Fall 2010 Entertainment Article *106 TECHNOLOGIES OF STORYTELLING: NEW MODELS FOR MOVIES Henry H. Perritt, Jr.[FNa1] Copyright (c) 2010 University of Virginia School of Law; Henry H. Perritt, Jr.
Design and production
Marketing and distribution
*107 I. Introduction Twenty-five years ago, Ithiel de Sola Pool, an MIT political science professor, wrote a book called, Technologies of Freedom. [FN1] In it, he explained how technology was causing the collapse of boundaries separating publishers, broadcasters, and common-carrier communications enterprises and that the melding of these traditionally separate categories would require rethinking law and policy. Today, technology is causing the collapse of boundaries separating movies, television, the Internet, and videogames--the traditionally separate categories of video entertainment. The melding of these traditionally separate categories requires rethinking the economics, business strategies, and legal frameworks that shape video entertainment. While digital technology has decimated the traditional gatekeepers in the recorded music industry, [FN2] a different fate may await the established providers of video entertainment, even as it opens the gates to the marketplace for indie artists and producers, eroding the control of traditional gatekeepers. As with music, there is a flood of new creative content available to consumers--far more than they can sort through. As with music, much of it is garbage. Only quality content will survive and flourish, but how can a consumer find high-quality offerings? What defines quality?
The music industry myopically sought to defend old ways of doing things; the movie industry already is embracing the future. The established players in the music industry have viewed new technologies as a threat; indeed such an attitude toward technology is engrained in their DNA, given their predecessors' antipathy toward the first recording technologies, toward radio, toward television, toward CDs, toward the personal computer, and now toward Internet distribution. The established players in the video-entertainment industry, however, have been more open minded, and have a history of accommodating new technologies: “talkie” films, television, DVDs, and cross utilization of actors and programming between television and movies. Now they are embracing and exploiting the promise of the Internet, albeit with some trepidation. Capital requirements for making a good movie are at least two orders of magnitude greater than the *108 capital costs of making a good music album.
As with popular music, new technologies of video entertainment have opened the gates to the marketplace for independent (“indie”) artists and producers, eroding the control of traditional gatekeepers. Technologies once associated with television are now gradually dominating movie making, replacing film. Creative efforts once directed at movies, television, the Internet, or videogames alone are now spreading their targets to include several or all of the categories. Production activities that used to be defined by a medium or channel of distribution now easily cover several. The article explores how technology will shape production, discovery, delivery, and consumption and how it will shift the relative economic opportunities for a variety of creators and intermediaries. It predicts a greater role for indie producers relative to established production companies, because technology has reduced the economic barriers to entry. The informal video distribution space typified by YouTube will converge with the more formal spaces typified by movie theatres, DVD distribution, television, with all distribution migrating to the Internet. Just because they have access to the market, however, does not mean that indie moviemakers will succeed. They have to have good stories to tell, and they must tell them through effective use of the new technologies.
The combination of collapsing boundaries and reduced barriers to entry portend a more efficient and competitive industry, with a wider variety of choices for consumers. Large capital costs for productions, inherent in the full-motion video form, can be spread over more product lines. Immigration of artists and technologists from one industry category into others will shake up old ways of doing things and identify new possibilities, some of which will reduce capital requirements. This article, building on the ideas developed in this author's tetrology of articles exploring the future of popular music, [FN3] and his recent experience as a playwright and producer, [FN4] works through the stages of creating video *109 entertainment, describing traditional activities, highlighting technology changes important to each stage, identifying crossover trends, and analyzing the likely economic impact of embracing the new technologies.. The production chain for video entertainment begins with creation: the writing of a screenplay or the crystallization of a concept for a video game. Then the creative ideas must be translated into video form through a design and production stage: casting, planning, direction, principal photography, and post-production. For video games, this stage encompasses animation and coding. Next comes marketing and distribution. Consumption of the finished product follows. Technology has reduced the cost of almost every activity in these stages of production. Rapidly expanding Internet bandwidth, available to almost every home and business and spreading to wireless networks, expanding low-cost mass storage, and constantly increasing processing power open up new opportunities for the creation, production, distribution, and consumption of video entertainment while, at the same time undercutting desired returns on invested capital. More important, technology has opened up access to new channels. Hollywood and network television are not the only pathways to reach consumers with video entertainment. Now, creative expression can be communicated in video form through Internet sites such as YouTube, Vimeo, Hulu, Netflix, or Babelgum, downloaded directly from independent production company websites, or embedded in a video game. Parts II through V of the article address each of these stages of the supply chain, identifying crossover trends, and analyzing the likely economic impact of embracing the new technologies.
Recognizing that one of the greatest challenges for an Internet-centered environment for creation and distribution is filtering good quality work from all the noise, the article begins with well-understood, but often ignored, “rules” for good storytelling. [FN5] Video entertainment is, at its heart, about stories. Creating a good story is the easiest part, however. Few economic or financial barriers stand in a screenwriter's way: anyone can write a screenplay using inexpensive or free word processing software. The elements of a good story have remained the same since Aristotle's time. Technology modestly reduces the cost of crafting a good story by facilitating collaboration through simple exchange of drafts through email and through crowd sourcing. *110 Creativity and discipline separate the good from the bad, however-- not money or software or hardware gadgets. Bridging the gap between storyteller and mass audience involves video production and distribution. Design and production cost less because of the move to all-digital technology for capture and editing and the availability of video simulation technologies to create backgrounds and special effects. Marketing and distribution cost less and have a wider reach through social networking and other Internet-based “viral” promotion. Technology offers consumers a broader array of choices, now not only including movie theaters, broadcast and cable television, and DVD rentals, but also streaming and downloading through the Internet and wireless access on mobile devices.
The remainder of the article projects the video entertainment industry's new shape, in light of phenomena enabled by new technology and new business models to cover capital requirements and to provide an adequate rate of return. Part VI identifies serialization as one way to mitigate the capital costs of video production, as moviemakers build a fan base and a pool of potential investors with an initial, relatively low cost pilot episode, building a revenue stream over time by offering future episodes. It recalls that serialization has a long pedigree in popular culture, used by Charles Dickens to bring his novels within the reach of mass audiences. Part VI explores these possibilities, also explaining that, as many low-budget producers shift to serialization, the economic value of the creative effort is more in the characters than in the specific details of a single production. Accordingly, the copyright battleground will shift to protection of characters and basic story features, the foundation of serial episodes and sequels. When that occurs, the law will allocate freedom to build new video narratives on what has gone before between third parties, such as fan fiction writers, and the creators of the originals.
Part VII explains “crowd sourcing's” potential to draw in larger numbers of collaborators to the creative, production, distribution, marketing, and financing activities. As the scope of collaboration increases, the law of joint authorship becomes more important. Larger creative teams will put stress on default rules for apportioning ownership of intellectual property, and Part VII evaluates the legal possibilities. Part VIII evaluates new ways to raise capital and to generate revenue streams, exploring how restrictions on “public offerings” of “securities” may get in the way. As microfinance techniques for raising capital become more popular with moviemakers, securities law must adapt its protection for investors to the practical needs of those seeking capital. *111 The article predicts an environment in which established players build business models including the full set of distribution channels, one in which low-budget indie moviemakers [FN6] have more access to mass audiences and the prospect of earning a compensable return, mainly through serialization. It also predicts some shift in consumption to narrative video games, along with the possibility that unbundling of functions in videogame production may occur through open source software and crowd sourcing. As mainstream video migrates to the Internet, indie producers benefit: it makes their work more respectable and increases the likelihood that a consumer historically interested only in entertainment from well-established sources will encounter indie-produced content and like it.
The resulting market structure will be one in which consumers of video entertainment have far broader choices than they do today regarding creative sources and channels of distribution and consumption. It will be one in which a much larger number of artists have access to the market--if they are sufficiently entrepreneurial to get started on small budgets and to build an audience through new channels and intermediaries.
Consumers will not stop going to the movies or watching TV, but more of them will shift their consumption to new channels, especially movies viewable on fixed or mobile Internet connections and to stories that can be experienced as videogames. Far fewer of them will buy or rent DVDs. As consumers shift their consumption patterns, new opportunities will open up for new artists and producers who no longer need the embedded capital of established studios and networks linked to traditional channels of distribution and consumption. For this vision to become reality, the Internet must continue to embrace the principles of “net neutrality,” reviewed in Part IX. II. Creation Narrative-based video entertainment begins with a narrative. “[S]egments of the audience . . . [look] for stirring performances, complex storytelling, important themes and big emotions.” [FN7] The quality of the narrative determines the likelihood of success in the marketplace. Even when the starting point is an existing novel, stage-play, or movie, substantial creative effort in the form of *112 adaptation must take place. Effective adaptation requires attention to the same issues involved in creating a good story in the first place.
The platforms for adaptation and original authorship are expanding. Serious screen writers are experimenting with the videogame context for delivery of narrative. [FN8] Mafia II, for example, released by 2K Games in 2010, advertises its storytelling components. The story includes two hours of in-game cutscenes, based on a 700-page screenplay. [FN9]Steven Spielberg and other Hollywood figures have expressed enthusiasm for videogames as a narrative platform. [FN10] YouTube posters want to offer more professional videos. These new players are being drawn into submarkets for video entertainment.
Established movie production enterprises are well aware of the elements of effective narrative. Others, however, of increasing importance on the supply side of video entertainment, are just learning how to create compelling narrative. They include people who create short videos for display on Internet sites like YouTube and Vimeo. They also include game designers, as discussed more completely hereinafter. Because the effectiveness of narrative in new forms of video is important, it is worth reviewing the elements of narrative storytelling and analyzing their presence in some popular examples. The point of this analysis is not to take a position in the large and contentious field of literary criticism. Many artists and critics abhor the “formulaic” fiction that results from application of the elements presented in the following sections. For many, the very definition of art depends on the degree of departure from the traditional formulas. But everyone who is taken seriously in the video-entertainment industry knows what the formulas are. Even those who abhor adherence to them use them as reference points. Cultural differences also exist with respect to application of the formulas. My colleague, Lori Andrews reports, “I . . . took Robert McKee's course and he *113 explained the difference between American and French films this way. ‘In a French film, the first shot is of clouds. The second shot is of clouds. The third shot is of clouds. In an American movie, the first shot is of clouds. The second shot is of a 747 flying through the clouds. The third shot is of the 747 blowing up.”’ [FN11]
Top-list book fiction follows the formula; movies that follow the formula get funded. The technological revolution will change many aspects of design and production, marketing and distribution, and consumption patterns, but it will not change consumer affection for formulaic stories. The new technologies remove the barriers for unknown artists to get into the mainstream. Their most certain pathway [FN12] to mass audiences is to write from the formulas.
Whether one writes from the formulas or not, collaboration is an essential part of the creative process, seeking informal comments and conducting more formal workshops and readings of scripts, adapting screenplays as directors become involved, and, ideally making further changes suggested by cast members. Crowd sourcing, considered in § VII, offers possibilities for deepening collaboration at the creation stage. A. Narrative theory A story is “a detailed, character-based narration of a character's struggles to overcome obstacles and reach an important goal.” [FN13] As one experienced and respected Hollywood producer and screenwriter says: On occasion we read or see works of excellence, but for the most part we weary of . . . walking out of films soothing our disappointment with 'But it was beautifully photographed' . . . . Flawed and false storytelling is forced to substitute spectacle for substance, trickery for truth. Weak stories, desperate to hold audience attention, degenerate into multimillion-dollar razzle-dazzle demo reels . . . . For writers who can tell a quality story, it's a seller's market--always has been, always will be. [FN14] Literary critics have been trying to improve on what Aristotle had to say *114 about narrative 3,000 years ago, but have added little essential value. Aristotle asserted that good stories must have the following characteristics:
-Episodes must be (a) probable and (b) necessary. [FN17] -Surprise is necessary to stir emotions. [FN18] -Elements must include -Perepeteia, a change in direction -Recognition, e.g. from affection to enmity -Pathos: destruction or pain. [FN19] Good narrative must arouse fear or pity. [FN20] Pathos must involve people closely connected to either other but not to strangers or enemies. Characters must be: -Morally good
-Life-like -Consistent, in that their behavior reflects their traits. [FN21] -There must be a complication in each character's pursuit of his goals. [FN22] Twenty-first century writers and their teachers know that Aristotle was right about characters. The audience must be able to relate to the characters. That may involve identifying with them, loving them, hating them, or caring about what happens to them. Incorporating these principles into a story suggests the following “Scribean” [FN23]structure--the “story arc”: *115 -Exposition to introduce the character and the environment
-Identification of the character's goal or objective
-Identification of an obstacle that the character must overcome to achieve the goal
-One or more complications or obstacles -A crisis -Resolution (“denouement”) There are often multiple stories in a single narrative. Each has its own story arc. Exposition introduces the audience to the plot and the characters. Conflict must appear in the exposition and/or in the rising action and may be between one character and another, between a character and himself, or between a character and society or destiny. The rising action builds suspense leading to the climax. The climax is the point of highest tension, triggering the action in which a solution is found or doom approaches. The falling action after the climax in a tragedy shows the effects of the catastrophe. The denouement is the resolution of the story. It provides release for the audience. It follows the climax and the falling action and precedes the ending. In stories with a surprise ending, there may be no denouement. Lee Roddy offers the following template for teachers teaching creative writing to primary school students:
The first “O”: OBJECTIVE. The beginning introduces five necessary elements: (1) a changed Situation, (2) an affected and motivated main Character, (3) his Problem, (4) the Objective of solving the problem, and (5) a Decision to go for the tangible Objective, which ends the first part of the story.
*116 The second “O”: OBSTACLES. The middle of a story begins with the character taking the first action toward achieving the objective and promptly running into obstacles. The middle continues through the character's various efforts to overcome the obstacles until there is a crisis where it seems the character faces disaster and cannot possibly reach the objective. The middle part of a story ends on this high crisis.
The third “O”: OUTCOME. The ending part of a story starts with the character making a final desperate effort to overcome this ultimate obstacle to snatch victory from defeat, and to reach the objective. [FN24]
Roddy's first “O” corresponds to the exposition. His second “O” comprises the rising action and the climax. His third “O” comprises the falling action and the denouement.
TABULAR OR GRAPHIC MATERIAL SET FORTH AT THIS POINT IS NOT DISPLAYABLE
*117 Figure 1 illustrates the formula. The vertical Y axis represents the probability that the protagonist will achieve his goal. The horizontal X axis indicates minutes elapsed since the beginning of the movie. After the exposition, the rising action comprises three instances in which success appears likely, only to be undercut by an obstacle--perhaps the same obstacle, more often by a series of different obstacles. Then comes the crisis or climax, during most of which success appears nearly impossible, only to become nearly certain because of some trait of the character. The dénouement wraps things up, diminishing the success. These prescriptions for effective narrative are templates for good storytelling, not detailed blueprints for creation. Writing good narrative is art, not engineering. Each subplot and character has its own arc of exposition, complication, climax, and denouement. In effective narrative, these are intertwined and unfold at their own pace. In every case, characters must have goals and objectives that consumers can relate to, positively or negatively. They must confront obstacles that they must overcome if they are to realize their goals. The outcome must be in doubt--there must be suspense. Consumers must progressively be pulled into the story and the characters' lives as suspense builds. Some kind of resolution must occur or be promised in future episodes.Suspending resolution is, of course, the key to serialization or, more mundanely, the end of the chapter in a novel, a scene in a play, or a movie. Each episode in a serial and each of these transition points in longer works must leave enough matters unresolved that the audience cares about to induce them to watch the next episode, read the next chapter of a novel, or stay for the next act of a play (good manners keep theater goers in their seats for the next scene in an act).
Considerable opposition and disdain exists, of course, with respect to “formulaic fiction.” [FN25] Some of the most highly respected novels, movies, and plays do not honor the structure for storytelling sketched in this section. It also may be that the popularity of story-free YouTube videos proves that a robust segment of the public does not want traditional narrative structure. But most video entertainment does follow traditional prescriptions for effective storytelling, as do most best-selling novels. Consumers are comfortable when *118 they know what to expect. [FN26] It is analogous to the relationship between popular music--rock, folk, country--and highbrow Twentieth Century Music. Tonal harmony and Bach's concepts of counterpoint are not superior to Schoenberg's or Stravinski's, but tonal harmony is more popular. The thesis of this article is simply that indie moviemakers can expect to attract a broader audience for their work if they follow well-understood and well-recognized principles of story construction. Segments of video entertainment, such as most of YouTube and most videogames, that have not yet discovered narrative structure, will gain mainstream audiences as they embrace it. B. Hypothetical application
Imagine a narrative about a horserace. Exposition is necessary so that consumers know that it is a horserace, and become interested in a particular horse and its jockey. The goal may be obvious--to win the race--but it may also be unconventional and therefore more interesting--perhaps to avoid injury to the horse even though winning the race must be sacrificed in the process. Skipping directly from the exposition to the end would be unsatisfying; obstacles to achievement of the goal must appear: a strong challenge from another horse and jockey; impending injury to the horse. The challenge must increase in intensity and the protagonist must struggle to overcome it in multiple ways. This is the rising action. The climax occurs when the protagonist and the challenger are neck-and-neck approaching the finish line, or when the protagonist horse is obviously lame and its jockey must decide whether to abandon the race or to use the whip in the hope of winning despite the lameness. The falling action relates what happens after the climax is past--crowds and boyfriends cheering victory or showing disappointment at a loss. The denouement portrays the wreath of victory bestowed on the winning horse and jockey, or the lame horse nuzzling its jockey to express appreciation and love for his choice in sparing the horse further injury.
The horserace narrative might have subplots, of course, say a budding romance involving the jockey--or the horse--or an evildoer who causes the injury to the horse. The suspense of the rising action for these subplots and their climaxes might coincide with the rising action and climax for the major plot, or *119 they might diverge. Conventionally, however, the denouement must resolve every plot line that has been put in motion. C. Application in a well-known work: Bambi Analysis of Walt Disney's animated movie Bambi, an audiovisual work with a story that ends happily, reveals the sequential elements of narrative. In Bambi, the first forty-two minutes provide exposition. Bambi and his mother are introduced and his dependency on her shows in a variety of settings. The playfulness of Bambi with his animal friends, each of whom has a distinct personality, is highlighted. The dominant stag, “the Great Prince,” is introduced, along with Bambi's awe of him--“He stopped and looked at me,” Bambi says to his mother. [FN27] All of the characters are interesting appealing, and life-like caricatures of stereotypical species: owls, rabbits, birds, ducks, and frogs.
Play in the woods and meadow is interspersed toward the end of this section with warnings of danger by Bambi's mother, reinforced by two instances of Bambi and the Mother not being able to find each other. Tension builds as gunfire is heard and all the animals flee. [FN28] The Great Prince appears while Bambi is looking for his mother and says, “Your mother can't be with you anymore; come, my son.” [FN29] This part of the exposition identifies Bambi's objective and his major obstacle: to live a happy life without his mother.
The rising action begins as Spring comes again. [FN30] A teenage Bambi appears [FN31] (now with a set of antlers), comes across the owl, and reunites with somewhat older Thumper (the rabbit) and Flower (the skunk). They introduce him to the idea of romance. Bambi encounters Faline, the doe that he met during his childhood. [FN32] Bambi is at first shy, but then, he and Faline draw closer. Another young stag appears on the scene. [FN33] Bambi and the other young stag engage in a clumsy fight. [FN34] Bambi prevails and wins the girl. [FN35] Bambi and Faline romp around together. She kisses him. *120 They sleep together in their den in the winter or fall. Something wakes Bambi and he investigates, finding a human campfire. Background music suggests danger. The Great Prince appears and says, “It is man; we must go deep into the forest.” [FN36] Faline wakes up and misses Bambi. [FN37] She goes looking for him. Bambi returns and can't find Faline. Birds panic, fly, and get shot. All the other animals run, narrowly escaping gunshots. [FN38]
The rising action leads quickly to a prolonged climax. Hunting dogs see Faline and start chasing her. [FN39] She is cornered by the dogs and repeatedly calls for Bambi. Bambi arrives, attacks the dogs with hooves and antlers, and cries for Faline to run. The dogs pursue, but fall back in a rockslide.
Bambi is shot. [FN40] The campfire starts a forest fire, and all the animals flee the fire [FN41] The Great Prince approaches Bambi and says, “Get up! You must get up!” Bambi gets up, just ahead of the fire. [FN42] Bambi and the Great Prince try to escape, but the fire blocks their way multiple times; burning trees fall, narrowly missing them. They jump down a waterfall to escape the biggest burning tree. [FN43] We do not know what happens to them. While the animals nurse their wounded, Faline looks for Bambi. The falling action shows Bambi and the Great Prince swimming up to where Faline is standing, and Bambi is reunited with Faline [FN44] Sunlight emerges in the forest. Thumper wakes up the owl. “It's happened,” the other animals say to each other and to the owl. The animals rush together to some destination--presumably to where “it happened.” [FN45] Faline has two fawns. [FN46]
In the denouement, Bambi and the Great Prince look down from the top of a cliff; the Great Prince leaves Bambi to survey his entire domain with pride. [FN47]