Section Page Number (s) Introduction 1-5
Chapter One Staffing the Safety Program 6-10
Chapter Two-What Will My Duties Be? 11-18
Chapter Three How Prepared Am I? 19-23
Chapter Four A Few Safety Fundamentals. 24-58
Chapter Five-Elements of a Safety Program 59-75
Chapter Six-Elements of a Security Program 76-82
Chapter Seven How to Start a Program 83-95
Chapter Eight How to Continue an Established Program. 96-107
Appendix A-The Scope Of The Professional Safety Position A-1
Appendix B Organizational Addresses. B-1 THRU B-3
Appendix C-Example Safety Program Budget C-1 THRU C-2
Appendix D-Example Facility Hazard Assessment D-1
Appendix E Safety Program Evaluation Checklist E-1 THRU E-3
Appendix F-Bloodborne Pathogens Program Checklist F-1
Appendix G-Confined Space Entry Program Checklist G-1
Appendix H-Control of Energy Source Program Checklist H-1
Appendix I-Ergonomics Program Checklist I-1 THRU I-2
Appendix J-Hazardous Communication Program Checklist J-1 THRU J-2
Appendix K-Motor Vehicle Accident Prevention Program
Appendix L-Personal Protective Equipment Program
Checklist L-1 THRU L-6
Appendix M-Fire Prevention and Protection Program
Checklist M-1 THRU M-3
Appendix N General Safety Inspection Guidelines. N-1 THRU N-7
Appendix O-Inspection Survey Questions. O-1
Appendix P Example Safety Policy Letter. P-1
Appendix Q-Example Accident Report Form Q-1
Appendix R-Example Hazard Log. R-1
Appendix S-Example Risk Assessment Matrix. S-1 THRU S-2
Appendix T-Security Program Checklist T-1 THRU T-2
Appendix U-Ergonomic Measurements U-1 THRU U-3
Appendix V Suggested Reading List. V-1
I wrote the second edition of this book to update and expand the concepts and ideas put forth in the first edition. The original edition was written for two reasons. These reasons are as current today as they were when the first edition was published.
The first reason is that full time safety professionals to help educate and train collateral and additional duty safety representatives can use this book as a tool. This book can be used as a guide or workbook. Of course this book is not meant to be a complete course in safety and occupational health. However, it can give the safety representative a base from which the safety professional can recommend further training to develop the safety representative to a point where the organization gets a solid return on its investment dollar. With this initial information these representatives can quickly become contributing members of the safety team at your organization. I have heard from readers who used this book in just that way and were satisfied.
In the event that an organization does not have a full time safety professional on staff, the second reason is to give the collateral or additional duty safety representative the information they need to succeed. Throughout this book I will use safety specialist instead of collateral or additional duty safety representative to make it easier to read. I also want to stop safety specialists from reinventing the wheel repeatedly as so many of us have done. Here the safety specialist should use this book as the first step in a training program to give them the knowledge to do the additional duty properly. After reading this book they should follow up by completing the proper training. With that in mind let us begin the process that will make the new safety specialist a success.
So you are the new safety specialist for your organization. This may be your only duty or like so many others this will be in addition to your regular duties and perhaps several other additional duties. Now that you've been told to run the safety program your first response may be; "OK, but where do I start?" The first thing to remember is that you are not alone. This happens to people in all kinds of industries. In fact, after you have moved on, someone will take your place. You may know very little about managing a safety program or you may have a good solid background in some safety practices and procedures. Either way it does not really matter because many organizations are out there to help you.
In fact, that is the purpose of this book. I want to give you a basic understanding of how the safety program in your organization should be run. One thing you need to remember is that you cannot learn it all at once. It will take some time, how much time depends on the support you get. I have set the book up so that each chapter discusses one subject. You can use this as a reference later to look up specific information by going straight to the chapter you want. Each chapter is intended to be a self-directed lesson in that subject area. I have included question highlights or things to remember at the end of each chapter and space for you to write down things you need to do now or later. “Things to Do Now“ are short-term goals and “Things to Do Later” are long-term goals. Looking at goals right here in the introduction and carrying that habit throughout the book is best. A place for goals is at the end of each chapter as a reminder to help you focus on what goals goes with what chapters. This should make it easier for you to go back to a specific subject and remember what you wanted to do about it. What you write down in these spaces is for you and you do not need to share it with anyone. Nevertheless, keeping a record of your thoughts is important for you as you read so you can go back over them and apply what is recommended in this book.
This book will be more effective if you highlight things you want to remember. Underline, make notes in the margin and complete the "Things to do" sections at the end of each chapter. A Glossary will give you the meaning of words used in the Safety Profession. You may not be familiar with some of these words and I recommend you look at the Glossary at the end of this book and familiarize yourself with the word and its meaning before you read the book. This book is a tool for you to use and if you apply only a couple of things out of this book you will be well on your way to being a success.
To begin with you must understand what is required of you. The safety specialist is a staff position with authority from the director or executive officer to direct necessary action to prevent or reduce personal injury and property damage within the organization. Any directives you issue are in the name of the director or executive officer in line with his or her policy guidance. Primarily you are an administrator and diplomat, balancing the need to reduce accidents while accomplishing production or other organizational goals. In his book the “Safety Coach’” David Sarkus has outlined seven Cs for world-class safety performance. Working towards developing a world-class safety program is what this book is all about. I hope I can provide you with enough information to get you started on that journey. Mr. Sarkus’ book is good reading prior to developing a safety program, see appendix V – Suggested Reading List.
The best definition of the scope of a professional safety position is found in the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) pamphlet "Scope and Function of the Professional Safety Position." This scope is intended for the full time safety professional. However, it applies to you as a safety specialist who performs safety duties as an additional duty or part time basis. The only real difference is you will do your duties on a part time basis. I cannot recommend a better source of information than this pamphlet and it can be found at Appendix A. Please read this before you go on to the rest of this introduction.
You must also determine what you need. "How do I do that?" you may ask. Well you have to talk to people and look over the organization, both the administration and operational areas. Then you have to put this information into perspective. You will analyze problem areas and SET PRIORITIES. You will conduct Risk Management to decide which problem areas are to be corrected first, second and so on, based on the severity of loss should the worst case accident occur. Also, you must decide who has the responsibility for making corrections.
While you are doing all this, you have to keep the boss informed. Who the boss is depends on your organization. The higher on the organization ladder the better. You should work for the director or chief executive officer in your capacity as the safety specialist. When I refer to the boss within the book, I am referring to the person you must answer to for safety responsibilities in your organization. Approaching him or her for policy guidance on those areas where outside assistance is needed is best. If it is something to be corrected locally, develop a plan with concurrence of the responsible individuals and set realistic completion dates and take this package into the boss for his or her approval. Do not forget to follow through and monitor the plan of action for adequacy and make necessary changes to keep the plan on target. Again, Keep the Boss informed.
All this should be done in a way that improves the organization and its processes. The worst error you can make is accident prevention only for compliance with laws and standards. You must always remember that safety does not exist in a vacuum. It is supposed to support the mission or the reason the organization was developed in the first place. It should also support management and labor so that both believe they are getting the best bargain for the effort in which they are putting. Once you have taken the route of safety for compliance people will realize you are just filling a square and they will do just enough to get by. What you really want and what is most beneficial is accident prevention for continuous improvement. You want safe behavior to be a part of the culture of the organization. This will help show that safe behaviors are important to the organization and encourage the work force to make safe behaviors an integrated part of the processes. “You are indeed the agent of positive change – make it happen (Sarkus106).”
You must also involve supervisory personnel by encouraging them to show greater interest in the welfare of their subordinates, and thus encourage greater concern for the success of the organization's safety program. “Safety leadership flows down from the top management, but it is reflected in the words and actions of first-line supervisors (Tompkins 171).” This is important to integrating safety into the organization's culture.
The functions of the safety specialists are many. You must detect potential problem areas and set priorities recommended courses of action. You must also keep the boss advised of the status and adequacy of the organization's accident prevention efforts. Furthermore, you must achieve the desired balance between accident prevention and mission requirements. “Then, a health and safety staff person would be held accountable for providing accurate information on health and safety to line management and for advising, counseling, influencing and assisting them (Tompkins 44)”
To give you the best information on the functions of a safety professional I must again refer to the pamphlet, "Scope and Functions of the Professional Safety Position,” from the ASSE. In this pamphlet the functions are laid out as major areas relating to the protection of people, property, and the environment (Scope and Functions of the Professional Safety Position, ASSE). Remember the only difference between these functions and yours is you do them on a part time basis. In your position you will still be a safety professional and the time and effort you put into the program will directly affect the operations of your organization. This is why I believe that professionalism is a very important part of your function and in that regard this pamphlet will put you on the right track to doing the best job you can. You may also receive your own copy of this pamphlet from the ASSE by writing to their address at Appendix B and requesting a copy.
The major areas as quoted from the pamphlet are: a. Anticipate, identify and evaluate hazardous conditions and practices. b. Develop hazard control designs, methods, procedures and programs. c. Carry out, administer and advise others on hazard controls and hazard control programs. d. Measure, audit and evaluate the effectiveness of hazard controls and hazard control programs.
TABLE 1-MAJOR AREAS OF THE ASSE SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS OF A SAFETY PROFESSIONAL This book should not be used as a substitute for the OSHA Standards and any other regulations or laws. This book is meant for your information only.
So what will all this extra, work get you? Your most likely reward will be seeing workers doing their job to standard and not sustaining injuries or property damage. You should also see improvement in organizational processes. Your rewards may not be tangible, but you will have the satisfaction of knowing that maybe, just maybe, you have made someone aware enough that they did not injure themselves or someone else. Perhaps more importantly you will be an active member of your organization's efforts to improve the quality of its operations and the quality of life experienced by the workers.
THINGS TO REMEMBER? 1. Why do I need this book?
2. What are my expectations for reading this book? This is a good question to look back on when you are finished reading this book.
3. When do I want to set aside time to read this book?
THINGS TO DO NOW, YOUR SHORT TERM GOALS?
There are two aspects to staffing the Safety Program. First are the resources that are needed to make a program work. Secondly, are the resources that management is willing to provide. These are not necessarily the same. It is the job of the safety specialist to identify needed resources and then to justify those needs within the budget processes of the organization. “Safety pays, and it is good investment for all concerned. It eliminates suffering and lost wages. It also improves production, maintains efficacy, reduces waste and generally provides a sense of well being for all employees and their families (Della-Giustina 3).”
Who would not want to adequately staff a program that could do all that? Many people do not believe that quote to be true. If they believe it they somehow don’t believe they can afford it. It will be your job to make them believe that not only can they afford it they cannot afford not to have the program. The first step is human resources. How many personnel are needed to implement and maintain the safety program for the organization. This can be done using only collateral duty, full-time, or a mixture of collateral and full-time personnel. The decision is up to management as to how this program is operated.
If the organization chooses to use only collateral duty personnel there should be a ratio of one collateral safety specialist for five hundred employees. This ratio works for a collateral duty individual that spends at least 8 hours per week on safety duties. The more time an individual spends on safety the less personnel you need. In contrast the less time an individual spends on safety the more personnel the organization needs. This can be modified so that a collateral duty safety person is assigned from different sections. For example, an organization has three shifts with three lines or blasts. Even though there are only three hundred workers it would benefit the organization to use three collateral safety specialists instead of the one determined by the ratio. The ratio is simply a starting point and should be modified to meet your organization needs.
The organization leadership may choose to use only full-time professionals. In this case the individual has a full forty-hour week to do safety and can do a great deal more work than a collateral safety specialist. In this situation in is common for a full-time safety professional for each plant or organization. This ratio is done without much regard for the number of employees. Another approach is to have a full-time safety professional for each 3,500 employees if you prefer a ratio to employee strength.
In addition, the organization’s leaders may decide to use a mixture of both collateral and full-time personnel. In this case it seems to work best if there is a full-time safety person at the headquarters level with collateral duty personnel assigned at a ratio of one collateral safety specialist for every one thousand employees or one per line or blast.
Along with human resources there is a need for fiscal resources or money to make the program work. The amount of money is dependent upon the type of organization you have and the quality of the safety program you desire for that organization. Typically this money is broken down into major categories. Typical major categories consist of salary, training, travel, awareness material, incentive awards, and hazard corrections.
Salaries are based upon the number of collateral and full-time personnel that are being used. After all the time they are spending on safety is time they are not doing their primary job of production or service. The actual amount of time an individual spends on safety duties should be added up and compared to the amount of money management decides it can afford. This is a cost that is often overlooked. As with all programs the safety program must be determined to be value added to the bottom line by saving costs.
There must be a training program that is funded to make sure all personnel within the organization are properly trained to do their jobs safely. This money often remains with the human resources department who allocates it as requested. However, the collateral safety specialist in charge should be providing input to the training based on organization requirements as well as the applicability of the course. This will ensure that the appropriate personnel receive the appropriate training saving the organization’s money and effort.
Travel is also related to the payment for travel related expense for personnel to attend training as well as sending personnel to conferences and trade shows. Both of which are very important to benchmark your safety program with other successful and assertive programs. The networking that can be done at these conferences and shows can provide your personnel with resources that they can call upon in the future to provide assistance to your organization, usually for free. In addition, new products and services can be seen that your organization may need in the future and may not know about if not for this opportunity.
Awareness materials are needed for all organizations. This is material that is used in the form of posters, brochures, handouts, buttons, etc, to get the word out about hazards within the work areas and measures that can be taken to prevent accident from occurring or lessen the severity if they do occur. There should be approximately fifteen cents spent for each employee within the organization. This is a formula that works very well. If you have a high hazard organization this amount should be fifty cents per employee. The key is to effectively spend the money on the hazards that are affecting your processes and personnel. It is also important to follow up on awareness material used to ensure it is well received by personnel within the organization. If you have bilingual or non-native English speaking employees it is essential to provide some awareness material in the language they speak naturally. My experience proves that providing material in the language a person speaks can not only help them know more about the safety program but also gives them some incentive to become an active supporter of safety. There is also a need to look at the different age groups of employees. Younger employees seem to like active busy posters and awareness material while older employees seem to like straightforward single message material. Focus your material to a broad audience to reach all or most of your work force.
There has been a lot of discussion and even some arguing about the effectiveness of an incentive awards program. Over nineteen years of safety experience I have found that these programs can work if they are done right. They cannot be handled haphazardly or without clear intent. This program should actually consist of an incentive awards and earned awards program. Both programs complement each other and together form a solid program that keeps the safety program positive while gaining employee support. The incentive awards should be used to garner support for the program. These should be low cost items that can be given to employees when they do something right. This is very effective. Too many times we tend to catch employees doing things wrong. This process allows management to catch them doing something right. The second part should be an awards program that requires the individual to earn the award through some defined criteria. This can be working some many hours without an accident or driving some many miles without an accident. The criteria can also be for lost time accidents. This allows the organization to maintain an effective accident-reporting program. These awards must be kept separate and not given out for small or nonexistent safety effort. The incentive awards are normally kept to $5.00 or less while earned awards should come in five different levels that have a progression for an employee to strive for. Furthermore, the award should be provided to an employee in a manner they feel comfortable with. There are some employees who do not wish to receive an award before a big group. Do not embarrass these employees. Award their items in front of their section. All personnel receiving an award should be noted in newsletters or company bulletin boards.
Hazard correction is an area that demonstrates to the work force that safety is taken seriously and management is not afraid to put their money where their mouth is. The hazards should be identified through inspections and work reports of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions. After these hazards are identified there should be a risk assessment code assigned to each hazard. Hazards are then prioritized based on the risk assessment code so that money can be spent on the hazards that are most likely to cause an accident that will results in injury or property damage. See appendix S for the matrix that can be used to assign the risk assessment code. All high hazards should be corrected before moderate and all moderate should be corrected before the low.
If the safety program for your organization is to be successful there must be some money applied to it. The amount of money is based on the size and complexity of the organization. The resources must be clearly identified and money or manpower assigned to them. This money does not have to go to the safety specialist but rather it needs to go to the individual who will fulfill the duty and now have the resources to do it.
THINGS TO REMEMBER? 1. Why does the Safety Program need resources?
2. What are management’s expectations for resourcing the Safety Program?
3. What resources are identified?
4. What resources will need to be requested?
THINGS TO DO NOW, YOUR SHORT TERM GOALS? 1.
THINGS TO DO AT A LATER DATE, YOUR LONG TERM GOALS? 1.
CHAPTER TWO "What Will My Duties Be?" The first thing you will want to do is to speak to the person who appointed you to this position. Whether this person is the Chief Executive Officer, Vice President, or Division Chief. You will want to get this person's vision of what the safety program should be and what they expect from you. They should also give you some information to help you develop goals and objectives that you can mold into a plan for the safety program. If you work for a person below the chief operating official you must also discuss your duties with the chief operating official and your supervisor. The safety program has got to be run from the top in line with organizational goals.
During this meeting the topic of your duties and responsibilities should be discussed in great detail. The duties that are normally given to an additional duty safety representative are:
1. Serve as the director's representative on all aspects of safety.
2. Interpret safety policies and procedures for the director, line managers and supervisors.
3. Conduct periodic surveys and inspections.
4. Conduct follow-up to verify hazard abatement has been completed.
5. Maintain records of surveys and inspections.
6. Investigate major accidents and assist supervisors in investigating minor accidents.
Note: Major is usually defined by loss of life, permanent or partial disability, or property damage that causes the loss of an entire system.
7. Follow up with the director on major accidental injuries and property damage immediately. Do not include incidents of a minor nature (i.e. minor injuries such as cuts, bruises, and scratches, or minor property damage such as bent mirrors or broken tail lights). Accidents are reported by supervisors through line management, do not change this. You only follow up and assist when needed.
8. Collate accidents, injuries, and property damage reports. This is usually done quarterly and is in the form of a written report. Near misses can be included.
9. Provide information to line organizations about trends and seasonal hazards.
10. Coordinate required training with the personnel Office.
11. Prepare for Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspections.
12. Coordinate with the personnel office to ensure that the OSHA Log and workman's compensation reports are being done correctly and on time.
13. Coordinate an early return to work program for injured workers.
14. Some organizations may also require the duty to provide oversight of a physical security program for the organization.
Your primary duties involve management of the safety program. You cannot take responsibility for safety training, hazard correction, or investigation and reporting of all accidents. These responsibilities belong to line management and that is who should fulfill them. Your job is basically to identify, assess, and recommend control measures to reduce hazards. Your duties will revolve in a circular fashion and should be done in this order. You should begin with hazard recognition so that you are working to correct a problem that exists. This is a practical application of the accident prevention process that will give you very good results.