Testing l2 vocabulary recognition and recall using pictorial and written test items linda Jones University of Arkansas abstract



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CONCLUSION

One limitation of this research is that it included two different studies with two different groups. Originally, these studies explored unrelated questions but once analyzed, the findings in terms of the influence of annotation types and testing modes on students' incidental vocabulary learning warranted a joint report. Further comparative analyses to determine the impact of pictorial and written annotations on pictorial and written testing modes was not possible since the two studies involved different subjects. An additional limitation is that both studies focused on a between-subjects design. A within-subjects examination may show how choice of annotation types affects students' performance on different vocabulary tests. Additional research should also consider the ordering of the tests. In Study 1, the pictorial recognition test was always administered before the written recognition test. Future examination using these two tests could be strengthened by counterbalancing their order.

These studies offer several implications for language teaching and multimedia design. They add to the growing body of literature on the beneficial effects of annotations on L2 vocabulary recognition and recall. The ability to review information more than once reinforces learning (Chun & Plass, 1996), and since students rely on different modalities to learn efficiently in different ways (Ehrman, Leaver, & Oxford, 2003; Oxford & Ehrman, 1995; Plass et al., 1998; Reinert, 1976), providing them with an opportunity to choose the mode of information they prefer may help them better learn the vocabulary presented. Multimedia environments that provide both pictorial and written modes of keyword information may be most effective for learning because the students can choose the mode that best suits their needs and learning preferences (Plass et al., 1998).

Future research is needed to examine issues related to the outcomes of these studies. For example, a more comparative approach to examining the connection between testing mode and annotation mode seems warranted. Further study is also needed to address the issues of cognitive load and the role it may play in long term memory for vocabulary when students access both pictorial and written annotations. Future study should also examine the recall of vocabulary in an aural mode rather than a written mode to determine how well aural L2 vocabulary comprehension is developed in an aural multimedia environment. And finally, to address vocabulary acquisition, researchers should examine students' ability to produce newly acquired vocabulary in a more challenging communicative context.

APPENDIX A
Text of Listening Comprehension Passage


LaSalle Meets the Quapaws (1682)

On fit traverser les canots sur la gauche à une pointe de sable. On se retranche le mieux que l'on peut avec des petits bois de tremble, qu'on coupa, dont on fit des palissades. La brume se cessa, et l'on vit un canot de Sauvages venir à nous …. Mais voyant qu'on ne leur en tirait point, ils s'en retournèrent chercher dire que c'étaient des gens de paix. Ils revinrent 6 sans armes avec le calumet de paix faisant signe qu'on vienne à leurs habitations. Ils présentèrent à fumer à M. de LaSalle et à tous ceux qui étaient autour de lui disant toujours qu'on s'embarque …. Le lendemain les guerriers et la jeunesse dansèrent le calumet. C'est de s'assembler tous sur la place. Les guerriers mettent leur présents sur des perches comme quand on veut faire sécher du linge. Ils apportent deux grands calumets enjolivés de plumes de toutes couleurs et pleins de cheveux de leurs ennemis. Ils mettent tout cela entre les mains de leurs chefs qui sont assis sur leurs culs et arrangés autour de la place. Ils ont tous des gourdes pleines de cailloux et des tambours qui sont des pots de terre. Ils commencent une chanson qu'ils accompagnent du bruit de leurs instruments. Les guerriers qui ont fait de belles actions vont danser et frapper un poteau avec leurs casse-tête et disent les belles actions qu'ils ont faites …. cependant les chefs fument, l'un après l'autre dans les calumets, et chacun le présentait à M. de LaSalle et à tous ceux dans la compagnie. Après, ils le prirent et le placèrent au milieu de la place, dansant tous autour de lui au son des instruments et chansons, chacun lui mettant sur le corps son présent qui étaient des peaux de boeufs qui ont de la laine comme nos moutons d'Europe. Si les Français ne l'avaient pas déchargé à mesure de ses peaux, ils l'auraient étouffé sous leurs présents. Il leur fit à son tour présents de haches, couteaux, et rassades.

APPENDIX B

Examples of 10 Images Used in the Pictorially-Based Treatments of Both Study 1 and Study 2

déchargé


enjolivés


étouffé


sans armes


bois


le calumet


la brume


paix


des rassades


des cailloux


APPENDIX C
Dependent Measures for Study 1 (Pictorial and Written Vocabulary Recognition Tests)

Name: ______________________


Written Vocabulary Recognition Test

In this activity, please select the English translation for the word given in French. If you do not know the correct response, leave it blank. You have 8 minutes to complete this exercise.

1. des rassades

6. la brume

11. casse-tête

16. enjolivés

21. des bois

a. poles
b. cards
c. arrows
d. beads
e. shells
f. nails

a. fog
b. clouds
c. rain
d. shells
e. water
f. greeting

a. hair

b. club


c. arrow

d. pole


e. pipe

f. hatchet



a. decorated

b. ugly


c. plain

d. loud


e. noisy

f. rich


a. trees

b. bodies

c. beads

d. chiefs

e. pipes

f. gourds



2. des canots

7. des perches

12. des cailloux

17. peaux de boeufs

22. culs

a. arrows
b. canoes
c. pipes
d. swords
e. canons
f. shells

a. fish
b. pipes
c. plazas
d. presents
e. poles
f. cards

a. poles

b. cards


c. pebbles

d. backsides

e. shells

f. sheep


a. pears

b. skins


c. sheep

d. pigs


e. paddles

f. canoes



a. poles

b. arrows

c. hatchets

d. chiefs

e. backsides

f. sheep


3. des haches

8. la laine

13. sans armes

18. le calumet

23. s'assembler

a. knives
b. poles
c. beads
d. helmets
e. hatchets
f. gourds

a. pole
b. card
c. arrow
d. bead
e. shell
f. wool

a. unarmed

b. angry


c. tired

d. helpful

e. worried

f. artful



a. pole

b. post


c. pipe

d. hatchet

e. knife

f. bead


a. smoke

b. assemble

c. sit

d. dance


e. share

f. smoke


4. sable

9. paix

14. les guerriers

19. un poteau

24. se retranche

a. sabers
b. sand
c. swords
d. sheep
e. beads
f. knives

a. peace

b. power


c. armed

d. pipe


e. canoe

f. pole

a. warriors

b. chiefs

c. pipes

d. arrows

e. canoes

f. turkeys


a. post

b. card


c. bead

d. pot


e. drum

f. pipe


a. surround

b. retrain

c. share

d. provide

e. offer

f. smoke


5. étouffé

10. les moutons

15. des gourdes

20. fument

25. déchargé

a. discarded
b. suffocated
c. waved
d. helped
e. greeted
f. offered

a. bullets

b. tables

c. arrows

d. beef


e. shells

f. sheep


a. backsides

b. drums


c. gourds

d. grapes

e. pipes

f. knives



a. anger

b. smear


c. shoot

d. smoke


e. trade

f. give


a. weakened

b. offered

c. smoked

d. removed

e. danced

f. played





Name: ______________________

Pictorial Vocabulary Recognition Test Answer Sheet

1. ____

2. ____


3. ____

4. ____


5. ____

6. ____


7. ____

8. ____


9. ____

10. ____


11. ____

12. ____


13. ____

14. ____


15. ____

16. ____


17. ____

18. ____

19. ____

20. ____


21. ____

22. ____


23. ____

24. ____


25. ____


Name: ______________________

Pictorial Vocabulary Recognition Test

In this activity, please select the image that represents the word given in French. Write the letter that represents your answer on the answer sheet provided. If you do not know a word at all, leave it blank. You have 8 minutes to complete this test.

[Sample of three questions.]



1. déchargé

A.


B.


C.


D.


E.


2. étouffé

A.


B.

C.


D.


E.


3. sans armes

A.


B.


C.


D.


E.


APPENDIX D
Dependent Measures for Study 2 (Written Vocabulary Production Test)



Name: ______________________

Written Vocabulary Production Test

In this activity, please provide the English translation for the word given in French. If you do not know the response at all, leave it blank. You have 8 minutes to complete this test.

1. des rassades ____________________

2. des canots ____________________

3. des haches ____________________

4. sable ____________________

5. étouffé ____________________

6. la brume ____________________

7. des perches ____________________

8. la laine ____________________

9. paix ____________________

10. les moutons ____________________

11. casse-tête ____________________

12. des cailloux ____________________





13. sans armes ____________________

14. les guerriers ___________________

15. des gourdes ____________________

16. enjolivés ____________________

17. peaux de boeufs ________________

18. le calumet ____________________

19. un poteau ____________________

20. fument ____________________

21. des bois ____________________

22. culs ____________________

23. s'assembler ____________________

24. se retranche ___________________

25. déchargé _____________________



ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Linda Jones is Assistant Professor of Instructional Technology and Director of the Language Learning Center at the University of Arkansas. Her principal interests include multimedia design theory and L2 learning, and instructing graduate students in the appropriate use of instructional system design strategies when developing L2 video and Web-based materials.

E-mail: lcjones@uark.edu

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