Text-Based Answers Nelson, Kadir. We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball. New York: Jump at the Sun, 2008. (2008) From “4th Inning: Racket Ball: Negro League Owners”

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Nelson, Kadir. We Are the Ship: The Story of Negro League Baseball. New York: Jump at the Sun, 2008. (2008)

From “4th Inning: Racket Ball: Negro League Owners”

Most of the owners didn’t make much money from their teams. Baseball was just a hobby for them, a way to make their illegal money look good. To save money, each team would only carry fifteen or sixteen players. The major league teams each carried about twenty-five. Average salary for each player started at roughly $125 per month back in ‘34, and went up to $500-$800 during the forties, though there were some who made much more than that, like Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson. The average major league player’s salary back then was $7,000 per month. We also got around fifty cents to a dollar per day for food allowance. Back then you could get a decent meal for about twenty-five cents to seventy-five cents.

Some of the owners didn’t treat their players very well. Didn’t pay them enough or on time. That’s why we would jump from team to team. Other owners would offer us more money, and we would leave our teams and go play for them. We were some of the first unrestricted free agents.

There were, however, a few owners who did know how to treat their ballplayers. Cum Posey was one of them. He always took care of his ballplayers, put them in the best hotels, and paid them well and on time. Buck Leonard said Posey never missed a payday in the seventeen years he played for the Grays.

Paragraph 1

Negro League

Major League


Didn't make much money

Just a hobby

Made illegal money look good


15-16 players

25 players


$125 in 1934

$500-800 in the 1940's

50 cents - $1.00 for food


Famous players

Satchel Paige & Josh Gibson

Made more than average salary

Main idea of paragraph 1

The players in the Negro league were not treated as well as the white players in the major league by the owners.

Paragraph 2

Negro Leagues

Major Leagues


Didn't treat players very well

Didn't pay them enough or on time

Offer more money to players on other teams


Jump from team to team

Were some of the first unrestricted free agents

(must not have been free to change teams)

Main idea of paragraph 2

Some of the owners took advantage of the poor treatment by other owners and competed for the Negro League players. So, black players were some of the first free agents in sports.

Paragraph 3

Negro Leagues

Major Leagues

Cum Posey & a few other owners

Took care of his ballplayers

Put them in the best hotels

Paid them well and on time

Never missed a payday in 17 years


Buck Leonard played for the Grays for 17 years

Main idea of paragraph 1

A few Negro League owners were exceptions and treated the black players well, and players thought highly of them.

Grades K- 1
Garden Helpers.” National Geographic Young Explorers September 2009. (2009)

Not all bugs and worms are pests.

Some help your garden grow.
Earthworms make soil rich and healthy.

This helps plants grow strong!

A ladybug eats small bugs.

The bugs can’t eat the plants.

This keeps your garden safe.
A praying mantis eats any bug it can catch.

Not many bugs can get past this quick hunter!

This spider catches bugs in its sticky web.

It keeps bugs away from your garden.

Copyright © 2009 National Geographic. Used by permission.

Grades 2 – 3

Thomson, Sarah L. Where Do Polar Bears Live? Illustrated by Jason Chin. New York: HarperCollins, 2010. (2010)

This island is covered with snow. No trees grow. Nothing has green leaves. The land is white as far as you can see.

Then something small and round and black pokes up out of the snow.

A black nose sniffs the air. Then a smooth white head appears. A mother polar bear heaves herself out of her den.

A cub scrambles after her.

When the cub was born four months ago, he was no bigger than a guinea pig. Blind and helpless, he snuggled in his mother’s fur. He drank her milk and grew, safe from the long Arctic winter.

Outside the den, on some days, it was fifty degrees below zero. From October to February, the sun never rose.

Now it is spring—even though snow still covers the land. The cub is about the size of a cocker spaniel. He’s ready to leave the den. For the first time, he sees bright sunlight and feels the wind ruffle his fur.

The cub tumbles and slides down icy hills. His play makes him strong and teaches him to walk and run in snow.

Like his mother, he cub is built to survive in the Arctic. Hi white fur will grow to be six inches thick—longer than your hand. The skin beneath the cub’s fur is black. It soaks up the heat of the sun. Under the skin is a layer of fat. Like a snug blanket, this blubber keeps in the heat of the bear’s body.

Polar bears get too hot more easily than they get too cold. They stretch out on the ice to cool off.

Used by permission of HarperCollins Publishers.

Grades 4 – 5

Hakim, Joy. A History of US. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. (2005)

From Book 1: The First Americans, Prehistory to 1600; Chapter 7: “The Show-Offs”

In case you forgot, you’re still in that time-and-space capsule, but you’re not a baby anymore. You’re 10 years old and able to work the controls yourself. So get going; we want to head northwest, to the very edge of the land, to the region that will be the states of Washington and Oregon. The time? We were in the 13th century; let’s try the 14th century for this visit.

Life is easy for the Indians here in the Northwest near the great ocean. They are affluent (AF-flew-ent –it means “wealthy”) Americans. For them the world is bountiful: the rivers hold salmon and sturgeon; the ocean is full of seals, whales, fish, and shellfish; the woods are swarming with game animals. And there are berries and nuts and wild roots to be gathered. They are not farmers. They don’t need to farm.

Those Americans go to sea in giant canoes; some are 60 feet long. (How long is your bedroom? Your schoolroom?) Using stone tools and fire, Indians of the Northwest cut down gigantic fir trees and hollow out the logs to make their boats. The trees tower 200 feet and are 10 feet across at the base. There are so many of them, so close together, with a tangle of undergrowth, that it is sometimes hard for hunters to get through the forest. Tall as these trees are, there are not as big as the redwoods that grow in a vast forest to the south (in the land that will become California).

Module 1: Common Core Instruction for ELA & Literacy

Session 5: Text-based Answers K – 5 Teachers Oregon Department of Education

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