Supplemental Table Demographic Information and Pretest Vocabulary Scores Overall and by Group



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Supplemental Table 1. Demographic Information and Pretest Vocabulary Scores Overall and by Group








Overall

No Print

Onscreen Print

F/χ2

L-SES

WC-SES

F/χ2

Sample Size (n)

121

60

61




49

72




Gender (n)

54 boys

67 girls


28 boys

32 girls


26 boys

35 girls


0.20


16 boys

33 girls


38 boys

34 girls


4.78*

Birth Order (Mean)

1.93

(SD = 0.86)


1.89

(SD = 0.88)


1.98

(SD = 0.85)



0.42

2.29

(SD = 0.91)



1.69

(SD = 0.73)



16.15***

Age (Mean)

5.74 years

(SD = 1.20)



5.80 years

(SD = 1.22)



5.68 years

(SD = 1.18)



0.32

5.70 years

(SD = 1.26)



5.77 years

(SD = 1.16)



0.09

Identified Disability

8

5

3

0.45










Family Size

4.26

(SD = 1.15)



4.32

(SD = 1.26)



4.21

(SD = 1.02)



0.30

4.83

(SD = 1.12)



3.88

(SD = 1.00)



23.93***

Mom’s Education (Mean)

13.88 years

(SD = 2.65)



13.95 years

(SD = 2.64)



13.82 years

(SD = 2.68)



0.07

12.35 years

(SD = 2.21)



14.93 years

(SD = 2.42)



35.63***

Family Income (Mean)

$37,968

(SD = 23,885)


$35,267

(SD = 23,396)


$40,625

(SD = 24,254)



1.53

$20,239

(SD = 9,143)



$50,033

(SD = 23,305)



72.34***

Income-to-Needs (Mean)

1.41

(SD = 1.05)



1.27

(SD = 0.95)



1.55

(SD = 1.12)



2.23

0.64

(SD = 0.26)



1.94

(SD = 1.05)



71.92***

Language Spokena

69.8% English

7.0% English/Other

23.3% Other

69.8% English

7.0% English/Other

23.3% Other


78.6% English

4.8% English/Other

16.7% Other


0.86

87.1% English

0% English/Other

12.9% Other


66.7% English

9.3% English/Other

24.1% Other


5.21+

Family SES

49 L-SES

72 WC-SES



28 L-SES

32 WC-SES



21 L-SES

40 WC-SES



2.21

0.30











Table continues on next page





Overall

No Print

Onscreen Print

F/χ2

L-SES

WC-SES

F/χ2

Pretest Vocabulary Scores




















Receptive Vocabulary

58.67

(SD = 10.58)



58.84

(SD = 11.43)



58.51

(SD = 9.75)



0.03

55.98

(SD = 10.48)



60.51

(SD = 10.31)



5.56***

Expressive Vocabulary

16.85

(SD = 10.53)



16.14

(SD = 10.29)



17.54

(SD = 10.80)



0.53

13.83

(SD = 10.58)


18.90

(SD = 10.06)



7.12***

Standardized PPVT-4

95.10

(SD = 14.12)



93.16

(SD = 15.87)



97.00

(SD = 11.99)



0.32

87.96

(SD = 12.01)



102.63

(SD = 14.26)



27.54***

Total Views (Mean)

24.17

(SD = 23.79)



23.07

(SD = 19.96)



25.26

(SD = 27.17)



0.26

22.39

(SD = 24.62)


25.39

(SD = 23.31)


0.46

***p < .001; **p < .01; *p < .05; +p < .10

aA variety of languages were spoken in the home including Spanish, African, and Asian languages. Asian languages included Cantonese, Chinese, Mandarin, Filipino-Bicol dialect, and Japanese. When analyzing by individual languages, some of the cells had an expected count less than 5; therefore, languages were collapsed into English only, English and another language, or another language.


Supplemental Table 2. Parent-Reported Frequency with which They Engaged in Literacy-Related Parent-Child Interactions

Scale/Item

Total Sample

L-SES

WC-SES

F (p-value)




Oral Language Scale ( = .80)

3.95 (SD = 1.90)

4.18 (SD = 1.93)

3.81 (SD = 2.03)

0.76 (p = .387)





I teach my child letters













I teach my child how to write letters













I teach my child how to say letter sounds













I play language games (like rhyming) during personal care routines (bathing, diapering, etc)







I sing or repeat rhymes to my child













My child and I play educational games or with literacy toys (e.g., Leap Frog)










Reading Style Scale (⍺ = .64)

4.46 (SD = 1.77)

4.11 (1.62)


4.69 (1.84)

3.28 (p = .073)




I or someone in my family reads aloud to my child at bedtime.










I change my voice or my tone to fit stories when I read aloud to my child.










Note. L = Low SES; WC = Working-Class SES. Both scales range from 0 = rarely or not at all to 8 = multiple times per day.








Supplemental Table 3. Parent-Reported Frequency with which They Engaged in TV-Related Parent-Child Interactions





Never (0)

Sometimes (1)

Often (2)

Always (3)


Mean (SD)







L

WC

L

WC

L

WC

L

WC

Χ2 (p-value)

TV Mediation (⍺ = .91)

0%

9.4%

38.7%

49.1%

35.5%

30.2%

25.8%

11.3%

1.83 (SD = .67)

6.02 (p = .111)

Point out why some things actors do are good








Point out why some things actors do are bad











Try to help my child understand what s/he sees on TV










Explain what something on TV really means










Explain the motives of TV characters










TV as Shared Activity (⍺ = .91 )

0%

7.5%

22.6%

47.2%

38.7%

37.7%

38.7%

7.5%

1.44 (SD = .77)

15.42 (p = .001)


Watch together because we both like a program










Watch together because of a common interest in a program







Watch together just for fun










Watch your favorite program together










Laugh with child about the things you see on TV










Note. L = Low SES; WC = Working-Class SES










Supplemental Table 4. Target words selected to approximate the larger distribution of words found in all Martha Speaks episodes used in this study

Target Word


Type of Instruction

Word Level Quartile

Repetition Within Story

escape

Explicit

1

2

mumble

Explicit

2

1

disobedient

Explicit

2

2

insult

Explicit

2

2

elect

Explicit

2

3

improve(ment)

Explicit

2

3

(un)fortunate

Explicit

2

3

guilty

Explicit

2

3

overcome

Explicit

3

2

influence


Explicit

3

2

expression

Explicit

3

2

deny

Explicit

3

2

effort

Explicit

3

2

opportunity

Explicit

3

2

problem

Explicit

3

2

rescue

Explicit

3

2

unique

Explicit

4

2

knack

Explicit

4

2

bizarre

Explicit

4

2

ecstatic

Explicit

4

2


polite

Implicit

1

1

bad

Implicit

1

1

work

Implicit

1

2

story

Implicit

1

2

catch

Implicit

1

3

grow(n)(th)

Implicit

2

1

accident

Implicit

2

2

communicate

Implicit

2

2

false

Explicit

1

2

concentrate

Explicit

4

3

Note. Type of instruction is coded as explicit (i.e., words that were central to the story, were explicitly defined using both visual and verbal content simultaneously, and were repeated and expanded upon during the story) or implicit (i.e., words that were not explicitly taught or defined by characters and story action. These words were typically featured in program dialogue.). Word level quartile refers to the grade level of a particular word as defined by Dale and O’Rourke (1981) and is coded as 1 = grades 1/2, 2 = grades 3/4 , 3 = grades 5/6, 4 = grades 7/8. Repetition within story refers to how frequently a target word was repeated in the story and is coded as 1 = 1 to 3 times per episode, 2 = 4 to 7 times per episode, 3 = 8 or more times per episode.




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