Supplemental data Appendix a neuropsychological investigations

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Supplemental data

Appendix A - Neuropsychological investigations

Premorbid intellectual ability (National Adult Reading Test, Dutch version, DART) [1]

Global cognitive functioning (MMSE) [2]

Attention and working memory:

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-revised (WAIS-R) forward and backward digit span, and the WAIS-R letter-number sequencing [3]

Executive functions:

Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (MWCST) [4]

Category fluency (animals and supermarket items) [5]

Letter fluency or Controlled Oral Word Association Test [6]

Stroop Color-Word Test part C and “intereference time” = Stroop part C - B [7]

Psychomotor speed:

Stroop Color Word Test Part A and B [7]


Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [8]

Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT): immediate and delayed story recall [9]

Doors Test A and B (a visual recognition test) [10]


Boston Naming Test (BNT) [11]

Visuospatial abilities:

Judgment of line orientation test (JOLO) [12]

Differential Aptitude Test [13], subtest Space Relations

This test meaures the ability to visualise a three-dimensional object from a two dimensional pattern, and to visualise how this object would look if rotated in space

Mental rotation task (see supplemental data – Appendix B).


(1) Schmand B, Lindeboom J, van Harskamp F. Dutch Adult Reading Test. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger, 1992.

(2) Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189-198.

(3) Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R): Test Manual New York: Psychological Corporation, 1981.

(4) Nelson HE. A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. Cortex 1976;12:313-324.

(5) Luteijn F, Barelds DPH. Groningen Intelligence Test 2 (GIT2): Manual. Harcourt Test Publishers, 2004.

(6) Benton A, Hamsher K, Sivan A. Multilingual Aphasia Examination, 3 ed. Iowa City: AJA Publishers, 1983.

(7) Stroop JR. Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. J Exp Psychology 1935;18:643-662.

(8) Rey A. L'examen clinique en psychologie. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1964.

(9) Wilson B, Cockburn J, Baddeley A. Rivermead behavioural memory test Reading, UK: Thames Valley Test Company, 1985.

(10) Baddeley A, Emslie H, NImmo-Smith I. Doors and People, a test of visual and verbal recall and recognition. Manual. London: Harcourt Assessment, 1994.

(11) Kaplan A, Goodglass H, Weintraub S. Boston Naming Test Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1983.

(12) Benton A, Hamsher K, Varney N, Spreen O. Contributions to neuropsychological assessment - a clinical manual. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

(13) Bennet GK, Seashore HG, Wesman AG. Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) New York: Psychological Corporation, 1947.

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