aA variety of languages were spoken in the home including Spanish, African, and Asian languages. Asian languages included Cantonese, Chinese, Mandarin, Filipino-Bicol dialect, and Japanese. When analyzing by individual languages, some of the cells had an expected count less than 5; therefore, languages were collapsed into English only, English and another language, or another language.
Note. Type of instruction is coded as explicit (i.e., words that were central to the story, were explicitly defined using both visual and verbal content simultaneously, and were repeated and expanded upon during the story) or implicit (i.e., words that were not explicitly taught or defined by characters and story action. These words were typically featured in program dialogue.). Word level quartile refers to the grade level of a particular word as defined by Dale and O’Rourke (1981) and is coded as 1 = grades 1/2, 2 = grades 3/4 , 3 = grades 5/6, 4 = grades 7/8. Repetition within story refers to how frequently a target word was repeated in the story and is coded as 1 = 1 to 3 times per episode, 2 = 4 to 7 times per episode, 3 = 8 or more times per episode.