Taks objective 5 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth and Space systems

:)


Download 414.84 Kb.
Page1/2
Date17.11.2017
Size414.84 Kb.
  1   2
TEKS 8.14 A, B, and C

World Altering Events

TAKS Objective 5 – The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth and Space systems.

Learned Science Concepts:



  • Complex interactions occur between matter and energy.

  • Cycles exist in Earth systems.

  • Characteristics of the universe.

  • Natural events and human activity can alter Earth systems.

TEKS Science Concepts 8.14

The student knows that natural events and human activity can alter Earth systems. The student is expected to:

(A) predict land features resulting from gradual changes such as mountain building, beach erosion, land subsidence and [continental drift]; **

**TAKS will assess students’ understanding of plate tectonics. The theory of plate tectonics is the most current and accepted theory of plate movement.

(B) analyze how natural or human events may have contributed to the extinction of some species; and

(C) describe how human activities have modified soil, water, and air quality.

Overview

It is important for students to understand the natural and human events that contribute to the changing environment we live in. For example, land can subside from ground water over-pumping and declining water tables. This can cause irrigation ditches, canals and water wells used in agricultural areas to collapse threatening plant and animals that rely on these water systems. In urban areas, subsidence can affect bridges, highways, electric lines, waterlines, sewer pipes and gas pipes, which are everywhere. As you can see, gradual changes in land features have considerable economic impact and interrupt our everyday life.

In addition to natural events, human activity has modified our soil, water and air quality in a number of ways. Pollution of these resources threatens the way we live, and it is important for everyone to understand how to take care of these resources if we are to maintain a sustainable planet. Presently, there are ongoing human activities that interfere with the ability of certain organisms to survive, and organisms are becoming extinct at an alarming rate. Habitat destruction is still the number one cause of species extinction. However, alien species are an increasing threat to biodiversity.

Certain resources like coal, oil and gas are limited and unless new discoveries are made, these limited resources will run out in a few decades. For example, current estimates indicate we have about a 40-year supply of oil, a 62-year supply of gas and a 262-year supply of coal. Given our increasing dependence on oil and natural gas and the environmental air pollution problems associated with fossil fuel, it may be that we need cleaner, cheaper and more efficient ways to produce the energy we need if we are to continue our current level of energy use.

Instructional Strategies

The learner will investigate the effect of changes in environmental conditions (e.g. salt, CO2, overpopulation) using plants. A guided inquiry instructional strategy is employed.

A simulation instructional strategy is used to explore extinction of an endangered species of amphibian, the Golden Coqui frog of Puerto Rico. The learner compares the results of three graphs which depict stable, declining and growing populations.

The Internet is employed to conduct a WebQuest which examines various environmental and economic perspectives regarding the building of a road in a remote area.

Lesson Objectives


  1. After completing the TerrAqua ecocolumn group activity, the learner will describe the effect of excess salt on terrestrial and aquatic plant life scoring at least 70 points on the rubric.

      1. After completing the TerrAqua ecocolumn group activity examining salt infiltration, the learner will record at least five journal entries about the investigation. A pass/fail grade will be given.

      2. Working a group, the learner will complete the acid precipitation group investigation and present group findings. A minimum score of 80 on the presentation rubric is required.

      3. After researching a stakeholder position, each group of learners will present and defend their position on building a bridge, road and lodge in Taman Negra. A team score of at least 21/30 is required.

      4. After viewing the video, the learner will create a book jacket to demonstrate understanding of natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems. A minimum score of 70 Points on the rubric is required.

      5. After completing The Golden Coqui Extinction Dice Game. The learner will participate in a class discussion by providing at least two meaningful interactions during the class debriefing session.

      6. Given information about extinct species in Texas, the learner will conduct web research to determine the cause of extinction for at least three animals. The information will be recorded in the science journal.

For Teacher’s Eyes Only

Mechanisms for Loss of Biodiversity


Habitat loss:

Habitat loss occurs when a species looses food, water and/or the shelter they need to survive. Habitat fragmentation refers to the building of roads, trails, pipelines and electric power lines that carve up natural habitat into fragments too small for larger animals to meet their needs for survival. For example, in the last few decades many famous Texas ranches have been splintered into small pieces in order to accommodate urban sprawl or to provide a weekend escape from urban life. These new landowners view land for its scenic and recreational value and know little about maintaining the delicate ecological balance in these areas. With these new landowners comes more of everything. There are more roads, more power lines, more waterlines, dirt bikes, ATVs and more people. Using land in this way, places pressure on species that are dependent on having many acres of grassland in order to survive. Habitat fragmentation degrades our wildlife habitats and at the same time places pressure on limited water resources. For example, the Northern Bobwhite Quail has declined almost 70% in the last twenty years because of the loss of grassland habitat. In the area east of Interstate 35 the “bobwhite” call of the quail is almost gone. Other birds such as the Eastern Meadowlark and Loggerhead Shrike are in peril. Additionally, small mammals and reptiles such as the horned lizard and box turtles are disappearing. At the same time, our need to conserve and protect precious water resources from pollution continues to be threatened by this practice. Closely associated with habitat fragmentation is habitat alienation, which occurs when the habitat is still present, but some animals won’t use it because of its proximity to human activity. Loss of habitat is the #1 cause of extinction.


Introduced species:

An introduced species is one that is not native to a particular ecosystem and is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health. They are also referred to as exotic, non-native or non-indigenous species. Since introduced species have no natural predators and crowd out native species, some biologists believe that introduced species will replace habitat loss as the #1 cause of extinction.

Sometimes non-native species are introduced deliberately. For example, the large-mouth bass is an introduced species specifically for sport fishing. The nutria (the largest rodent in Texas) is used for its fur and sterile grass carp (triploid) are used to control the growth of undesirable aquatic vegetation.

However, there are a number of ways that an introduced species may arrive accidentally. They can stow away on imported fruits and vegetables. This is how the Mediterranean fruit fly came to Texas. They can hitchhike on cars, trains, boats and planes. The Asian Long Horned beetle and wood-boring wasp came in on shipping containers or packing materials. African Killer Bees escaped from the lab where they were contained and have spread into Texas and red fire ants were originally from South America.

Invasive species cost Texans in loss of biodiversity. In Texas the economic costs of invasive species is high in that it negatively impacts agriculture, ranching, mariculture, fishing, tourism and real estate. The following website contains information about loss of biodiversity in Texas. http://fireant.tamu.edu/antfacts/pdf/texas1.pdf

Pollution of soil, water, and atmosphere

Pollution is the spoiling of land, air or water by artificial waster produces. Pollution can be a nuisance, and a threat to health or ecosystems. The land can become polluted in a number of ways. For example, roads, electric transmission towers, strip mining and quarrying can ruin the landscape. Crops are sprayed with pesticides, which poison insects, small animals and birds. Dumping of waste products from mines and industry can also release poisons into the environment. In turn, pesticides or other waste products may run off into rivers and reservoirs that supply drinking water for human consumption.

In the early 1970s, DDT, which was a widely used pesticide, was shown to be a biological magnification agent. That is when a small organism at the start of a food chain consumed DDT and was later eaten by other organisms up the food chain, the level of DDT continued to increase to the point where certain species such as cormorants, bald eagles and pelicans were threatened with extinction because of the levels of DDT in their bodies.

Another source of water pollution is untreated sewage dumped directly into waterways. Since oxygen is consumed in the breakdown of sewage, other organisms living in the water died due to lack of oxygen. A similar problem occurs when fertilizers such as nitrates and phosphates was washed into the water system. The fertilizer causes the water plants to multiply using up the oxygen in the water.

In the 1950s the industrial waste, acetaldehyde was pumped into Minamata Bay near Japan. Through the natural food chain, the poison built up in fish and shellfish and eaten by the people. Families who relied on the fish and shellfish became ill and many died. In Texas, industrial dumping in Galveston Bay almost wiped out the shrimping industry in the 1980s. Another source of water pollution is the release of heated water resulting from factory processes. This is called thermal pollution, which is hazardous to small plants and animals living in lakes and rivers.

Non-biodegradable substances such as oil and other pollutants are highly dangerous to aquatic wildlife. The Mediterranean Sea is the most polluted sea in the world due to floating oil and other garbage. The Mediterranean Sea is not safe for humans to swim in. Another example of oil pollution is the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which is one of the most publicized and tragic disasters in history. As late as 2001 over 50% of the sites were still contaminated with oil that was spilled in 1989.

Air pollution can result from either natural causes such as volcanic explosions and dust storms or human activities such as automobiles, planes and industrial factories that produce waste in the form of smoke, soot and other gases. Often, the particles of moisture in the air contain sulfur dioxide, which corrodes stonework and metals. It also contributes to human health problems in that it can cause cancer by diminishing the protective ozone layer in the upper atmosphere and increase the frequency of respiratory problems. Furthermore, excess sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide contribute to the potential for world climate change. For more information about air, water and land pollution in Texas visit the following websites from the Environmental Defense and Texas Center for Policy Studies:


http://www.texasep.org/html/air/air_1nfa_poll.html

http://www.texasep.org/html/wql/wql_2sfc.html

http://www.texasep.org/html/wst/wst.html

http://www.texasep.org/html/pes/pes.html

Exploitation of Plant and Animal Species

In 400 A.D. fossil evidence suggests there were 98 species of endemic birds present in the Hawaiian Islands when the islands were colonized by Polynesians. Before the first Europeans arrived in 1778, about 50 of these species were extinct. Scientists believe these extinctions were the result of clearing tracts of forest for agriculture, natural and human predation and introduced species. After the first humans arrived in New Zealand around 1000 A.D., the introduction of animals such as the domestic dog and Polynesian rat, as well as the deforestation by fire and extensive hunting of large birds led to the extinction of 13 species of large flightless birds (Moas) as well as 16 other endemic species of birds. Other exploited species include The Auk and passenger pigeon, which are extinct, as well as Lebanon cedar, the Peruvian anchovy, Sumatran and Javan rhinos all which have been driven to the edge of extinction.

Misconceptions

Common Misconceptions about soil, water and air pollution

 Misconception

Oxygen in the water exists in the form of an oxygen atom.

Science Concept

Oxygen in the water exists in the form of an oxygen atom in water (H2O) rather than dissolved 02 in water.

Rebuild Concept

Provide students with experiences to explore dissolved oxygen in water and how depleted oxygen supplies can jeopardize aquatic life.

 Misconception

Global warming may or may not be a problem.

 Science Concept

Incremental changes of less than 1°C can cause serious consequences to an aquatic system. Students do not fully understand the implications of using fossil fuels and how present practices and laws negatively impact our environment in terms of air, water and soil pollution.

Rebuild Concept

Provide experiences to acquaint students with the importance of the carbon cycle. Allow students to engage in concrete learning involving the manipulation of environmental conditions and the effects on the environment (e.g., acid rain, excess CO2).

 Misconception

Resources are abundant.

 Science Concept

Without careful guardianship of renewable resources, these resources can become unusable to life on earth for many years.

Rebuild Concept

Provide students with experiences that investigate the negative impact of human activity on the environment.


Common misconceptions about extinction

 Misconception

Living organisms can be brought back from the edge of extinction if humans intervene.

 Science Concept

Often, there is not a large enough gene pool to support saving a particular organism even if money were of no concern. Also, this loss of diversity can seriously jeopardize a food web via the creation of new niches that upset the delicate balance of nature.

Rebuild Concept

Provide students with information about extinct, endangered and threatened species. Provide examples of recent species extinction in the U.S. and how this extinction came about (e.g., Passenger pigeon, Ivory-billed woodpecker).

 Misconception

The rainforest is the major source of oxygen for the environment.

 Science Concept

Aquatic plants in the ocean are the major source of oxygen for the environment.

Rebuild Concept

Ocean pollution can have serious consequences with regard to aquatic plant life. Provide students with data about oxygen production of terrestrial and aquatic plants.

Student Prior Knowledge

Knowledge from TEKS 7.14 should include prior knowledge about the TEKS 14 (A) impact of different catastrophic events on the Earth such as glaciation, asteroid/comet impacts, landslides, floods and volcanic activity. Additionally, the student should already be able to analyze the effects of regional erosional deposition and weathering on the earth’s surface [TEKS 14 (B)]. Finally, TEKS 14 (C) specifies the student should be able to make inferences and draw conclusions about effects of human activity on Earth's renewable (e.g., plant and animal, oxygen, water), non-renewable (e.g., oil, natural gas, coal, minerals) and inexhaustible resources (e.g., sunlight, wind).

5 E’s

ENGAGE

Show the Lorax Video to introduce the effect of human activity on the environment.

EXPLORE


Download the learning activity from the following website:

http://www.fastplants.org/pdf/ecology/fromaboveandbelow.pdf

TerrAqua columns may be prepared in advance or students prepare columns according to instructions for TerrAqua in blackline master’s section. Students complete the learning activity and complete lab report.

Materials:

Per student or group: 20-30 fast plants; sterile soil; 1-2 aquatic plants such as Elodea; Peters solution; 2 clear plastic liter soda bottles; algae; pond bottom; lab grade NaCl, pickling or kosher salt;

Per class: Dissolve 20 grams of salt in two liters of distilled water. Dissolve 1 Tablespoon of 20/20/20 Peter’s solution in one gallon of distilled water, Fast Plant lighting system.





50 ml 20/20/20 Peters solution

100 ml salt solution

# of Days

4

3

7

6

14

9

EXPLAIN

Salt is introduced into an ecosystem in a variety of ways. In some areas salt used to deice roads in the winter runs off in to the soil. Overhead watering systems that are commonly used in agriculture cause a buildup of salt during evaporation, which leaves salt molecules behind on the soil. In this series of lessons, the student examines the effect of salt on terrestrial and aquatic plant life introduced through soil and through water.


  1. Why is salt not added during the plant germination phase of the experiment? Salt greatly reduces germination of seeds.

  2. What is the purpose of the control TerrAqua ecocolumn? A control allows the experimenter to attribute the results of plant grow to the experimental variable, salt. Without the control, it is possible that variable other than salt might affect plant growth and this would not be shown with only an experimental setup.

  3. Describe how salt from the aquarium travels into the soil. When salt water is rained on the fast plants, it percolates through the soil and eventually drops through the holes in the cap down into the aquarium.

  4. Why is salt water added on three subsequent occasions? Salt is added three times in order to maintain salt in both soil and water throughout the experiment and to make the experimental results more dramatic.

  5. How does salt affect terrestrial plant life? Answers will vary, but should include reduces plant growth, flowering and fruit production. Aquatic plant life? Answers will vary, but should include reduces or destroys algae.

  6. Why is fertilizer added to the terrestrial plants? The fertilizer contains Phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, which increase plant growth. When nitrogen is limited, plant leaves yellow, plants are undersized and bear little or no fruit. Limited phosphorus can cause leaves and fruit to drop prematurely. Lack of phosphorus also affects the structure and acid content of the fruit. A lack of potassium causes a drop in photosynthesis critical to building proteins.

  7. How does fertilizer affect aquatic plants? Fertilizer can cause overgrowth of algae in aquatic systems depleting the water of dissolved oxygen. When dissolved oxygen levels drop, organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem will die.

ELABORATE

First Elaboration

Salt infiltration may also be modeled using the TerrAqua columns. Prepare columns as in Explore activity except add a capillary wick such as pellon that begins at the top of the soil supporting the fast plants and runs through the bottle cap to end at the bottom of the aquarium. In Texas coastal areas, extensive pumping of ground water aquifers can cause the infiltration of salt from the ocean into the soil and the aquifers. Be sure the students do not sprinkle salt water on the fast plants, but rather add the salt solution only to the aquarium. Students answer the following questions.


  1. Describe how salt from water is able to contaminate soil. The salt moves up the pellon through capillary action and subsequently infiltrates the soil.

      1. How does salt affect terrestrial plant life? Answers will vary, but should include reduces plant growth, flowering and fruit production. Aquatic plant life? Answers will vary, but should include reduces or destroys algae.

Second Elaboration:

As the human population continues to grow on this planet, there is an increased competition for limited resources required for survival. Uncontrolled overpopulation crowds out other species and leads to extinction of species unable to complete for limited resources. Some researchers believe we can’t always assume that technology will allow the human population to continue expanding. There are factors such as water, space, food, disease, shelter and natural disasters that limit populations. In the next learning activity, we will examine the effect of overpopulation using Wisconsin Fast Plants. Students will complete the learning activity available from the following website: http://www.fastplants.org/pdf/ecology/populationexplosion.pdf


Third Elaboration:

Materials

#158745 acid rain kit from Carolina biological supply

Carolina fast plant growing system (e.g., lighting water reservoir, mats, pots, soil, seeds).

Rainwater has a pH of 5.6 and any form of precipitation with a pH of less than 5.6 is called acid rain. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, gas and oil causes acid rain. When fossil fuels are burned they release sulfur which combines with oxygen in the air forming sulfur dioxide. When the sulfur dioxide combines with water, sulfuric acid is formed creating acid rain. Additionally, nitrogen in the air reacts with burned fossil fuels to form nitrogen oxide. When nitrogen oxide combines with water, nitric acid is formed which is yet another form of acid rain. The effect of acid rain is damaging on terrestrial and aquatic life sensitive to pH changes. In this experiment the student will investigate the effect of sulfuric acid and nitric acid on plant growth.


Fourth Elaboration:

Investigate the effects of excess carbon dioxide on plant growth. Download the learning activity from the following website:



http://www.fastplants.org/newsletters/fpnotes_1993.pdf

Fifth Elaboration:

Use the webquest from the following website to engage in an issue investigation to explore the impact of human activity on the rainforest.



http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Sparta/7374/intro.htm

EVALUATE

After completing the TerrAqua ecocolumn group activity, the learner will describe the effect of excess salt on terrestrial and aquatic plant life scoring at least 70 points on the rubric.

Check Sheet for Independent Investigations

TerrAqua Ecocolumn Salt Learning Activity



Present √

Point Value

I.

Stating a problem to investigate

Problem phrased as a research question

If…then hypothesis statement




5


II.

Develop a procedure to compare the effect of salt on terrestrial and aquatic plants including a control setup.

All steps in sequential order and reproducible

Multiple trials indicated

Materials are appropriate and described





15


III.

Gathering quantitative data for plant growth and qualitative data about the phenotypic effects of salt terrestrial and aquatic plants.

Data organized in table or chart

Data has a title

Labels for manipulated and responding variables

Units are stated

Multiple trials, totals and averages are included






15


IV.

Graphing data for plant growth

Appropriate graph type used

Appropriate scale, range and interval are used

Graph has a title

Descriptive label for variable on the x-axis and

responding variable for the y-axis

Graphed data matches data collected
Units indicated for each axis




20


V.

Data analysis

Results from graph clearly stated

Inferences made about results




20


VI.

Conclusion

Conclusions based on results and inferences

Hypothesis is restated

Hypothesis is accepted or rejected






25

After completing the TerrAqua ecocolumn group activity examining salt infiltration, the student will record at least five journal entries about the investigation. A pass/fail grade will be given.

Working a group, the student will complete the acid precipitation group investigation and present group findings. A score of 80 on the presentation rubric is required.


Acid Precipitation Investigation




0-14

15-17

18-19

20

Often mumbles, cannot be understood OR mispronounces more than three words.

Speaks clearly and distinctly most (>70%) of the time. Mispronounces no more than one word.

Speaks clearly and distinctly all (95%-100%) the time, but mispronounces one word.

Speaks clearly and distinctly all (95%-100%) the time and mispronounces no words.

0-24

25-39

40-49

50




Uses no drawing, pictures, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

Uses at least two of the following: drawing, picture, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

Uses three of the following: drawing, picture, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.


Uses all of the following: drawing, picture, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

0-19

20-23

24-29

30




Does not seem to understand the topic very well.

Shows a good understanding of most parts of the topic.

Shows a good understanding of the topic.

Shows a full understanding of the topic.

TOTAL POINTS




This rubric was created using information from the following website: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php

After researching a stakeholder position, each group of learners will present and defend their position on building a bridge, road and lodge in Taman Negra. A team score of at least 21/30 is required.



WebQuest – Taman Negra

0

7

10

Every point was not supported.

Most major points were adequately supported with relevant facts, statistics and/or examples.


Every major point was well supported with several relevant facts, statistics and/or examples.

Counter-arguments were not accurate and/or relevant

Most counter-arguments were accurate, relevant and strong.

All counter-arguments were accurate, relevant and strong.

One or more members of the team had a presentation style that did not keep the attention of the audience.

Team generally used gestures, eye contact, tone of voice and a level of enthusiasm in a way that kept the attention of the audience.

Team consistently used gestures, eye contact, tone of voice and a level of enthusiasm in a way that kept the attention of the audience.

TOTAL POINTS

This rubric was created using information from the following website: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php

After viewing the video, the learner will create a book jacket to demonstrate understanding of natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems. A minimum score of 70 Points on the rubric is required.



The Effect of Natural and Human Activity on Earth’s Systems

Revise and resubmit

70-79 Points

80-89 Points

90-100 Points


Messy and hard to read. It looks like the student threw it together at the last minute.

The book jacket is fairly readable but some parts are of poor quality. It looks like the student ran out of time or took shortcuts to finish.

The book jacket has almost no distracting errors, corrections or erasures and is easily read. It appears the student worked hard on it.

The book jacket has no distracting errors, corrections or erasures and is easily read. It appears the student spent a lot of effort.

Information has little or nothing to do with the natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems.

Information clearly relates to natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems, but only two examples are provided for each area (total of four).

Information clearly relates to natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems. At least three examples for each area are provided (total of six).

Information clearly relates to natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems. At least four examples for each area are provided (total of eight).

Illustrations were drawn and/or colored carelessly.

Illustrations were drawn and colored neatly, but some were too large or too small.

Illustrations were drawn and colored neatly and were a good size.

Illustrations were creative, drawn and colored neatly and were a good size.

Author's name AND/OR bibliography is missing.

Includes the author's name and a biography that includes some personal facts about the author.


Includes the author's name and a biography that includes some personal facts and the name of at least one other book written by the author.

Includes a small photograph or drawing of the author, the author's name and a biography that includes some personal facts and the name of at least one other book written by the author.

Diagrams and illustrations are not accurate OR do not add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

Diagrams and illustrations are neat and accurate and sometimes add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

Diagrams and illustrations are accurate and add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

Diagrams and illustrations are neat, accurate and add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

This rubric was created using information from the following website: http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php

The Golden Coqui Extinction Dice Game



5 E’s

 Engage


Ask students to respond to the following statement:

99.9% of all species that have ever lived extinct. Many of them perished in five mass extinctions. According to the American Museum of Natural History and the Louis Harris survey research firm, seven out of ten biologists believe we are in the mist of a sixth mass extinction.

 Explore

Students experiment with “The Golden Coqui Extinction Dice Game.” Rules for the game are in the Black Line Masters at the end of this section.

 Explain

Debrief the students using the following questions.


  1. Why are all the graphs not identical? Answers will vary, but students should include variables such as birthrate, death rate, and environment causes.


  2. How do the three lines on the graph compare? The lines will most likely be different. Why are they different? There is an increasing probability that the death rate or birth rate will change the rate of extinction. When the death rate is higher, extinction is more likely. When the birthrate is higher, the population is more likely to continue to exist.

  3. Under what circumstance might an increased birthrate have a negative outcome? Overpopulation can increase competition for limited resources resulting in starvation and spread of disease.

  4. What are ways that citizens can become active in the protection of biodiversity? Students can become involved in the protection of biodiversity by writing letters, talking to politicians, and funding organizations that actively work to protect species.

  5. What causes a population to grow? When resources necessary to survival are present (e.g., water, food, shelter) then a population will usually increase in number. When the number of births exceeds the number of deaths there is population growth.

  6. What causes a population decline? Environmental factors can place pressure on a species and cause it to decline. When the number of deaths exceeds the number of births there is a population decline.

  7. What makes a population stay the same? The number of births and deaths are highly similar. This kind of population will appear as a wavy line on a graph.
  8. Does the size of the population matter? Yes. Why or why not? If a population is too small, then it may not be possible to reproduce sufficient numbers of offspring. In a small population, inbreeding results in decreasing numbers of healthy individuals and the population is genetically similar. The world cheetah population is so genetically similar that it is possible to graft the skin of one cheetah to another without rejection. Presently, there are about 12,000 cheetahs worldwide.


Elaborate

Students may explore extinct species in Texas using information from the following website: http://www.texasep.org/html/wld/wld_3pna_ext.html or by using the information contained in the teacher notebook.

Evaluation

1. After completing the learning experience, “The Golden Coqui Extinction Dice Game.” The learner will participate in a class discussion by providing at least two meaningful interactions during the class debriefing session.



NOTE: the teacher will want to use a class roll checklist for purposes of recording student participation during the debriefing session.

2. Given information about species which are no longer living in Texas, the student will conduct web research to determine the cause of loss for at least three animals. The information will be recorded in the science journal.





Acid Precipitation Investigation




0-14

15-17

18-19

20

Often mumbles, cannot be understood OR mispronounces more than three words.

Speaks clearly and distinctly most (>70%) of the time. Mispronounces no more than one word.

Speaks clearly and distinctly all (95%-100%) the time, but mispronounces one word.

Speaks clearly and distinctly all (95%-100%) the time and mispronounces no words.


0-24

25-39

40-49

50




Uses no drawing, pictures, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

Uses at least two of the following: drawing, picture, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

Uses three of the following: drawing, picture, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

Uses all of the following: drawing, picture, table, graph or other prop during the presentation.

0-19

20-23

24-29

30




Does not seem to understand the topic very well.

Shows a good understanding of most parts of the topic.

Shows a good understanding of the topic.

Shows a full understanding of the topic.

TOTAL POINTS





Check Sheet for Independent Investigations

TerrAqua Ecocolumn Salt Learning Activity


Present √

Point Value

I.

Stating a problem to investigate

Problem phrased as a research question

If…then hypothesis statement




5


II.

Develop a procedure to compare the effect of salt on terrestrial and aquatic plants including a control setup.

All steps in sequential order and reproducible

Multiple trials indicated

Materials are appropriate and described






15


III.

Gathering quantitative data for plant growth and qualitative data about the phenotypic effects of salt terrestrial and aquatic plants.

Data organized in table or chart

Data has a title

Labels for manipulated and responding variables

Units are stated

Multiple trials, totals and averages are included






15


IV.

Graphing data for plant growth

Appropriate graph type used

Appropriate scale, range and interval are used

Graph has a title

Descriptive label for variable on the x-axis and

responding variable for the y-axis

Graphed data matches data collected
Units indicated for each axis



20


V.

Data analysis

Results from graph clearly stated

Inferences made about results




20


VI.

Conclusion

Conclusions based on results and inferences

Hypothesis is restated

Hypothesis is accepted or rejected






25



WebQuest – Taman Negra

0

7

10

Every point was not supported.

Most major points were adequately supported with relevant facts, statistics and/or examples.

Every major point was well supported with several relevant facts, statistics and/or examples.

Counter-arguments were not accurate and/or relevant

Most counter-arguments were accurate, relevant and strong.

All counter-arguments were accurate, relevant and strong.

One or more members of the team had a presentation style that did not keep the attention of the audience.

Team generally used gestures, eye contact, tone of voice and a level of enthusiasm in a way that kept the attention of the audience.

Team consistently used gestures, eye contact, tone of voice and a level of enthusiasm in a way that kept the attention of the audience.


TOTAL POINTS



The Effect of Natural and Human Activity on Earth’s Systems

Revise and resubmit

70-79 Points

80-89 Points

90-100 Points

Messy and hard to read. It looks like the student threw it together at the last minute.

The book jacket is fairly readable but some parts are of poor quality. It looks like the student ran out of time or took shortcuts to finish.

The book jacket has almost no distracting errors, corrections or erasures and is easily read. It appears the student worked hard on it.

The book jacket has no distracting errors, corrections or erasures and is easily read. It appears the student spent a lot of effort.

Information has little or nothing to do with the natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems.

Information clearly relates to natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems, but only two examples are provided for each area (total of four).

Information clearly relates to natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems. At least three examples for each area are provided (total of six).

Information clearly relates to natural and human activities that alter earth’s systems. At least four examples for each area are provided (total of eight).


Illustrations were drawn and/or colored carelessly.

Illustrations were drawn and colored neatly, but some were too large or too small.

Illustrations were drawn and colored neatly and were a good size.

Illustrations were creative, drawn and colored neatly and were a good size.

Author's name AND/OR bibliography is missing.

Includes the author's name and a biography that includes some personal facts about the author.

Includes the author's name and a biography that includes some personal facts and the name of at least one other book written by the author.

Includes a small photograph or drawing of the author, the author's name and a biography that includes some personal facts and the name of at least one other book written by the author.

Diagrams and illustrations are not accurate OR do not add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

Diagrams and illustrations are neat and accurate and sometimes add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

Diagrams and illustrations are accurate and add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

Diagrams and illustrations are neat, accurate and add to the reader's understanding of the topic.

The Golden Coqui Extinction Dice Game

The Golden Coqui (Eleutheroactylus jasperi) is one of the most legendary symbols of Puerto Rico. Its name is highly appropriate and you would know if you were near one from the sound it makes, “co key.” The Coqui frog is very small measuring only ¼ to one inch in length and can jump many feet in a single leap. The color ranges from cream to deep brown, an adaptation to help the Coqui blend into its environment to avoid predation. The El Yunque rainforest in Puerto Rico is one of the favorite hangouts of the Coqui frog. There are a number of legends about the Coqui and it plays a part in Puerto Rican folklore. One legend tells that the Coqui was once a bird and lost its wings. It later acquired the ability to climb trees. Another legend describes Coqui as a disobedient child that was turned into a frog as punishment as its sound resembles a child whistling (U.S. Forest Service).

In this learning experience, you will investigate environmental pressures that can lead to the extinction of a species such as the Golden Coqui frog. Some of these pressures include:


  • Habitat destruction due to environmental pollution or natural causes

  • Predation from man, natural and introduced species

  • Lack of food or water

  • Illegal poaching

Each of the three games begin with 15 Coqui frogs living in the rainforest. Each partner will roll one die. Based on the results of both dice, the Coqui frog population will increase, decrease, or stay the same. Use the information in the KEY to determine what each roll of the dice will stand for. For example, in Game One, if a combination of 7 is rolled with the dice, then one of the Coqui frogs dies because an exotic species was introduced into its habitat. Place 15 pictures of Coqui frogs on the desk in front of you. After each roll of the dice:

  1. Add or subtract pictures of the frogs from the pile on your desk according to the information in the key.

  2. Count the number of Coqui frogs on your desk and record the information in Table 1.

  3. Use Graph 1 to show the population change over 20 years. Use map pencils to draw the lines.

GAME ONE

Engage in the learning experience using the following key. Record the results in Table 1 and Graph 1. Use a green map pencil to draw the line.



KEY

  1. = Reproduce one offspring

  2. = Continue living

  3. = Die from habitat destruction by environmental pollution/natural disaster

  4. = Die from habitat destruction by environmental pollution/natural disaster

  5. = Die from a natural predator
  6. = Die from an exotic or introduced animal species


  7. = Die from starvation from a competition and/or lack of food or water

  8. = Die in a poacher’s home aquarium

  9. = Continue living

  10. = Continue living

  11. = Reproduce one offspring




GAME TWO

Engage in the learning experience a 2nd time EXCEPT use the following key. Record the results in Table 1 and Graph 1. Use a blue map pencil to draw the line.



KEY

  1. = Die from a natural predator Reproduces one offspring

  2. = Die from habitat destruction by environmental pollution/natural disaster

  3. = Reproduce one offspring

  4. = Continue living

  5. = Continue living

  6. = Continue living

  7. = Continue living

  8. = Continue living

  9. = Reproduce one offspring

  10. = Die from an exotic or introduced animal species

  11. = Die from starvation from a competition and/or lack of food or water





Share with your friends:
  1   2
:)


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2019
send message

    Main page

:)