Make a character sketch of the mother. What is her background? Comment on the way she speaks. Do her feelings towards her husband and her son change during the story? What qualities does she want a man to posses?
Unseens for Practice WORLD'S FAVORITE WRITING TOOL REFUSES TO BE ERASED
For over four centuries, the classic wooden pencil has enjoyed enormous popularity. Even with the current boom in high-tech writing devices, about 15 billion pencils are produced worldwide every year. "Twenty years ago my advisers started warning me about the imminent rise of electronic writing tools," says Manfred
5 Beller, a leading pencil manufacturer. "I'm glad I didn't listen to them."
In view of the competition, you may wonder how the ordinary pencil has managed to retain its appeal. The answer is obvious enough. The world's most-used writing instrument happens to be the least expensive. It is also the most reliable, working tirelessly and never breaking down. For maintenance all you need is a pencil
10 sharpener. And it's more portable than the most portable computer.
Such practical considerations, however, mean little to pencil fans. For them, there is something deeply satisfying about the feel of a pencil moving across a page. The humble pencil is also favored by the anti-technology crowd. Members of the Chicago-based Plain Pencil Club, for example, have entirely renounced the use of electronic writing tools.
we're fighting back," explains the club's founder Henry Barnett. "Moreover, your whole personality is expressed in your handwriting, especially when you use a pencil. Obviously, nothing of the sort happens with computers."
20 components often cause serious ecological problems when discarded. Since the
pencil is made almost entirely of organic materials, it causes no such problems. This makes it a favorite with environmentalists. For other people, the same trait can also create a special connection with the pencil that goes beyond its basic function. "I do not merely write with pencils," said the Canadian author Philip Miller in his letter of
25 application to the Plain Pencil Club. "I chew them. I eat them." You can't do that
with your computer, can you?
QUESTIONS (70 points)
1. COMPLETE THE SENTENCE ACCORDING TO LINES 1-5 . (9 points)
We can understand that Manfred Beller's advisers believed that people would ..................
DON'T CALL, JUST WHISTLE Like most kids on the tiny island of Gomera, 11-year-old Maria Garcia has
her own cell phone. But another form of communication - one that doesn't require batteries – is just as common among the children of the mountainous island. It is known as El Silbo, the Gomera whistle. El Silbo
5 is actually a simple kind of language. By shaping a finger like the letter U and putting it in one side of the mouth, the islanders are able to produce a set of six whistle sounds. Using those sounds to form words and sentences, they can communicate with people as far as 2.5 km away.
Until the end of the 1950s there were few roads in Gomera, and even fewer
10 telephones. "As kids we learned El Silbo in the streets," says 58-year-old Pedro Darias. "If you didn't want to do a lot of climbing up and down to find people, you had to use it." But in the 1960s, as roads were built and phones became common household items, the need for El Silbo rapidly declined.
15 In 1982, the local government decided to rescue the tradition by teaching El Silbo in the schools. Within three years, most children on the island were using the language. "It takes a lot of practice," explains Darias, who is one of the teachers. "When you've only got six sounds, a lot of words seem almost the same. So you really need the context of the whole message to
20 tell you what you're hearing."
Once the children of Gomera master their unique language, they delight in using it as a secret code, baffling tourists with the rapid whistles. More importantly, in some situations El Silbo has the additional advantage of being the most convenient mode of communication. "Suppose I'm at a
25 friend's house," says Maria Garcia, "and I want my grandfather to pick me up on his way home from work in the fields. I can just stand in the doorway and whistle my message to him." Now that's something you can't do anywhere else in the world.
QUESTIONS (70 points)
Answer questions 1-5 in English according to the article. In question 4, circle the number of the correct answer. In the other questions, follow the instructions.
1. What do we learn about "most kids on the tiny island of Gomera" (line 1)? Give TWO facts according to lines 1- 5. (2 x 5 = 10 points)
2. What do we learn from lines 1-8 about El Silbo? (2 x 8 = 16 points)
PUT AN X BY THE TWO CORRECT ANSWERS.
________ a. How it got its name.
________ b. How the sounds are produced.
________ c. Why it is rarely used.
________ d. When it was invented.
________ e. What it is used for.
________ f. How it arrived in Gomera.
3. Between the 1960s and the present, changes occurred in Gomera concerning El Silbo. List the changes in the order in which they occurred by completing the sentences below. Base your answers on lines 9-20. (3 x 9 = 27 points)
1. In the 1950s, the islanders used El Silbo.
2. Later, _________________________________________________________.
3. As a result, El Silbo was used less.
4. Then, _________________________________________________________.
5. As result, ______________________________________________________.
4. What does Darias explain in lines 15-20? (8 points)
a. Why El Silbo is necessary today.
b. Where you can learn El Silbo.
c. What makes El Silbo hard to understand.
d. How he became a teacher of El Silbo.
5. What is the subject of lines 21-28?
COMPLETE THE ANSWER. (9 points)
The _______________________________________________ of El Silbo.