Excluded – Study design was not a Clinical Trial or an Observational Analytical Cohort Study (N = 785) The following studies were excluded because the study design was not a clinical trial or an observational analytical cohort study (as defined by the review)
1. Accardo CM. Generalization of imitation skills among children with autism during the first 3 months of early intensive behavior treatment programs. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2004;65(6-A):2085.
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3. Agosta E, Graetz JE, Mastropieri MA, et al. Teacher-researcher partnerships to improve social behavior through social stories. Interv Sch Clin 2004;39(5):276-87 .
4. Ahearn WH. Using simultaneous presentation to increase vegetable consumption in a mildly selective child with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2003;36(3):361-5.
5. Aiken JM. The effects of long and short intertrial intervals on three autistic children's stereotypic behavior [dissertation]. Nashville (TN): Peabody College for Teachers of Vanderbilt University; 1982.
6. Aiken JM, Salzberg CL. The effects of a sensory extinction procedure on stereotypic sounds of two autistic children. J Autism Dev Disord 1984;14(3):291-9.
7. Akmanoglu N, Batu S. Teaching pointing to numerals to individuals with autism using simultaneous prompting. Educ Training Dev Disabil 2004;39(4):326-36.
8. Akmanoglu-Uludag N, Batu S. Teaching naming relatives to individuals with autism using simultaneous prompting. Educ Training Dev Disabil 2005;40(4):401-10 .
9. Albert BF. The effect of environmental "softness" upon the behaviors of autistic children. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2003;64(3-B):1546.
10. Alcantara PR. Effects of videotape instructional package on purchasing skills of children with autism. Except Children 1994;61(1):40-55.
11. Alonim H. The Mifne Method-ISRAEL: early intervention in the treatment of autism/PDD: a therapeutic programme for the nuclear family and their child. J Child Adolesc Ment Health 2004;16(1):39-43.
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26. Baker MJ. Incorporating children with autism's thematic ritualistic behaviors into games to increase social play interactions with siblings. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2000;60(12-B):6353.
27. Baker MJ. Incorporating the thematic ritualistic behaviors of children with autism into games: increasing social play interactions with siblings. J Pos Behav Interv 2000;2(2):66-84.
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33. Barry TD, Klinger LG, Lee JM, et al. Examining the effectiveness of an outpatient clinic-based social skills group for high-functioning children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2003;33(6):685-701.
34. Bartels WM. Implementation of the Developmental, Individual-Differences, Relationship-Based (DIR) model in a preschool for children with autism spectrum disorders. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2004;65(5-B):2612.
35. Bartlett D, Ora JP, Brown E, et al. The effects of reinforcement on psychotic speech in a case of early infantile autism, age 12. J Behav Ther Exp Psy 1971;2(2):145-9.
36. Bartman S, Freeman N. Teaching language to a two-year-old with autism. J Devel Disabil 2003;10(1):47-53.
37. Bauminger N. The facilitation of social-emotional understanding and social interaction in high-functioning children with autism: intervention outcomes. J Autism Dev Disord 2002;32(4):283-98.
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40. Bedrosian J, Lasker J, Speidel K, et al. Enhancing the written narrative skills of an AAC student with autism: evidence-based research issues. Top Lang Disord 2003;23(4):305-24.
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46. Bellon ML, Ogletree BT, Harn WE. Repeated storybook reading as a language intervention for children with autism: a case study on the application of scaffolding. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 2000;15(1):52-8.
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48. Ben-Itzchak E, Zachor DA. The effects of intellectual functioning and autism severity on outcome of early behavioral intervention for children with autism. Res Dev Disabil 2007;28 ( 3):287-303.
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53. Bernard-Opitz V, Sriram N, Sapuan S. Enhancing vocal imitations in children with autism using the IBM SpechViewer. Autism 1999;3(2):131-47.
54. Bigelow KM, Huynen KB, Lutzker JR. Using a changing criterion design to teach fire escape to a child with developmental disabilities. J Dev Phys Disabil 1993;5(2):121-8.
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56. Bingham-Watts KL. Effects of a remote-controlled tactile prompt on the initiation skills of a child with autism [dissertation]. Denton (TX): University of North Texas; 1999.
57. Blank M, Milewski J. Applying psycholinguistic concepts to the treatment of an autistic child. Appl Psycholinguist 1981;2(1):65-84.
58. Blasco SP. Case study: art expression as a guide to music therapy. Am J Art Ther 1978;17(2):51-6.
59. Bledsoe R, Myles BS, Simpson RL. Use of a social story intervention to improve mealtime skills of an adolescent with Asperger syndrome. Autism 2003;7(3):289-95.
60. Blew PA, Schwartz IS, Luce SC. Teaching functional community skills to autistic children using nonhandicapped peer tutors. J Appl Behav Anal 1985;18(4):337-42.
62. Bock MA. Sorting laundry: categorization strategy application to an authentic learning activity by children with autism. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 1999;14(4):220-30.
63. Boettcher MA. Teaching social conversation skills to children with autism through self-management: an analysis of treatment gains and meaningful outcomes. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2004;65(6-B):3135.
64. Bomba C, O'Donnell L, Markowitz C, et al. Evaluating the impact of facilitated communication on the communicative competence of fourteen students with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1996;26(1):43-58.
65. Born-Miller KL. The use of an errorless teaching procedure to teach children with autism for whom trial-and-error teaching has failed. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2002;63(4-B):2088.
66. Bosseler A, Massaro DW. Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 2003;33(6):653-72.
67. Boulware GL. A comparison of simultaneous and most-to-least prompting procedures in teaching receptive identification of pictures to toddlers with autism [dissertation]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington; 2001.
68. Brady DO. The effects of simultaneous treatments for language acquisition in an autistic child [dissertation]. Norman (OK): The University of Oklahoma; 1975.
69. Brady MP, McEvoy MA, Wehby J, et al. Using peers as trainers to increase an autistic child's social interactions. Except Children 1987;34(3):213-9.
70. Braithwaite KL, Richdale AL. Functional communication training to replace challenging behaviors across two behavioral outcomes. Behav Intervent 2000;15(1):21-36.
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72. Breen C. The training and generalization of social interaction during breaktime at two job sites in the natural environment. English, 1984.
73. Breen C, Haring T, Pitts-Conway V, et al. The training and generalization of social interaction during breaktime at two job sites in the natural environment. J Assoc Pers Severe Hand 1985;10(1):41-50.
74. Brightwell A. Childhood autism and the effect of an integrated preschool program. Dissert Abst Int 2003;63(11A):3850.
75. Brim D. Analysis of social referencing skills in children with autism [dissertation]. Dissert Abst Int 2003;63(9B):4401.
76. Brookman-Frazee L. Using parent/clinician partnerships in parent education programs for children with autism. J Pos Behav Interv 2004;6(4):195-213.
77. Brown JL. Script fading as a procedure for teaching unscripted language to children with autism. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2003;(64):1477-B.
78. Brown MC. Antecedent selection: the use of simplified speech versus typical speech in discrete trial teaching formats [dissertation]. Boca Raton (FL): Florida Atlantic University; 2001.
79. Brown RA, Pace ZS. Treatment of extreme negativism and autistic behavior in a 6 year old boy. Except Children 1969;36(2):115-22.
80. Brown WH, Ragland EU, Fox JJ. Effects of group socialization procedures on the social interactions of preschool children. Res Dev Disabil 1988;9(4):359-76.
81. Brownell MD. Musically adapted social stories to modify behaviors in students with autism: four case studies. J Music Ther 2002;39(2): 117-44.
82. Browning AD. Choice making: determining its effects on challenging behaviors and positive affect for a student with autism [dissertation]. Fullerton (CA): California State University, Fullerton; 2001.
83. Browning RM. Treatment effects of a total behavior modification program with five autistic children. Behav Res Ther 1971;9(4):319-27.
84. Bruinsma YEM. Increases in the joint attention behavior of eye gaze alternation to share enjoyment as a collateral effect of pivotal response treatment for three children with autism [dissertation]. Santa Barbara (CA): University of California, Santa Barbara; 2004.
85. Bryan LC, Gast DL. Teaching on-task and on-schedule behaviors to high-functioning children with autism via picture activity schedules. J Autism Dev Disord 2000;30(6):553-67.
86. Buch GA. Teaching parents and paraprofessionals how to provide behavioral intensive early intervention for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1996;56(9-B):5153.
87. Buckley SD, Newchok DK. Differential impact of response effort within a response chain on use of mands in a student with autism. Res Dev Disabil 2005;26(1):77-85.
88. Buckley SD, Strunck PG, Newchok DK. A comparison of two multicomponent procedures to increase food consumption. Behav Intervent 2005;20(2):139-46.
89. Buffington DM. Procedures for teaching appropriate gestural communication skills to children with autism. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1997;57(9-B):5900.
90. Buffington DM, Krantz PJ, McClannahan LE, et al. Procedures for teaching appropriate gestural communication skills to children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1998;28(6):535-45.
91. Buggey T. Video self-modeling applications with students with autism spectrum disorder in a small private school setting. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 2005;20(1):52-63.
92. Buggey T, Toombs K, Gardener P, et al. Training responding behaviors in students with autism: using videotaped self-modeling. J Pos Behav Interv 1999;1(4):205-14.
93. Burt DB, Fuller SP, Lewis KR. Competitive employment of adults with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1991;21(2):237-42.
94. Cafiero JM. The effect of an augmentative communication intervention on the communication, behavior, and academic program of an adolescent with autism. Focus Autism Other Dev Disabil 2001;16(3):179-89.
95. Cafiero JM. Teaching parents of children with autism Picture Communication Symbols as a natural language to decrease levels of family stress. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 1996;56(7-A):2636.
96. Cale SI. Context-based assessment and intervention for problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 2005;66(6-B):3399.
97. Callahan K, Rademacher JA. Using self-management strategies to increase the on-task behavior of a student with autism. J Pos Behav Interv 1999;1(2):117-22.
98. Camburn MM. Intensive behavioral treatment of pervasive developmental disorder-nos: a case study. Dissert Abst Int B: Sciences and Engineering 1995;56(2-B):1096.
99. Campbell RV, Lutzker JR. Using functional equivalence training to reduce severe challenging behavior: a case study. J Dev Phys Disabil 1993;5(3):203-16.
100. Cardaciotto LA, Herbert JD. Cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder in the context of asperger's syndrome: a single-subject report. Cogn Behav Pract 2004;11(1):75-81.
101. Carr D. Effects of exemplar training in exclusion responding on auditory-visual discrimination tasks with children with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2003;36(4):507-24.
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103. Carr EG, Dores PA. Patterns of language acquisition following simultaneous communication with autistic children. Anal Interv Dev Disabil 1981;1(3-4):347-61.
104. Carr EG, Kemp DC. Functional equivalence of autistic leading and communicative pointing: analysis and treatment. J Autism Dev Disord 1989;19(4):561-78.
105. Carter CM. Using choice with interactive play to increase language skills in children with autism [dissertation]. Santa Barbara (CA): University of California; 2000.
106. Case-Smith J, Bryan T. The effects of occupational therapy with sensory integration emphasis on preschool-age children with autism. Am J Occup Ther 1999;53(5):489-97.
107. Casey LO. Development of communicative behavior in autistic children: a parent program using manual signs. J Autism Child Schiz 1978;8(1):45-59.
108. Charlop-Christy MH, Carpenter M, Le L, et al. Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior. J Appl Behav Anal 2002;35(3):213-31.
109. Charlop-Christy MH, Carpenter MH. Modified incidental teaching sessions: a procedure for parents to increase spontaneous speech in their children with autism. J Pos Behav Interv 2000;2(2):98-112.
110. Charlop-Christy MH, Daneshvar S. Using video modeling to teach perspective taking to children with autism. J Pos Behav Interv 2003;5(1):12-21.
111. Charlop-Christy MH, Haymes LK. Using objects of obsession as token reinforcers for children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1998;28(3):189-98.
112. Charlop-Christy MH, Haymes LK. Using obsessions as reinforcers with and without mild reductive procedures to decrease inappropriate behaviors of children with autism. J Autism Dev Disord 1996;26(5):527-46.
113. Charlop-Christy MH, Kelso SE. Teaching children with autism conversational speech using a cue card/written script program. Educ Treat Child 2003;26(2):108-27.
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115. Charlop MH, Kurtz PF, Casey FG. Using aberrant behaviors as reinforcers for autistic children. J Appl Behav Anal 1990;23(2):163-81.
116. Charlop MH, Kurtz PF, Milstein JP. Too much reinforcement, too little behavior: assessing task interspersal procedures in conjunction with different reinforcement schedules with autistic children. J Appl Behav Anal 1992;25(4):795-808.
117. Charlop MH, Milstein JP. Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. J Appl Behav Anal 1989;22(3):275-85.
118. Charlop MH, Schreibman L, Thibodeau MG. Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using a time delay procedure. J Appl Behav Anal 1985;18(2):155-66.
119. Charlop MH, Schreibman L, Tryon AS. Learning through observation: the effects of peer modeling on acquisition and generalization in autistic children. J Abnorm Child Psych 1983;11(3):355-66.
121. Charlop MH, Walsh ME. Increasing autistic children's spontaneous verbalizations of affection: an assessment of time delay and peer modeling procedures. J Appl Behav Anal 1986;19(3):307-14.
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123. Chin HY, Bernard-Opitz V. Teaching conversation skills to children with autism: effect on the development of a theory of mind. J Autism Dev Disord 2000;30(6):569-83.
124. Cicchino C, Monteleone V. The efficacy of sensory integration therapy on pre-school children with autism and its effects on verbalizations and engagement [dissertation]. New York (NY): Touro College; 2000.
125. Cicero FR, Pfadt A. Investigation of a reinforcement-based toilet training procedure for children with autism. Res Dev Disabil 2002;23(5):319-31.
126. Clark CP. The differential effects of simplified speech versus typical speech on response accuracy in discrete trial teaching formats with prekindergarten-age students with autism. Dissert Abst Int A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2000;(61):133A-4.
127. Clark K, Green G. Comparison of two procedures for teaching dictated-word/symbol relations to learners with autism. J Appl Behav Anal 2004;37(4):503-7.
128. Clarke JC, Thomason S. The use of an aversive smell to eliminate autistic self-stimulatory behavior. Child Fam Behav Ther 1983;5(3):51-67.
129. Clarke S, Dunlap G, Vaughn B. Family-centered, assessment-based intervention to improve behavior during an early morning routine. J Pos Behav Interv 1999;1(4):235-41.
130. Clauss EL. Effects of music on attention and self-stimulatory behaviors in autistic people [dissertation]. Hempstead (NY): Hofstra University; 1994.
131. Cochran KM. The use of prompting with students with autism in the general education setting [dissertation]. Fullerton (CA): California State University; 2005.
132. Coleman CL, Holmes PA. The use of noncontingent escape to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with speech delays. J Appl Behav Anal 1998;31(4):687-90 .
133. Coleman SL, Stedman JM. Use of a peer model in language training in an echolalic child. J Behav Ther Exp Psy 1974;5(3-4):275-9.
134. Collier D. A comparison of two models designed to teach autistic children a motor task [dissertation]. Montreal (QC): Mcgill University (Canada); 1985 .