Professor Richard Selfe has developed a useful project assignment that can be adapted for the multimedia essay form and that can serve as a model for planning other topical approaches.
Write a technology autobiography that tells the story of the multiple roles that technology has played in your life. For the first draft, compose your autobiography as a narrative essay. (See the Questions to Consider, below.) For the final draft, make your autobiography a multimedia essay, consulting the project checklist in 32c (“30 Questions for Planning Multimedia Projects”) and documenting your work using the tools outlined below: Storyboarding, Assets List, Project Log, and Design Notes or Protocol Sheet.
An autobiography tells the story of a person's life from the perspective of the person who lived it. A technology autobiography tells the story of a life with technology: the memorable experiences with and uses of technology throughout a person’s life. Some writers focus on a particular kind of technology (writing technologies, household technologies, media technologies, computer technologies, or gaming technologies, for example). Autobiographies are normally written from the first-person point of view and depict specific instances or stories that illustrate the writer's experiences, usually to make a point about them or to show how the author learned from them.
Questions to Consider
As you plan the essay, you can jot down your thoughts about your life with technology. Here are some questions to help you discover what you have to say. In your essay, make sure you don't simply answer each question in succession without providing a thread or controlling idea in your narrative.
Memory: What childhood experiences with technological devices or artifacts do you remember? What do you recall about your earliest use of technologies? Were they positive or negative experiences? What stories do your parents tell about your interactions with technology? What were the popular gadgets in your household when you were young? Did you have access to the technologies you wanted to use? Who made sure that everything worked? How often did the technologies fail?
Literacy: Who is the most "technologically literate" person you know? What makes his or her relationship with technology unique? What behaviors or characteristics does he or she exhibit? What have you learned about your own uses of technology from him or her?
Social Consequences: Are there social consequences for your lifestyle that hinge on your technological literacy? What are they? How would your relationships with others be affected if you suddenly had no access to technology?
The Future: What do you think will be required ten years from now to be technologically literate? What positive or negative trends in technological development do you see unfolding? How do you think they will affect you?
Learning: How do you learn new technologies? Among your friends, are you considered an "early adopter," a "late adopter," or somewhere between?
Access: What technologies do you carry with you? Which ones do you have where you do most of your writing? What new technologies do you want to own? How will you use them?
Think of your readers as your peers, people who likely have some similar experiences with technology. It will help your audience to know what experiences you've had. Most people find that they are not alone in having confronted the complex demands of technology.
The technology autobiography gives you a chance to reflect on your relationship to technology. To take advantage of new technologies and learn to use them critically and effectively, you should understand how technology has shaped your life this far, with an eye for controlling its use in your future. The process is designed to help you understand how you learn new technologies, and by extension, how you cope with technological impasses (those moments when things don't work as planned). Understanding your past experience with technology will help you become a better multimedia writer, as you will bring a critical eye to bear on the opportunities and challenges of writing in the new media.
Casandra Riddle composed a narrative essay entitled “Well, I’m Using a Computer . . .” She later repurposed (converted) the essay, transforming the printed work into an electronic comic book. You can read her narrative essay below, and read her comic book at ADD LOCATION OF HER ELECTRONIC COMIC BOOK HERE.
November 12, 2005
Well, I’m Using a Computer…
From the time I was pushed out of my mother’s womb, I was bombarded by
technology. This was 1985, so I wasn’t handed an iPod and John Deere Ride-On
lawnmower upon my arrival, as is the case these days. I was, however, smacked into a
blanket in a well-lit room, thrown in a nursery, and videotaped by my proud grandpa.
Nineteen years later, I’m still lacking the iPod and a lawnmower of my own.
When my eight pound, six ounce self was finally released from the nursery,
cameras flashed and doors magically swung open. I was carried lovingly into a car,
strapped down, and carefully driven to what would be my home, which, for the record,
smelled like microwaved peas. I was tossed into a crib where I stared blankly at a battery-operated mobile that played a charming rendition of “Pop Goes the Weasel” ad infinitum.
I was kept well-fed, thanks to mechanically produced soy formula, and bathed regularly
in thermometer-tested water.
For the next four years, technology in my life remained stable. I watched classic
80’s TV, ranging from the animated Gem and the Holograms, to the classic children’s
staple Mr. Rodger’s Neighborhood. I was particularly fond of Get Smart reruns. Then, it
I had to go to the hospital.
I was…rambunctious as a tyke. I had a genuine affinity for running, in socks, on
slippery hard wood floors. One day, while chasing a pink ball across a room, I slipped
doctor adept enough to address my impending blindness.
Overall, it would seem that technology and I have had a mixed relationship. I
adore it, but I’m horrible at it. I’ve managed to survive so far, and I’m even becoming
amicable with the toaster that sits in my dorm room. I enjoy the benefits that technology
has brought into my life. Without it, I would certainly have no eyesight. I appreciate that
technology has advanced enough to keep me seeing clearly enough to know what I’m
doing and what is around me. Surely everyone must have their version of the toaster. I
can’t figure out how to get that golden brown, crunchy texture, but I’ll bet even the most
proficient person has their troubles. Maybe for them, it’s the electric can opener. I’m still
waiting for my iPod and lawn mower…and by the time I get them, I’ll be ready for
anything technology can hand me.
Planning and Documenting Your Multimedia Essay
In addition to responding to the project checklist in 32c, you should also take a few more steps as you begin your multimedia essay. As you work, it will be important to keep design notes or a project log so that you will have an informative record of the choices you make regarding fonts, color palettes, stylesheets, image sizes and sources, and audio clips.
Storyboard Your Project
It can be helpful to think of a multimedia essay as an unfolding sequence of events, like a film, and to plan each component or scene in some detail before you get too far into the project. Film directors and Web developers use "storyboards" to outline their projects in advance. Storyboards then help keep the project on track and the goals in sight.You will probably revise them as your project develops. Good storyboards make reference to the textual, visual, design, and audio content of your essay.
Five Steps of Storyboarding
Find or create a storyboard template that you can use to draft your outline, like the one shown below.
Each frame of your storyboard should represent a unique page, a step in a sequence, or some other individual component of your work (such as a PowerPoint or Keynote slide, a keyframe in Flash, or a Web page).
In each frame, identify your content (including images and audio). Use shorthand to describe the content and approximately where it should be placed.
Add notes to each frame in your storyboard on design, source files or material, and anything else that will help you remember what each frame should contain and how it should be presented.
When you have completed a rough draft of your storyboard, read back through it to see if it has an order that makes sense and that includes the multimedia you want to use. Move frames around as necessary.
You can also find a free and useful planning and storyboarding tool called Denim, created by the Group for User Interface Research at Berkeley: http://guir.berkeley.edu/projects/denim/
An assets list itemizes all the textual, visual, and audio content that you might use in your multimedia essay. Assets lists can help you avoid wasting time later looking for or producing content for your project. Very often, writers get bogged down in the middle of composing a multimedia project because they haven’t collected their assets before they begin and thus sometimes, in the heat of the moment, make poor choices about what multimedia content to include.
In the beginning, use your asset list to identify what you want. When the list is complete, you can make sure you have all the assets. Don’t waste time looking for images to use as you are completing your project; it’s easy to get sidetracked when you acquire assets in mid-process. If you know in the beginning, after completing your storyboard, that you want to use some bird images (say, of peacocks) in your essay, then you should put "5 peacock images" on your assets list. You might need only one, but chances are you won't know exactly which one to use until you compose your essay. So get five from the start (for example, from a collection of stock photography on the Internet) so that you don't narrow your options too early. Or, for example, if you want to create a Flash interface on a Web page, you might list "3 Flash navigation bars" on your assets list, then find three templates that you can use for creating one (packaged with Flash, for example, or available on the Macromedia website or at one of the many Flash resource sites on the Internet).
Sample Assets List This assets list was generated for a multimedia essay, "It's Dynamix, Dad" by Chris McKibbin.
Sample Assets List for a Multimedia Essay
Writer: Chris McKibbin
Project Title: “It’s Dynamix, Dad”
Last Update: May 5, 2004
Paragraph introducing multimedia essay
Paragraph on education
Definition of “unique”
Paragraph on literacy
Paragraph on technologies
Paragraph on work experience
9 navigation images for header (start, early, etc.)
9 navigation images for rollovers in header ([start],[early], etc.)
1 title image for header (It’s Dynamix, Dad”)
1 image of high school building
1 image of home
3 images of book covers
1 image of me
5 digital images of my dad from the time when I was ten-years-old
5 digital images of my childhood home
1 flash movie (bookcovers.swf)
Keep a Project Log to Document Your Work
As you work on your project, keep a running log of the decisions you make about particular images you will use (including resolution, file name and format, and source), design elements and color palette (each color will have a unique number associated with it, for example, in RGB format), and the citation information for any quotations or other copyrighted material you use. A project log will be useful for preparing your design notes, works cited, and protocol sheets—each of which is an important component in the final delivery or publication of your multimedia essay. Identifying file types, resolution, sources, and more will be very time-consuming if you wait until after you have completed your project. Project logs will also be important when it comes time to repurpose your content.
Project Title: “It’s Dynamix, Dad”
Last Update: May 5, 2004
Macromedia Fireworks MX
Macromedia Fireworks MX
Macromedia Fireworks MX
Definition of unique
Sample: Screenshot of McKibben’s Title Page
Write Design Notes or Protocol Sheets
Design notes are useful for documenting in summary fashion what the project log contains. They are especially important when projects involve multiple people and an extended period of time. Design notes provide explicit information about the nature of the media (website, type of paper, CD, etc.), about templates or style guidelines, and about fonts and color palettes. Here’s an example.
Rubric for Design Notes on a Web-Based Multimedia Essay