Table of Contents Lesson 1



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BUILDING VOCABULARY

A Compendium of Ideas From Many Sources

Table of Contents
Lesson 1: Root Words

1. Animal Drawing Cards

2. Crossword

3. Matching, Memory, Fish


Lesson 2: Word Concept Mapping

1. Word Concept Definition Mapping

2. ABC Word/ Concept Map

3. Don’t Double Up

4. Word Association

5. Word Meaning Checklist


Lesson 3: Synonyms and Homonyms

1. Roundabout

2. Synonym Partners

3. Synonym Password

4. What’s In The Bag

5. What I Didn’t Do On The Weekend


Lesson 4: Homophones and Homonyms

1. Homophone (Homonym) Memory

2. Homophone (Homonym) Snap

3. Homonym Quiz

4. Homonym Crossword

5. Homophone Quiz

6. Homophone Worksheet

7. Homophone and Homonym Stories


LESSON 1: ROOT WORDS1

Introduction


The words in the English language were not just made up by throwing sounds together. Most of the words in the English language were borrowed from other languages, in particular German, French and Latin. However, it is important to note that not all words were borrowed. There are numerous words have developed as an extension of a root word from the English language.
A root word is a word that has nothing added at the beginning or the end of it. A root word stands on its own as a word, and has meaning. New words can be made from root words by adding beginnings (prefixes) and endings (suffixes).
For example:
  • Derma- means ‘skin’. A prefix or a suffix can be added to this to make a complete word such as ‘epidermis’ or ‘dermatitis’.





  • Script- means ‘writing’. A prefix or a suffix can be added to this to make a complete word such as prescript
    ion; scripture



  • Employ- means ‘to utilise’. A prefix or a suffix can be added to this to make a complete word such as
    employment, unemployment, employer, employee, employing




  • Beauty- means ‘attractive’ A suffix can be added to this to make a complete word such as
    beautiful, beautifully, beautician

These words have grown from their root word. They share parts of the same spelling and they are linked in terms of meaning.



Aim


To increase a student’s awareness that a word can be broken down into different parts (prefix + root + suffix). The root word gives a clue as to the meaning of the word. The aim is for the students to recognise the root word within an extended word to identify meaning and consequently increase vocabulary.
British Broadcasting Centre (2006) ‘Skillwise Factsheet’. Viewed 21st August, 2006, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/

skillswise/words/spelling/wordbuilding/rootwords/factsheet.shtml



Drawing activity

Materials


  • Root word cards

  • Blank paper

  • Pencils

Method

  1. Hand out the root word cards to each child and instruct them to underline the root word they see in the nonsensical word. Choose the level of difficulty - easy, medium or hard.


  2. Instruct the class to draw what they think the nonsensical animal or thing should look like, remembering to place focus on the root word in their picture. Give the student a few minutes to do so.

  3. When everyone has finished drawing their picture, ask 5 students to present their picture to the class. Get the remaining students to guess what the nonsensical word was.

Drawing activity

(EASY)
Origin Meaning Example

_________________________________________________________________________________

Bi Two


_________________________________________________________________________________

Tri Three

_________________________________________________________________________________

Milli Thousand 1000

__________________________________________________________________________________

Centi Hundred

__________________________________________________________________________________

Deca Ten 10

___________________________________________________________________________________

pubchord

Semi Half


Drawing activity

(MEDIUM)
Origin Meaning Example


_________________________________________________________________________________

Bi Two


_________________________________________________________________________________

Tri Three

_________________________________________________________________________________

Super Above

_______________

_________________________________________________________________________________



Astro Star


__________________________________________________________________________________



Tele Far


___________________________________________________________________________________

Poly Many

___________________________________________________________________________________

Micro Little



Drawing activity

(HARD)
Origin Meaning Example

____________________________________________________________________________

Mania Crazy


____________________________________________________________________________

Poly Many


_____________________________________________________________________________

Ortho Straight


______________________________________________________________________________

Cycle Repeated pattern

______________________________________________________________________________



Micro Little

______________________________________________________________________________

Pre Before
______________________________________________________________________________

Post After


______________________________________________________________________________
WORD ROOT ANIMAL CARDS

EASY


Biheaded Cat



Trilegged Boy


Millitailed Pig



Centieyed Fly


Decatoothed Fish



Semielephant


Bitailed Leopard



Triheaded Lion


Millistriped Dragon



Centispotted Frog



Decacoloured Whale





Semieyed Unicorn


WORD ROOT ANIMAL CARDS

MEDIUM



Catsuperwater



Tritailed Dog


Biheaded Dog



Polycoloured fish


Bimicro house



Blueastro flag


Tritrunked elephant



Polyeyed girl


Tricoloured Whale



Astroeyed Unicorn


Polystriped Monkey



Microlegged Dog



WORD ROOT ANIMAL CARDS

HARD



Polylegged Fish



Polyeyed Girl


Orthostriped Monkey



Monkeysubwater


Microeared Mouse


Microheaded Boy


Maniac Cow


Prebedtime Girl



Postchristmas Morning



Orthotailed Pig



Microlegged Dog



Polytoed Horse


ROOT WORD CROSSWORD (EASY)




1.




5.
























6.



































4.











2.























3.












Clues

This word means…
Across

  1. Ten

  2. Two

  1. Thousand

  2. Three


Down

  1. Hundred

  2. Half

Please note: to make this activity easier provide students with reference sheet.



ROOT WORD CROSSWORD (MEDIUM)








3.

















5.





























1.































2.




4.

































6.





















































CLUES

This word means…
Across

  1. Two

  2. Above

  3. Far

6. Small
Down

3. Three


  1. Many

  2. Star

Please note: to make this activity easier provide students with reference sheet.

ROOT WORD CROSSWORD (HARD)





1.







































5.












4.



































3.













































2.
































































CLUES

This word means…
Across

  1. Crazy

  2. After

  3. Straight

  4. Many


Down

  1. Small

  2. Before

  3. Repeated Pattern

Please note: to make this activity easier provide students with reference sheet.



ROOT WORD CROSSWORD (EASY)

(ANSWERS)

1.

D



E

5.

C


A













E







6.

S







N








E







T








M

4.

T


R


I




2.

B


I




















3.

M


I

L



L


I


Clues

This word means…
Across

  1. Ten

  2. Two

  3. Thousand

  4. Three


Down

  1. Hundred

  2. Half

Please note: to make this activity easier provide students with reference sheet.



ROOT WORD CROSSWORD (MEDIUM)

(ANSWERS)







3.

T


E


L


E







5.

A







R

















S



1.

B


I















T












2.

S


U

4.

P


E


R



















O





O

6.

M


I


C


R


O





L

























Y








CLUES

This word means…
Across

  1. Far

  2. Above


  3. Far

6. Small
Down

3. Three


  1. Many

  2. Star

Please note: to make this activity easier provide students with reference sheet.




ROOT WORD CROSSWORD (HARD)

(ANSWERS)





1.

M


A


N


I


A









I
















5.

C



C







4.

P


O


L


Y



R















C



3.

O


R


T


H


O





L






















E






2.

P


O


S


T













R






















E
















CLUES

This word means…
Across


  1. Crazy

  2. After

  3. Straight

  4. Many


Down

  1. Small

  2. Before

  1. Repeated Pattern

Please note: to make this activity easier provide students with reference sheet.


Root Word Matching, Memory, or Fish

Materials

  • Root word and Suffix cards (see below)

  • Pencil and paper


Method

1. Introduce the class to the concept of root words.
2. Provide each student with a set of cards, or one set per group. Instruct the students to match the root words with the appropriate suffix card. Some cards can go with more than one suffix. Eg. Bi-cycle and Tri-cycle. This matching of pairs could also be played as a game of Memory or Fish.
Memory- Place all cards face down. Instruct the students to take turns turning over two cards. When a root word and a matching suffix are turned over, the child collects the cards as a matching pair. For example: Tri and cycle would be a pair.

Fish- Each student picks up five cards from the face down pile. The aim is to collect pairs (root word + suffix). Each student takes a turn to ask the other players if they have a card that is the pair to one of their own cards. For example they might ask “Do you have a card that would be the suffix for Tri?”. Students need to recognise the possible suffixes that could match the root words. If a student has the requested suffix card, they give it to the asking student. If no-one has the requested suffix card the student needs to pick up a card off the pile of remaining cards. This game may be more suitable for older students.

3. Once the students have collected their word pairs they can write a list of other words using the root word. For example, they could write tricycle, triceratops, tripod etc. If the students have trouble thinking of more words using the root word they can use a dictionary to find more. Following the activity instruct the students to identify the meaning of the root word. For example, Tri means Three.
4. Randomly choose 5 students to present their list of words to the class. The class need to listen carefully to the words, and come up with any more, and guess the meaning of the root word.

tri

cycle

tri


ceratops

tri

pod


bi

annual

bi

cycle

cent


ipede

cent

ury





cent


imetre

tele

phone

tele

vision

astro

logy

astro


naut


milli


metre

milli

pede



Pairs
Materials


Method

  1. Hand out a card and reference sheet to each student according to the level of difficulty.

  2. Explain what each root word meaning on the reference sheet.

  3. Get the students out of their seats and clear a space in the classroom.

  4. Ask the students to walk around the class and find the person with their matching card. For example ‘Poly’ and ‘Many’ are a pair.

  5. Following the activity instruct the students to share their pairs with the class.

Pairs

(Easy)




Bi



Two


Tri


Three


Milli


Thousand


Centi


Hundred

Deca



Ten


Semi


Half


Bi



Two


Tri


Three


Milli


Thousand


Centi


Hundred


Deca


Ten


Semi


Half


Bi



Two


Pairs

(Medium)




Bi


Two


Tri


Three


Super


Above


Poly


Many


Micro


Small



Tele


Far


Astro


Star


Super


Above


Poly


Many


Micro


Small


Tele


Far


Astro


Star


Super


Above


Pairs

(Hard)




Poly


Many


Ortho


Straight


Cycle


Repeated pattern


Micro


Small


Mania

Crazy



Pre


Before


Post


After


Poly


Many


Ortho


Straight


Cycle


Repeated pattern


Micro


Small


Mania


Crazy


Pre


Before


WORD/CONCEPT MAPPING

LESSON 2
Introduction

When a student comes across a word/concept that they don’t understand during reading or conversation most children would look the word up in a dictionary in an attempt to give meaning to the word. However, looking up a definition of a word/concept is not as effective as analysing the word/concept2. An in-depth analysis of a word/concept can be done through a vocabulary building strategy known as concept mapping.

What is a word/concept map?

Word/Concept mapping is a strategy for teaching students the meaning of key concepts, independently. The word/concept map is a graphic organiser that allows student to3:


  • Identify the word/concept that they are learning,

  • Expand the word/concept meaning

  • Identify a general category the word might be placed in,

  • Identify its relationships to other words,

  • Identify its essential attributes, qualities or characteristics of the word

  • Develop examples of the word/concept, and

  • Create extended definitions of the word/concept for themselves


Aim

To increase the student’s vocabulary by:



  • Providing students with an independent and effective way to explore unknown concepts.

  • Stimulating the students thinking outside the square (word).

  • Teaching students to use a word/concept maps.

  • To develop a student’s ability to recall associated words surrounding a concept, quickly.




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