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Option 7: World order 25% of course time



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Option 7: World order 25% of course time




Principal focus: Through the use of contemporary examples, students investigate the effectiveness of legal and non-legal measures in promoting peace and resolving conflict between nation states.  

 

Outcomes

H1. identifies and applies legal concepts and terminology 

H3. analyses the operation of domestic and international legal systems

H4. evaluates the effectiveness of the legal system in addressing issues

H5. explains the role of law in encouraging cooperation and resolving conflict, as well as initiating and responding to change

H6. assesses the nature of the interrelationship between the legal system and society

H7. evaluates the effectiveness of the law in achieving justice

H8. locates, selects, organises, synthesises and analyses legal information from a variety of sources including legislation, cases, media, international instruments and documents

H9. communicates legal information using well-structured and logical arguments.

H10. analyses differing perspectives and interpretations of legal information and issues



 

Themes and challenges to be incorporated throughout the topic: 

  • the role of law in encouraging cooperation and resolving conflict in regard to world order

  • issues of compliance and non-compliance  
  • the impact of  changing values and ethical standards on world order


  • role of law reform in promoting and maintaining world order

  • the effectiveness of legal and non-legal responses in promoting and maintaining world order. 


Assessment

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of legal and non-legal measures in resolving conflict and working towards world order, referring to ONE of the following contemporary issues:

  • the ‘responsibility to protect’ principle

  • regional and global situations that threaten peace and security

  • the success of global cooperation in achieving world order

  • rules regarding the conduct of hostilities.

Students learn about:

Students learn to:

Suggested teaching and learning strategies

Themes and challenges

1. The nature of world order 










  • the meaning of ‘world order’



Brainstorm the concept of world order, using media reports as discussion starters. World order should be considered in the context of the promotion of international peace and security and the prevention of conflict. As a class, devise a definition of world order.



  • laws relating to world order as a reflection of changing values and ethical standards

  • the need for world order

  • describe the need for world order




Discuss situations that create the need for world order and threaten to destabilise regional and global security (such as North Korean nuclear testing, demand for resources) or involve crimes against the international community (such as genocide).

Activity: Locate on a world map some of the places where world order issues were identified in the above discussion.


  • the role of the law in encouraging cooperation and resolving conflict in regard to world order




  • the development of world order over time

  • outline the evolving nature of world order




Briefly investigate the development of world order from the later part of the twentieth century to now. Discuss issues that have caused the changes in the concept of world order such as the growth of the nuclear age, terrorism, economic interdependence of nation states and the demand for resources.

Discuss the responsibility to protect principle in relation to changing community standards involving crimes such as genocide.


  • the impact of changing values and ethical standards on world order

  • the nature of conflict: inter-state and intra-state



  • explain the implications of the nature of conflict on achieving world order

Define types of conflict into intra-state (within a state) and inter-state (between states). Discuss how inter-state conflicts can become world order issues such as when crimes against the international community occur or they have regional impact.






  • access to resources as a source of conflict







Class activity: On the board, develop a list of examples for each definition. Include a very brief justification of why each example chosen is a world order issue. Research some examples of these conflicts. Follow the progress of some conflicts to use throughout the unit as case studies. Note where access to resources might have led to the conflict. Research access to resources.

Resources: media file, www.un.org/en/

www.responsibilitytoprotect.org www.nobelprize.org

www.bbc.co.uk/news/

www.unhcr.org/refworld

www.crisisgroup.org.





2. Responses to world order










  • the roles of:

  • the nation state and state sovereignty


  • examine the role of sovereignty in assisting and impeding the resolution of world order issues





Define sovereignty and discuss its importance to world order. Discuss how sovereignty can assist in achieving world order (such as by honouring and enforcing international treaties, political willingness to act) and impede world order (through lack of enforcement mechanisms, pursuing the interests of own nation state at expense of others, etc).


  • issues of compliance and non-compliance




  • the role of the law in encouraging cooperation and resolving conflict in respect to world order

  • the United Nations







Discuss the role of the Security Council in maintaining international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations. Visit www.un.org/Docs/sc/. Use the webcasts and latest news from the site to demonstrate the role of the Security Council and the limitations placed on it by sovereignty.

Activity: Role-play a mock Security Council session. Students investigate which states are currently on the Security Council, and divide into small groups to represent each country. Each group should do a quick research overview of their country, including geographical location, likely alliances, economic status, and any current issues that could impact on their decision-making. Teacher provides some current issues for the mock Security Council to debate.



  • international instruments





Identify international instruments that work towards world order and discuss their effectiveness, making reference to sovereignty and political will and the need for law reform.





  • courts and tribunals







Examine the role of courts and tribunals such as the International Criminal Court and ad hoc tribunals. Discuss their effectiveness in achieving justice. Include reference to: their reactive role in responding to world order issues, sovereignty, cost efficiency, enforceability and reflection of international values and ethics.

Resources: www.un.org

www.icc-cpi.int

www.icty.org/

www.ictr.org/

www.globalpolicy.org

Visit the site www.un.org/en/ for the recent activities of the United Nations in peacekeeping, peace-building, courts and tribunals researching recent activities.

Discuss the role of political will and economic interests in resolving conflict.


  • the role of law reform in promoting and maintaining world order

  • the impact of changing values and ethical standards on world order

  • intergovernmental organisations

  • non-government organisations


Examine a range of examples of world order issues, and in table form indicate the international or regional response. Propose reasons for the response chosen. If no response, suggest reasons why.


Examine a range of non-government organisations, including International Red Cross and Red Crescent. Discuss their role in assisting world order.

Resources: www.ifrc.org

www.crisisgroup.org

www.globalpolicy.org
Create a webquest that will assist students in investigating the roles of intergovernmental and non-government organisations in resolving and preventing conflicts. Discuss their effectiveness and the role of sovereignty in this effectiveness.


  • the role of the law in encouraging cooperation and resolving conflict in regard to world order







  • the media

  • explain the role of Australia’s federal government  in responding to world order

Explain the role of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations in Australian responses to world order issues. Use media reports to highlight the variety of Australian responses to world order issues.

Visit www.dfat.gov.au and www.defence.gov.au/ to investigate the government stance on issues. Link discussion to political will, sovereignty, geographic location, alliances and economic interests.

Discuss the role of the media in addressing world order issues. Consider the extent to which the media assists or hinders the resolution of world order issues (students may consider the role of the media in highlighting issues and swaying public opinion).





  • the impact of changing values and ethical standards

  • political negotiation, persuasion and the use of force




Investigate means of resolving conflict: political negotiation and other types of negotiation and the use of force.
Discuss situations where these strategies have been used and the degree of effectiveness. Discuss why the use of force is usually a last resort.
Written response: Mind map the various responses to world order by the use of brainstorming. Each response should cite media reports, international instruments, cases, documents and/or legislation with a judgement about effectiveness backed up by evidence.
Scaffold an extended response to: ‘Evaluate the effectiveness of legal and non-legal measures in resolving conflict and working towards world order.’

  • issues of compliance and non-compliance

3. Contemporary issues concerning world order










Issues that must be studied:

  • the principle of ‘responsibility to protect’



  • regional and global situations that threaten peace and security




  • evaluate the effectiveness of legal and non-legal measures in resolving conflict and working towards world order



  • identify and investigate  these contemporary issues involving world order and evaluate the effectiveness of legal and non-legal responses to these issues


Define the principle of responsibility to protect. Discuss implications. Identify examples of where international law has failed to protect and suggest reasons for this failure. Discuss the role of the media and non-government organisations in pressuring nation states to meet their obligations under the responsibility to protect principle.

Resources: www.un.org

www.responsibilitytoprotect.org


Investigate regional and global situations that threaten peace and security. On a world map, highlight these situations. Examine the roles of legal and non-legal organisations such as the International Crisis Group in resolving these situations.

Resources: Amnesty International

International Crisis Group




  • the effectiveness of legal and non-legal responses in promoting and maintaining world order

  • the success of global cooperation in achieving world order



  • rules regarding the conduct of hostilities







Assess the success of global cooperation by looking at case studies where it has been successful and unsuccessful. Discuss the reasons for this. For each case study, outline the strategies used.

Resources: media file

www.un.org

Investigate the rules regarding the conduct of hostilities and international humanitarian law. Examine the role of non-government organisations such as the Red Cross.

Discuss examples where these rules have not been followed and degree of enforceability.
Resources: www.genevaconventions.org

These issues can be studied at the end or integrated throughout the unit especially with reference to the United Nations. Revisit the written extended response exercise and assess the role of these issues in achieving world order.
Student revision exercise: Go through the ‘learn to’ statements and plan responses using media reports/legislation/international instruments/cases and/or documents to support your plan.

  • issues of compliance and non-compliance






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