Assist Technol 2007;19(1):37-49.
10. Bloom B. A descriptive study of early childhood intervention programs in Saskatchewan final report of "the alpern-boll" data, 1984-1990. Saskatoon, SK: Department of Social Services, Community Living Division, Regina, SK and Saskatchewan Association for Community Living, Saskatoon, SK, 1991.
11. Bottroff V, Zeitz J. A model of support and intervention for individuals with Asperger syndrome and their families. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:445.
12. Brinton B, Fujiki M. Social competence in children with language impairment: making connections. Semin Speech Lang 2005;26(3):151-9.
13. Burrows K. Early intervention for children with autism. Ped Child Health 2004;9(4):267-70.
14. Buschbacher PW, Fox L. Understanding and intervening with the challenging behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2003;34(3):217-27.
15. Butter EM, Wynn J, Mulick JA. Early intervention critical to autism treatment. Pediatr Ann 2003;32(10):677-84.
16. Chapman L, Trowbridge M. Social stories for reducing fear in the outdoors. Horizons 2000;121:38-40.
17. Charman T, Howlin P, Aldred C, et al. Research into early intervention for children with autism and related disorders: methodological and design issues: report on a workshop funded by the Wellcome Trust, Institute of Child Health, London, UK, November 2001. Autism 2003;7(2):217-25.
18. Dillenburger K, Keenan M, Gallagher S, et al. Autism: intervention and parental empowerment. Child Care Pract 2002;8(3):216-9.
19. Dimond C, Hyde C. Parent education programmes for children's behaviour problems. Medium to long term effectiveness (Structured abstract) [web page]. 2007; Available at: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/cldare/articles/DARE-20008583/frame.html. Accessed May, 2007.
20. Fennick E, Royle J. Community inclusion for children and youth with developmental disabilities. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 2003;18(1):20.
21. Ferritor DE. Modifying interaction patterns: an experimental training program for parents of autistic children [dissertation]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington; 1969.
22. Finn P, Bothe AK, Bramlett RE. Science and pseudoscience in communication disorders: criteria and applications. Am J Speech Lang Pat 2005;14(3):172-86.
23. Foley BE, Staples AH. Developing Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) and literacy interventions in a supported employment setting. Top Lang Disord 2003;23(4):325-43.
24. Fuentes J, Gallano I, Gallano I. Applying TEACCH in developing autism services in Spain: the Gautena project. Int J Ment Health 2000;29(2):78-88.
25. Fuggle K, Fixter A, Brown SW. Music therapy in the treatment of a child with epilepsy and autism. Epilepsia 1995;36(Suppl. 3):S74.
26. Green VA, Pituch KA, Itchon J, et al. Internet survey of treatments used by parents of children with autism. Res Dev Disabil 2006;27(1):70-84.
27. Handleman JS, Harris SL. Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center: An ABA program for children and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Int J Behav Consult Ther 2005;1(4):301-11.
28. Handleman JS, Harris SL, Kristoff B, et al. A specialized program for preschool children with autism. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 1991;22(3):107-10.
29. Harris SL. Involving college students and parents in a child care setting: a day school for the child with autistic behaviors. Child Care Q 1974;3(3):188-94.
30. Harris SL, Delmolino L. Applied behavior analysis: its application in the treatment of autism and related disorders in young children. Infant Young Child 2002;14(3):11-7.
31. Hirsch RF. Auditory verbal and visual manual sign decoding of verbal and nonverbal autistic children: a study of cross-modality versus within-modality processing [dissertation]. Los Angeles (CA): University of Southern California; 1973.
32. Howlin P. Reaching the autistic child: a parent training program. Behav Res Ther 1974;12(4):362-3.
33. Ingenmey R. Delayed prompts promote spontaneous speech in an autistic child during play [dissertation]. Halifax (NS): Mount Saint Vincent University; 1989.
34. Kampa A, Kennedy J, Velde B, et al. The Friendship Club: developing reciprocal relationships in children with Asperger's syndrome. OT Practice 2003;8(19):25-7.
35. Kasari C, Freeman S, Paparella T. Interventions targeting joint attention and symbolic play can improve aspects of these skills in young children with autism. EBMH 2007;10 (1):21.
36. Kasari C, Freeman S, Paparella T, et al. Early intervention on core deficits in autism. Clin Neuropsych 2005;2(6):380-8.
37. Kasari C, Freeman SFN, Paparella T. Early intervention in autism: joint attention and symbolic play.Glidden LM, editor. International Review of Research in Mental Retardation. 23. San Diego: Academic Press Inc; 2001:207-37.
38. Kubina RM Jr, Morrison R, Lee DL. Benefits of adding precision teaching to behavioral interventions for students with autism . Behav Intervent 2002;17(4):233-46.
39. Le Couteur A, Sowter M. Early assessment and intervention in autism: adapting the family focussed Hanen Parent Programme for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorders. 1997 Conference proceediongs: Living and learning with autism: perspectives from the individual, the family and the professional; Durham, UK. Autism Research Unit; 1997. p. 29-42.
40. Leroy G, Chuang S, Huang J, et al. Digital libraries on handhelds for autistic children. Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS joint conference on Digital libraries; Denver, CO. New York, (NY): ACM Press; 2005. p. 387.
41. Levinge A. 'The use of I and me': music therapy with an autistic child. J Br Music Ther 1990;4(2):15-8.
42. Levy S, Kim A, Olive ML. Interventions for young children with autism: a synthesis of the literature. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 2006;21(1):55-62.
43. Light JC, Roberts B, Dimarco R, et al. Augmentative and alternative communication to support receptive and expressive communication for people with autism. J Commun Disord 1998;31(2):153-80.
44. Lord C, Wagner A, Rogers S, et al. Challenges in evaluating psychosocial interventions for autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2005;35(6):695-708; discussion 709-11.
45. Lovaas OI, Smith T.Thompson T, Gray DB, editors. Destructive behavior in developmental disabilities: diagnosis and treatment. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc; 1994:243-60.
46. Lowery EF. Autistic aloofness reconsidered: case reports of two children in play therapy. Bull Menninger Clin 1985;49(2):135-50.
47. Magerotte G, Roge B. Family quality of life and early intervention in autism (Auti-Qol). J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:328.
48. Maley A, Maybery M. The effectiveness of early intervention treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders. Aust J Psychol 2003;55(Suppl. S):194.
49. Marriage KJ, Gordon V, Brand L. A social skills group for boys with Asperger's syndrome. Aust NZ J Psychiatr 1995;29(1):58-62.
50. Mastropieri MA, Scruggs TE. Early intervention for socially withdrawn children. J Spec Educ 1985;19(4):429-41.
51. McClannahan LE, MacDuff GS, Krantz PJ. Behavior analysis and intervention for adults with autism. Behav Modif 2002;26(1):9-26.
52. McConachie H. Joint attention and symbolic play in young children with autism. Child Care Hlth Dev 2006;32(6):752.
53. Means JR, Merrens MR. Interpersonal training for an autistic child. Percept Motor Skills 1969;28(3):972-4.
54. Mesibov GB, Browder DA, Kirkland C. Using individualized schedules as a component of positive behavioral support for students with developmental disabilities. J Pos Behav Interv 2002;4(2):73-9.
55. Miller EP. Language acquisition training for parents of autistic children [dissertation]. Louisville (KT): University of Louisville; 1981.
56. Oliver CJ. Triage of the autistic spectrum child utilizing the congruence of case management concepts and Orem's nursing theories. Lippincott's Case Manage 2003;8(2):66-82.
57. Paisley DD, Cahill F. An analysis of how a secure environment for adults with autistic spectrum disorder and challenging behaviour provides and applies the TEACCH philosophy within the restrictions created by detention under the Mental Health Act 1983. 11th Durham Conference on Autism; Durham, UK. Sunderland: Autism Research Unit; 2000. p. 33-42.
58. Park D. Operant conditioning of a speaking autistic child. J Autism Child Schiz 1974;4(2):189-91.
59. Quill K, Gurry S, Larkin A. Daily life therapy: a Japanese model for educating children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1989;19(4):625-35.
60. Quill KA. Visually cued instruction for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Focus Autistic Behav 1995;10(3):10-20.
61. Quinn S. Winnipeg's elementary autistic option: an integrated cluster program. International conference: Autism: a world of options; Toronto; Canada. Arlington (TX): Future Education, Inc; 1993. p. 101-4.
62. Rathkey JH, Krug DA, Flax SW, et al. A microprocessor-based aid for training autistic children. Biomed Sci Instrum 1978;14:87-96.
63. Rowe C. The Stanley Segal award: do social stories benefit children with autism in mainstream primary schools? Br J Special Educ 1999;26(1):12-4.
64. Rutter M, Sussenwein F. A developmental and behavioral approach to the treatment of preschool autistic children. J Autism Child Schiz 1971;1(4):376-97.
65. Sasaki M. Aspects of autism in Japan before and after the introduction of TEACCH. Int J Ment Health 2000;29(2):3-18.
66. Schoen SF, Bullard M. Action research during recess: a time for children with autism to play and learn. Teach Except Child 2002;35(1):36-9.
67. Schuler A, Gonsier-Gerdin J, Wolfberg P. The efficacy of speech and language intervention: autism. Semin Speech Lang 1990;11(4):242-55.
68. Schulz M. Socializing influence of remedial educational vaulting on children with autistic attitudes (Asperger syndrome). Proceedings of 9th the International Therapeutic Riding Congress; Denver; CO. Denver: North American Riding for the Handicapped Association; 1997. p. 65-73.
69. Shapiro T, Hertzig M. Applied behavioral analysis: astonishing results? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995;34(10):1255-6.
70. Shields J. The NAS earlybird programme: autism-specific early intervention for parents. Prof Care Mother Child 2000;10(2):53-4.
71. Shields J. The NAS earlybird programme: partnership with parents in early intervention. Autism 2001;5(1):49-56.
72. Smith T, Lovaas OI. Intensive and early behavioral intervention with autism: the UCLA young autism project. Infant Young Child 1998;10(3):67-78.
73. Temple K. A randomized comparison of the effect of two prelinguistic communication interventions on the acquisition of spoken communication in preschoolers with ASD. Child Care Hlth Dev 2007;33(3):348-9.
74. Urry N. Behaviour modification with an autistic child. Nurs Times 1970;66(15):456-8.
75. Van Berckelaer-Onnes IA. Promoting early play. Autism 2003;7(4):415-23.
76. Wallen M, Bulkeley K. Three sessions of adult imitation increased some appropriate social behaviours of young children with autism. Aust Occup Ther J 2006;53 ( 2):139-40.
77. Wallen M, Stagnitti K. There was insufficient evidence to conclude whether parent-mediated early intervention was effective for children with autism. Aust Occup Ther J 2006;53(2):137-9.
78. Wallis C, Goehner AL. A tale of two schools. Time 2006;167 ( 20):48-51.
79. Watling R, Tomchek S, LaVesser P, et al. The scope of occupational therapy services for individuals with autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan. Am J Occup Ther 2005;59(6):680-3.
80. White AH. Cognitive behavioural therapy in children with autistic spectrum disorder. Bazian Ltd (editors). Wessex Institute for Health Research and Development, University of Southampton, 2004.
81. Williams EU. Rural necessity as the mother of invention: using collaboration to extend services for autism and low-incidence handicaps. Montgomery D, editor. Rural America: where all innovations begin; Savannah, GA.; 1993.
82. Williams TI. Effects of treatment strategies on the learning and development of autistic children [dissertation]. Dissert Abst Int 1988;49(4A):722.
83. Wing L. Management of early childhood autism. Br J Hosp Med 1981;25(4):355-6, 359.
Excluded – Not on a Cognitive/Behavioural Intervention for ASD (N = 15)
The following studies were excluded because they did not assess a cognitive/behavioural intervention for ASD.
1. Arick JR, Krug DA. Autistic children: a study of learning characteristics and programming needs. Am J Ment Defic 1978;83(2):200-2.
2. Campbell M, Anderson LT, Meier M, et al. A comparison of haloperidol and behavior therapy and their interaction in autistic children. J Am Acad Child Psychiatry 1978;17(4):640-55.
3. Chong IM. Assessing the differential outcomes procedure with children diagnosed with autism [dissertation]. Dissert Abst Int 2005;66(1B):536.
4. Elder JH, Shankar M, Shuster J, et al. The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: results of a preliminary double blind clinical trial. J Autism Dev Dis 2006; 36(3):413-20.
5. Frankel F, Freeman BJ, Ritvo E, et al. The effect of environmental stimulation upon the stereotyped behavior of autistic children. J Autism Child Schiz 1978;8(4):389-94.
6. Frankel F, Myatt R, Feinberg D. Parent-assisted friendship training for children with autism. Child Psychiat Hum D 2007;37 (4):337-46.
7. Graff RB, Green G, Libby ME. Effects of two levels of treatment intensity on a young child with severe disabilities. Behav Intervent 1998;13(1):21-41.
8. Holttum JR, Lubetsky MJ, Eastman LE. Comprehensive management of trichotillomania in a young autistic girl. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994;33(4):577-81.
9. Kerrin RG, Murdock JY, Sharpton WR, et al. Who's doing the pointing? Investigating facilitated communication in a classroom setting with students with autism. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 1998;13(2):73-9.
10. Konstantareas MM, Gravelle G. Facilitated communication. Autism 1998;2(4):389-414.
11. Makita K, Umezu K. An objective evaluation technique for autistic children: an introduction of CLAC scheme. Acta Paedopsychiatr 1973;39(8):237-53.
13. Rehfeldt RA, Chambers MR. Functional analysis and treatment of verbal perseverations displayed by an adult with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2003;36(2):259-61 .
14. Runco MA, Schreibman L. Parental judgments of behavior therapy efficacy with autistic children: a social validation. J Autism Dev Disord 1983;13(3):237-48 .
15. Vanestenberg AM. The reduction of autistic symptoms through the utilization of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Cincinnati (OH): Union Institute and University; 2006.
Excluded – Outcomes; Inadequate Reporting (N = 101) The following study was excluded because data relevant to the outcomes of interest were inadequately reported.
1. Ayres AJ, Tickle LS. Hyper-responsivity to touch and vestibular stimuli as a predictor of positive response to sensory integration procedures by autistic children. Am J Occup Ther 1980;34(6):375-81.
2. Ball J. Increasing social interactions of preschoolers with autism through relationships with typically developing peers [dissertation]. Fort Lauderdale (FL): Nova Southeastern University; 1996.
3. Beadle-Brown J, Murphy G, Dorey H. Evaluation of early intervention in autism: a pilot study. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:328.
4. Bernhardt B, Smith D, Smith R. Language intervention with a "family-centered, collaborative, transdisciplinary, integrated" approach: an example. Child Lang Teach Ther 1992;8(3):265-84.
5. Bolte S, Feineis-Matthews S, Leber S, et al. The development and evaluation of a computer-based program to test and to teach the recognition of facial affect. Int J Circumpolar Health 2002;61(Suppl 2):61-8.
6. Boyd BA. Effects of restricted interests on the social behaviors of young children with autism spectrum disorders [dissertation]. Gainesville (FL): University of Florida; 2005.
7. Brereton AV, Tonge BJ, King NK. Autism: a parent-based early intervention. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:296.
8. Britten WJ . Preliminary outcomes of a group intervention for families with a child who has a developmental disability. 2003;55:170.
9. Brown MM. Auditory integration training and autism: two case studies. Br J Occup Ther 1999;62(1):13-8.
10. Burke JC. Assessing and training autistic children's responses to cross-modal stimuli containing one to four components [dissertation]. Santa Barbara (CA): University of California; 1987.
11. Cabay M. Brief report: a controlled evaluation of facilitated communication using open-ended and fill-in questions. J Autism Dev Disord 1994;24(4):517-27.
12. Carter C, Meckes L, Pritchard L, et al. The friendship club: an after-school program for children with Asperger syndrome. Fam Commun Health 2004;27(2):143-50 .
13. Castorina LL, Negri LM. The inclusion of siblings to promote generalisation in social skills training groups for boys with Asperger's syndrome. Aust J Psychol 2004;56(Suppl. S):167-8.
14. Celiberti DA. Training parents of children with autism to promote sibling play: randomized trials of three alternative training interventions. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 1994;54(11-A):4033.
15. Chandler S, Christie P, Newson E, et al. Developing a diagnostic and intervention package for 2- to 3-year-olds with autism: outcomes of the frameworks for communication approach . Autism 2002;6(1):47-69.
16. Cheney CO. The comparative effectiveness of four instructional techniques with autistic adolescents. Dissert Abst Int 1985;45(9A):2833.
17. Chretien M, Kennedy SL, Moxness K. Implementation monitoring of an early intervention program for autistic children centred on the family. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:376.
18. Citterio DN. Autism and horses: intervention strategy from the point of view of a science of movement. Proceedings of the 9th International Therapeutic Riding Congress; Denver; CO. Denver: North American Riding for the Handicapped Association; 1997. p. 211.
19. Clark TR. The application of savant and splinter skills in the autistic population through curriculum design: a longitudinal multiple-replication case study [dissertation]. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales; 2001.
20. Cullen-Powell LA, Barlow JH, Cushway D. Exploring a massage intervention for parents and their children with autism: the implications for bonding and attachment. J Child Health Care 2005;9(4):245-55.
21. Dellatan AK. The use of music with chronic food refusal: a case study. Music Ther Perspect 2003;21(2):105-9.
22. Dimartino JA. Comparing two treatment methods in improving the handwriting skills of autistic students [dissertation]. Buffalo (NY): D'youville College; 1991.
23. Duran E. A university program provides services to young adults of severe handicaps and autism who are of limited english proficiency. El Paso: Texas University, 1984.
24. Dyer KI. The competition of stereotyped behavior with external reinforcers in autistic children [dissertation]. Santa Barbara (CA): University of California; 1985.
25. Edelson SM, Rimland B, Berger CL, et al. Evaluation of a mechanical hand-support for facilitated communication. J Autism Dev Disord 1998;28(2):153-7.
26. Eversole AJR. Social skills training with high functioning autistic adolescents [dissertation]. Denton (TX): University of North Texas; 1988.
27. Fiorile CA. An experimental analysis of the transformation of stimulus function from speaker to listener to speaker repertoires. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2005;(66):139A.
28. Fitzgerald GE, Werner JG. The use of the computer to support cognitive-behavioral interventions for students with behavioral disorders. J Comp Child Educ 1996;7(3-4):127-48.
29. Freeman BJ, Somerset T, Ritvo ER. Effect of duration of time out in suppressing disruptive behavior of a severely autistic child. Psychol Rep 1976;38(1):124-6.
30. Fullerton A, Coyne P. Developing skills and concepts for self-determination in young adults with autism. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 1999;14(1):42-52, 63.
31. Gal E, Goren-Bar D, Bauminger N, et al. Pilot study of enforced collaboration during computerized storytelling to enhance social communication of children with high-functioning autism. Cyberpsychol Behav 2006;9(6):674-5.
32. Garrels D. Autism, the ultimate learning disability: a case management approach. J Child Care 1983;1(4):23-35.
33. Gena A. Training and generalization of affective behavior displayed by youth with autism. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1995;55(11-B):5103.
34. Granpeesheh D. The effects of teaching common preschool games to autistic children on increasing peer interaction [dissertation]. Los Angeles (CA): University of California; 1990.
35. Green J. Social communication intervention effective for core impairments of autism. 2005;21(1):4.
36. Grindle CF. Human learning when reinforcement is delayed: the effects of response marking [dissertation]. Southampton (UK): University of Southampton; 2005.
37. Groden J. Procedures to increase social interaction among autistic adolescents: a multiple baseline analysis [dissertation]. Boston (MA): Boston College; 1982.
38. Gunter PL. An empirical and social validation of response covariation in the reduction of aberrant behavior in an autistic boy. Dissert Abst Int 1986;46(8-A):2264-5.
39. Gutstein S. The effectiveness of relationship development intervention in remediating core deficits of autism-spectrum children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2004; 25(5):375.
40. Hastings R, Remington R, Kovshoff H, et al. Outcomes for families of children with autism in early intensive bhavioural intervention. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:327.
41. Heckaman KA. Effects of two response prompting procedures on disruptive behavior by students with moderate to severe disabilities during instruction on difficult tasks. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 1996;56(9-A):3541.
42. Hedbring C. A comparison of two instructional interventions for remediating attentional deficits of autistic school-age children overselective in the visual modality. Dissert Abst Int 1983;44(6-A):1757.
43. Hinerman PS, Jenson WR, Walker GR, et al. Positive practice overcorrection combined with additional procedures to teach signed words to an autistic child. J Autism Dev Disord 1982;12(3):253-63.
44. Hobbs AM. Facilitating the inclusion of pupils with Asperger's syndrome in mainstream schools [dissertation]. Southampton (UK): University of Southampton; 2003.
45. Hollander AC. The effects of two holding positions upon self-injurious behavior, play, communication, and social behaviors in autistic children. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1994;54(7-B):3560.
46. Horn JK. A program of living skills training for autistic adolescents and adults in a residential treatment setting [dissertation]. San Diego (CA): United States International University; 1982.
47. Howlin P. A brief report on the elimination of long term sleeping problems in a 6-yr-old autistic boy. Behav Psychother 1984;12(3):257-60.
48. Ikeda MJ, Tucker R, Rankin B. Development, testing, and dissemination of nonaversive techniques for working with children with autism: demonstration of a "best practices" model for parents and teachers. The a-b-c-d model for supporting students with autism (antecedents, behaviors, consequences, data). Final report. Johnston, IA: Heartland Area Education Agency 11, 2002.
49. Jensen GD, Womack MG. Operant conditioning techniques applied in the treatment of an autistic child. Am J Orthopsychiat 1967;37(1):30-4.
50. Johnson J. The use of self-management procedures for maintaining responsiveness of autistic individuals in natural environments. Dissert Abst Int 1992;53(2-A):463.
51. Jung KE, Lee HJ, Lee YS, et al. Efficacy of sensory integration treatment based on virtual reality-tangible interaction for children with autistic spectrum disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav 2006;9(6):685.
52. Kennedy SL, Chretien M, Moxness K. Effects of an early intervention program for autistic children on parental stress and sense of competence. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:376.
53. Koegel LK. Teaching children with autism to use a self-initiated strategy to learn expressive vocabulary [dissertation]. Santa Barbara (CA): University of California; 1993.
54. Kozleski EB. The effects of nonverbal visual communication systems on autistic children [dissertation]. Greeley (CO): University of Northern Colorado; 1985.
55. Kuloglu-Aksaz N. The effect of informational counseling on the stress level of parents of children with autism in Turkey. J Autism Dev Disord 1994;24(1):109-10.
56. LeBlanc LA, Coates AM, Daneshvar S, et al. Using video modeling and reinforcement to teach perspective-taking skills to children with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2003;36(2):253-7.
57. Lovaas OI, Schreibman L, Koegel RL. A behavior modification approach to the treatment of autistic children. J Autism Child Schiz 1974;4(2):111-29.
58. Luscre DM, Center DB. Procedures for reducing dental fear in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1996;26(5):547-56.
59. Ma YC, Nagler J, Lee MH, et al. Impact of music therapy on the communication skills of toddlers with pervasive developmental disorder. Ann NY Acad Sci 2001;930:445-7.
60. MacDuff GS. Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: maintenance and generalization of complex response chains. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1995;55(9-B):4109.
61. Marshall NR, Hegrenes J. The use of written language as a communication system for an autistic child. J Speech Hear Disord 1972;37(2):258-61.
62. Matson JL. Simple correction for treating an autistic boy's encopresis. Psychol Rep 1977;41(3 Pt 1):802.
63. Mccarthy PAT. The effects of a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding intervention on behaviors of adults with autism during vocational training at a competitive job site (severely handicapped, mental retardation, employment, on-the-job training, behavior management) [dissertation]. Columbia (SC): University of South Carolina; 1984.
64. Mceachin JJ. Outcome of autistic children receiving intensive behavioral treatment: psychological status 3 to 12 years later [dissertation]. Los Angeles (CA): University of California, Los Angeles; 1987.
65. Mesibov GB. Social skills training with verbal autistic adolescents and adults: a program model. J Autism Dev Disord 1984;14(4):395-404.
66. Meyers ML. Teaching speech to autistic children through a program of specific music therapy [dissertation]. Union (NJ): Kean University; 1973.
67. Miller SB, Toca JM. Adapted melodic intonation therapy: a case study of an experimental language program for an autistic child. J Clin Psychiat 1979;40(4):201-3.
68. Moran DR. Developing generalized teaching skills in parents of autistic children. Dissert Abst Int 1989;49(7-A):1741.
69. Morrison RS. The effects of correspondence training and activity schedules on the play behavior of preschoolers with autism in an inclusive classroom [dissertation]. Columbus (OH): Ohio State University; 1999.
70. Mundschenk NA. The effects of sufficient exemplars on the social inclusion of autistic students. Dissert Abst Int 1993;53(7-A):2329.
71. Newey I, Collins S, Fowler D. Evaluating psychological interventions for young men with Asperger syndrome: cognitive behavioural therapy to address anxiety and teaching theory of mind to address social functioning. J Intell Disabil Res 2004;48:301.
72. Newman DL. The role of functional reinforcement in the acquisition and generalization of communicative language in an autistic population [dissertation]. New Brunswick (NY): Rutgers the State University of New Jersey; 1987.
73. Nichols JH. Social skills training with verbal autistic adolescents: a case study approach [dissertation]. Denton (TX): University of North Texas; 1988 .
74. Oke NJ. A group training program for siblings of children with autism: acquisition of language training procedures and related behavior change. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1994;54(9-B):4951.
75. Perry A, Bryson S, Bebko J. Multiple method validation study of facilitated communications: preliminary group results. J Devel Disabil 1993;2(2):1-19.
76. Pierson JA. The effectiveness of the effects of the Differential reinforcement of other behavior and gentle teaching methods on target behavior of children with autism. Dissert Abst Int 1990;50(10-A):3205.
77. Plienis AJ, Robbins FR, Dunlap G. Parent adjustment and family stress as factors in behavioral parent training for young autistic children. J Multihand Pers 1988;1(1):31-52.
78. Pries MG. The effects of rhythmic visual stimulation on the self-stimulatory behavior of severely developmentally disabled children [dissertation]. St. Louis (MO): Washington University; 1982.
79. Rinehart NJ, Brereton AV, Tonge BJ, et al. Autism: a parent-based early intervention. Aust J Psychol 2003;55(Suppl S):208.
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82. Schroeder C. Behavior modification training with autistic children comparing novel and familiar stimulus materials [dissertation]. Los Angeles (CA): University of California; 1981.
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.Excluded – Population; Non-ASD (N = 46)
The following studies were excluded because they did not examine an ASD population.
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19. Mayo YL. Long term follow-up in parent training: a low cost alternative for parents in developing countries. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 1997;57(10-A):4556.
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27. Rix K. Teaching a mother to attend differentially to her mentally handicapped child's behaviour. Behav Psychother 1988;16(2):122-32.
28. Romanczyk RG, Diament C, Goren ER, et al. Increasing isolate and social play in severely disturbed children: intervention and postintervention effectiveness. J Autism Child Schiz 1975;5(1):57-70.
29. Russo DC, Koegel RL, Lovaas OI. A comparison of human and automated instruction of autistic children. J Abnorm Child Psych 1978;6(2):189-201.
30. Schell RE, Adams WP. Training parents of a young child with profound behavior deficits to be teacher-therapists. J Spec Educ 1968;2(4):439-54.
31. Schwartz IS, Garfinkle AN, Bauer J. The picture exchange communication system: communicative outcomes for young children with disabilities. Top Early Child Spec 1998;18(3):144-59.
32. Shapiro T, Frosch E, Arnold S. Communicative interaction between mothers and their autistic children: application of a new instrument and changes after treatment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1987;26(4):485-90.
33. Shu BC, Lung FW. The effect of support group on the mental health and quality of life for mothers with autistic children. J Intell Disabil Res 2005;49(1):47-53.
34. Sigafoos J, Drasgow E. Conditional use of aided and unaided AAC: a review and clinical case demonstration. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 2001;16(3):152-61 .
35. Smith C, Goddard S, Fluck M. A scheme to promote social attention and functional language in young children with communication difficulties and autistic spectrum disorder. Educ Psychol Pract 2004;20(4):319-33.
36. Smith SA, Press B, Koenig KP, et al. Effects of sensory integration intervention on self-stimulating and self-injurious behaviors. Am J Occup Ther 2005;59(4):418-25.
37. Smith T, Groen AD, Wynn JW. Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder [errata]. Am J Ment Retard 2001;106(3):208.
38. Spinks T. A language proposal to maximize communication for an echolalic responding adult. Austral J Spec Educ 1987;11(1):28-35.
39. Stange EJ Jr. Visually based social skills training for students with autism spectrum disorder [dissertation]. Tampa (FL): University of South Florida; 2001.
40. Stermac L, Josefowitz N. A board game for teaching social skills to institutionalized adolescents. J Child Care 1985;2(3):31-8.
41. Szempruch J, Jacobson JW. Evaluating facilitated communications of people with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 1993;14(4):253-64.
42. Taubman M, Brierley S, Wishner J, et al. The effectiveness of a group discrete trial instructional approach for preschoolers with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 2001;22(3):205-19.
43. Thaut MH. Music therapy as a treatment tool for autistic children [dissertation]. East Lansing (MI): Michigan State University; 1980.
44. Thiemann KS, Goldstein H. Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: effects on social communication of children with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2001;34(4):425-46.
45. Williams LL. The influence of human contact on the output of facilitated communication [dissertation]. Athens (OH): Ohio University; 1993.
46. Wimpory DC, Nash S. Musical interaction therapy: therapeutic play for children with autism. Child Lang Teach Ther 1999;15(1):17-28.