Table of contents executive summary introduction



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TABLE OF CONTENTS



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION
LIST OF TABLES (PDF version only)
LIST OF FIGURES (PDF version only)
SELECTED ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
SECTION I. CONTEXT/ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
School Reform and Students with Disabilities: The Changing Context of Classrooms

The Importance of Understanding General Education Reforms

The Context of General Education Reform

What Are We Learning About Educational Reforms and Students with Disabilities?

Summary
Poverty Among Children: The Impact on Special Education Poverty in America

The Association Between Poverty and Educational Needs

The Association Between Poverty and Special Education

Summary
The Costs of Special Education

Available Data on the Costs of Special Education

Trends in the Costs of Special Education

The Current Costs of Special Education

Factors Influencing the Trends in Special Education Costs

Summary
Problems Facing Education: Substance Abuse and Violence

Youth Substance Abuse

Youth Violence

Efforts To Combat Youth Substance Abuse and Violence

Summary
Disproportionate Representation: Can This Civil Rights Concern Be Addressed by Educators?

SECTION II. STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS

Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities Served Under IDEA, Part H

Number of Infants and Toddlers Served

The Early Education Program for Children with Disabilities


Summary
Children Served Under IDEA, Part B Preschool Grants Program

Grant Awards for the Preschool Grants Program

Number of Preschoolers with Disabilities Served

Current Educational Reform Efforts

Educational Placements of Preschoolers with Disabilities

Summary
Students Served Under IDEA, Part B

Total Number of Children and Youth Served

Age Groups of Students Served Under IDEA, Part B

Disabilities of Students Served

Summary
Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

What Is Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

How Should Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Be Diagnosed?

What Are the Legal Rights of Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

What Are Effective Treatments for Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

Summary

SECTION III. SCHOOL PROGRAMS AND SERVICES
The Continuum of Placements: From Regular Classes to Residential Facilities

Progress Toward Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

Students with Disabilities and Residential Placements

Summary
Including Students with Disabilities in Statewide Assessments

The Status of Statewide Assessments

Participation in Statewide Assessments

Alternate Statewide Assessments for Students with Disabilities

Future Directions

Developing a Partnership Between Families and Professionals

A Systems Perspective of Human Development

Family Collaboration in IDEA, Part H

Family Collaboration in IDEA, Part B

The Challenge of Transition

Summary

The Continuum of Options in Dispute Resolution

Unintended Consequences and Policy Directions

Continuum of Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedures

Growth in Mediation

Goal and Characteristics of Mediation

Trends and Variations in Mediation Strategies


Other Promising Parent-Professional Partnership Projects
Staff Development/Training in Conflict Resolution

Summary
Monitoring Compliance with IDEA

Summary
Advances in Teaching and Instructional Design

Changing Context for Special Education Teaching

Advances in Teaching Essential Concepts and Building Problemsolving Abilities

Summary
Advances in Technology for Special Education

Technology Use for Students with Severe Cognitive and Physical Disabilities

Technology Use for Students with Mild Disabilities

Summary

SECTION IV. RESULTS
The Part H Longitudinal Study (PHLS)

Background

The Vision of Part H and the Need for the PHLS

Goals of Part H: Impact on Service Systems

Goals of Part H: Child and Family Results

Study Design

Summary
Secondary School Completion

Current Trends in High School Completion Rates of Students with Disabilities

Strategies Schools Can Adopt To Improve Completion Rates of Students with Disabilities

OSEP Initiatives To Improve High School Completion Rates

Summary

APPENDICES
Appendix A. Data Tables
Section A. Child Count Tables

Table AA1 Number of Children Served Under IDEA, Part B by Age Group, During the 1995 96 School Year

Table AA2 Number of Children Ages 6 21 Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year


Table AA3 Number of Children Ages 6 11 Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA4 Number of Children Ages 12 17 Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA5 Number of Children Ages 18 21 Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA6 Number of Children Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability and Age, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA7 Number of Children Served Under IDEA, Part B by Age, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA8 Number and Change in Number of Children Served Under IDEA, Part B
Table AA9 Number and Change in Number of Children Ages 6 21 Served Under IDEA, Part B
Table AA10 Percentage (Based on Estimated Resident Population) of Children Served Under IDEA, Part B by Age Group, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA11 Percentage (Based on Estimated Resident Population) of Children Ages 6-21 Served Under IDEA, Part B By Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year
Table AA12 Percentage (Based on Estimated Resident Population) of Children Ages 6 17 Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year

Table AA13 Percentage (Based on Estimated Enrollment) of Children Ages 6-17 Served Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1995 96 School Year

Table AA14 Number of Children Served Under IDEA by Disability and Age Group, During the 1987 88 Through 1995 96 School Years

Section B. Educational Environments Tables


Table AB1 Number of Children Ages 3 21 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AB2 Number of Children Ages 6 21 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AB3 Number of Children Ages 3-5 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AB4 Number of Children Ages 6-11 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B, During the 1994 95 School Year


Table AB5 Number of Children Ages 12-17 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AB6 Number of Children Ages 18-21 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AB7 Number of Children Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B by Age Group, During the 1985 86 Through 1994 95 School Years
Table AB8 Number of Children Ages 6-21 Served in Different Educational Environments Under IDEA, Part B by Disability, During the 1985 86 Through 1994 95 School Years
Section C. Personnel Tables

Table AC1 Total Number of Teachers Employed, Vacant Funded Positions (In Full-Time Equivalency), and Number of Teachers Retained to Provide Special Education and Related Services for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Ages 3 5, During the 1994 95 School Year

Table AC2 Total Number of Teachers Employed, Vacant Funded Positions (In Full-Time Equivalency), and Number of Teachers Retained to Provide Special Education and Related Services for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Ages 6-21, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AC3 Total Number of Teachers Employed and Vacant Funded Positions (In Full-Time Equivalency) to Provide Special Education and Related Services for Children and Youth with Disabilities, by Disability, Ages 6 21, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AC4 Number and Type of Other Personnel Employed and Vacant Funded Positions (In Full-Time Equivalency) to Provide Special Education and Related Services for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Ages 3-21, by Personnel Category, During the 1994 95 School Year

Section D. Exiting Tables


Table AD1 Number of Students Age 14 and Older Exiting Special Education, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AD2 Number and Percentage (Based on Ages 14-21 Child Count) of Students with Disabilities Exiting Special Education, During the 1994 95 School Year
Table AD3 Number of Students with Disabilities Exiting School by Graduation with a Diploma, Graduation with a Certificate, and Reached Maximum Age by Age, During the 1985 86 Through 1994 95 School Years
Section F. Population and Enrollment Tables
Table AF1 Estimated Resident Population for Children Ages 3 21

Table AF2 Estimated Resident Population for Children Birth Through Age 2

Table AF3 Estimated Resident Population for Children Ages 3 5

Table AF4 Estimated Resident Population for Children Ages 6 17
Table AF5 Estimated Resident Population for Children Ages 18 21
Table AF6 Enrollment for Students in Grades Pre-Kindergarten Through Twelve
Section G. Financial Tables
Table AG1 State Grant Awards Under IDEA, Part B, Preschool Grant Program and Part H
Section H. Early Intervention Tables
Table AH1 Number of Infants and Toddlers Receiving Early Intervention Services, December 1, 1995
Table AH2 Early Intervention Services on IFSPs Provided to Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families in Accord with Part H, December 1, 1994
Table AH3 Number and Type of Personnel Employed and Needed to Provide Early Intervention Services to Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families, December 1, 1994
Table AH4 Number of Infants and Toddlers Birth Through Age 2 Served in Different Early Intervention Settings Under Part H, December 1, 1994
Notes for Appendix A
Appendix B. Summaries of State Agency/Federal Evaluation Studies Program
Appendix C. Profiles of the Program Agenda
Appendix D. Activities of the Regional Resource Centers
Appendix E. Activities and Results of the State Transition Grants



LIST OF TABLES

Table I-1 Changes in Special and General Education Expenditures Per Pupil Over Time (Expressed in 1995-96 Dollars)

Table I-2 Special Education Expenditures as Reported by Selected States

Table I-3 Changes in Federal, State, and Local Shares of Special Education Spending Over Time by States Expressing Confidence to High Confidence in the Data Accuracy
Table I-4 Trends in Prevalence of Substance Use by Secondary School Students and Young Adults, by Type of Substance
Table I-5 Selected Data From the 1992 OCR Survey of School Districts
Table II-1 Percentage Distribution of Ages of Infants and Toddlers Served Under IDEA, Part H 1992-95
Table II-2 Educational Environments for Preschoolers with Disabilities
Table II-3 IDEA, Part B State Grant Program: Funds Appropriated, 1977-96
Table II-4 Students Served Under IDEA, Part B: Number and Percentage Change, School Years 1976-77 Through 1995-96
Table II-5 Number of Students Served Under IDEA, Part B by Age Group:

School Years 1994-95 Through 1995-96


Table II-6 Change in the Number of Students Age 6-21 Served Under IDEA, Part B From 1994-95 to 1995-96 by Disability
Table II-7 Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Table II-8 PGARD System for Identifying Children with ADHD
Table III-1 Schedule of On-site Monitoring Reviews
Table III-2 Typical Steps in On-site Monitoring Reviews
Table III-3 Monitoring Reports Issued During Fiscal Year 1996
Table III-4 Summary of Findings in 13 Fiscal Year 1996 Monitoring Reports
Table III-5 General Procedures for Corrective Action

Table III-6 Principles of Explicit Instruction

Table III-7 Examples of Procedural Prompts for Reading Comprehension


Table III-8 Example of Story Grammar Questions
Table A-1 State Reporting Patterns for IDEA, Part B Child Count Data 1995-96, Other Data 1994-95
Table B-1 Independence Mastery Assessment Program Outcome Domains
Table C-1 Framework for the Program for Children with Severe Disabilities
Table D-1 Regional Resource Centers (RRC) and Federal Resource Center

(FRC) Programs






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