The Fourth Age of the World 190. On the 15th day of the 1st month (Tuesday, May 5th) at midnight, the firstborn of all Egypt were slain. Pharaoh and his servants, quickly sent away the Israelites with all their goods and the plunder which they had received from the Egyptians. Ex 12:33,35,36 It was exactly 430 years from the first pilgrimage of Abraham's departure from Canaan, to the day they were set free from bondage. The day after the Passover, they journeyed toward Ramesses with about 600,000 men, besides women and children. Ex 12:29 31,37,41,51 Nu 33:3 From that place the camps are recorded by Moses. From the Hebrew meanings of the words, Jerome, in writing to Fabiola, expounds symbolically, in his Treatise of their 42 camps. I suppose the first camp to be at Ramesses. Thus then:
1. At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Joseph, Ge 47:11, they all met who either dwelt among the Egyptians Ex 3:2 or who at that time were scattered over all Egypt to gather stubble. Ex 5:12
2. At Succoth, Moses first declared to them the commandments of God for the yearly keeping of the Passover and the sanctifying of the firstborn. Ex 13:1 22
3. At Etham, in the border of the wilderness, the Lord led them with a pillar of a cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. Ex 13:20,21
4. At Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baalzephon, Pharaoh, with his host overtook them. Here Moses divided the waters with his rod and they passed through the midst of the Trythraean, or Red Sea into the desert of Etham. When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they were all drowned when the waters came together again. At dawn, the Israelites were completely freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose bodies they saw floating all over the sea and cast up on the shore. Ex 14:26 30 They sang a song of praise and thanksgiving to God, for their deliverance. Ex 15:22 This song Re 15:3 is called the Song of Moses and is the first song of deliverance by the Hebrews. This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened bread, as appointed by God. This is the general opinion of the Jews and most agreeable to truth. From there they marched three whole days through the wilderness of Etham, from Tuesday the 22nd to Thursday the 24th and they found no water all the way. Ex 15:22 Nu 33:8
5. At Marah, named from its bitter waters, the people which had gone without water three whole days, began to murmur. Moses threw into the water a piece of wood and made them drinkable. This taught the people in time to come to put their trust in God, Ex 15:23,26
6. At Elim were 12 fountains of water and 70 palm trees. They camped by the side of those fountains. Ex 15:27 Nu 33:9
7. This camp was by the Red Sea. Nu 33:10
191. Now we come to the second month.
8. Upon the 15th, (Thursday, June 4th) the Israelites came to the place of their eighth camp in the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. Being hungry they murmured against God and their leaders. About evening, God sent them quails and the next morning rained on them manna from heaven. They lived on manna for 40 years, until they entered the land of promise. Ex 16:1 35
9. They camped at Dophkah.
10. They camped at Alush.
11. At Rephidim the people murmured again because of thirst. (This place was called Meribah and Massa.) Moses gave them water by striking the hard rock with his rod. Ex 17:1,7 This Rock followed them throughout the wilderness. Ps 78:16,20 105:41 1Co 10:4 De 8:15 The Amalekites attacked the rear of the Israelites who were all weary and tired from their long journey in the wilderness. Theilled some of the stragglers and weakest of them. Moses sent out to fight with them Jehosua or Joshua the son of Nun his servant. Ex 33:11 His proper name was Hosea but Moses changed it to Jehosuah. Nu 13:16 or Jesus. Na 8:17 Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8 Joshua fought and defeated the Amalekites in Rephidim while Moses prayed on top of the hill. The people were commanded by God to utterly destroy and root out that whole nation. For a memorial of this battle they built an altar there. De 25:17 19 Ex 17:8 16
192. The third month.
12. In the Desert of Sinai, the Israelites camped opposite Horeb and stayed there almost a whole year. They left the wilderness of Sinai, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, of the 2nd year after coming out of the land of Egypt. Nu 10:11,12 They came here on the same day of the 3rd month, of the 1st year, after coming out of Egypt. This was on the third day of the third month (Monday, June 22nd) according to Fr. Ribera, l. 5. de Templo. Ex 19:1
193. When Moses went up into the mount, God declared to him that he would renew his covenant with the Israelites. He would bind them to himself by a law and that he would favour and love all those who would observe and keep that law. This they readily agreed to. God gave them two days to prepare and sanctify themselves to receive that law. He forbid all except Moses and Aaron to approach the mount. Afterward in great majesty God came down to the mount as they all watched and trembled at the sight. Ex 19:1 25
194. God proclaimed his law as contained in the ten commandments with a terrible voice. Ex 20:1 26 De 5:1 33 This did not make void the promise of grace made to Abraham 430 years before.Ga 3:17
195. The people were terrified as God gave them many other laws. Ex 20:21 23 De 4:13,14 These were written in the book of the covenant Moses gave to the people. After this Moses rose early in the morning and he built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He set up 12 pillars according to the 12 tribes of Israel. He sent 12 young men of the firstborn (as the Chaldee paraphrases it) whom the Lord had consecrated to himself Ex 24:4 Nu 3:13 8:16,17 to be ministers of those holy things. Ex 19:22 This was before the Levitical priesthood was ordained. These men offered sacrifices, first for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord. Moses read the book of the covenant to the people which contained the commandments found in Ex 20:1 23:33. He then took the blood of the calves and goats that were offered and with water scarlet wool and hyssop, he sprinkled the book as well as 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel. This ratified that solemn covenant between God and his people. Ex 24:3 8 Heb 9:19,20
196. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and 70 men of the elders of Israel, went up into the mount and there beheld the glory of God. When the rest returned, Moses, with his servant Joshua, stayed there for six more days. On the seventh day God spoke to Moses and he continued there 40 days and 40 nights Ex 24:9 18 This time includes those six days which he spent waiting for the Lord. During this time, he ate no meat nor drank water. De 9:9 He received God's commands concerning the construction of the tabernacle, the priests garments, their consecration, sacrifices and other things as related in Ex 25:1 Ex 31:18.
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197. The fourth month.
198. When those 40 days and 40 nights were over, God gave Moses the two tables of the law in stone written by God's own finger. Ex 31:18 De 9:10,11 God ordered him to go down quickly, for the people had already made a molten calf to worship. Moses by prayer pacified God and went down from the mount. When he saw the people keeping a festival in honour of their idol in the camp, he broke the tables of the law at the foot of the mount. Ever since this, the Jews keep a solemn fast to this day on the 14th day of the 4th month. This has led some men into the error that the 40 days of Moses in the mount, are to be started from the day immediately following the giving of the ten commandments. Thus omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in writing and reading the book of the covenant and sanctifying the covenant made between God and his people with solemn rites and ceremonies. Ex 24:1 18
199. Moses burnt and defaced the idol and the Levites killed 3,000 of the people. Ex 32:20 29 De 9:21 33:9
200. The next day Moses returned again into the mount and there again entreated the Lord for the people. Ex 32:30 32
201. He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous apparel and to set up the tent of the congregation outside the camp. This tent was used until the tabernacle was built by Bezaleel. The people out of a deep sense of God's wrath, repented of their sins. Moses prayed that God himself should be their guide and leader in their way and not an angel. This prayer was heard. Ex 33 1 23
202. God commanded Moses to get new tables of stone and to bring them with him into the mount the next day. Moses brought them the next morning. When Moses stood in the cleft of a rock, God passed by and showed him a glimpse of his glory. Ex 34:1 35
203. Again Moses stayed another 40 days and 40 nights in the mount without meat or drink and prayed for the people. De 9:18 10:10 God was appeased and renewed his covenant with the people with certain conditions. He gave his laws again and told Moses to write them down. Again, God himself wrote the ten commandments in the tables which Moses brought to him. Ex 34:10 28
204. The sixth month.
205. After 40 days, Moses returned from the mount with the tables in his hand. Because his face shone, he covered it with a veil. He proclaimed the laws of God to the people, ordering the observation of the Sabbath. He asked for a free will offering to be made toward the building of the tabernacle. Ex 34:1 35:35
206. So that this offering could be done in an orderly manner, all males were numbered from 20 years old and upward and they were found to be 603,550. According to the law prescribed by God, Ex 30:12,13 each contributed half a shekel. The total sum amounted to 100 talents of silver and 1775 shekels Ex 38:25,26. Hence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jews, amounted to 3000 shekels: every pound containing 60 shekels. Eze 45:12. In addition to this pole tax, from the voluntary offering was the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekels; and of brass, 70 talents and 2400 shekels. Ex 38:24,29 As for other materials needed for the tabernacle, there came in more than enough and the people were commanded to stop giving! Ex 36:5 7
207. Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen of the tabernacle. Ex 31:2 6 35:30 35
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208. In the first six months of this year the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altar, the table of shewbread, the priest's garments, the holy ointments, the candle sticks and other utensils and vessels belonging to the sacrifices, were finished in the desert at Mount Sinai and were brought to Moses. Ex 36:1 39:43
209. God commanded Moses to:
1. On the first day of the second month he should set up the tabernacle and furnish it with all things belonging to it.Ex 4:2,8
2. He should anoint them with holy oil and should consecrate Aaron and his sons for the priesthood, Ex 9:15
210. He did this but not both activities the same time. For upon the very day God appointed, he erected the tabernacle, with all things belonging to it. Ex 40:17,33 The second command he performed later at a time appointed by God. Le 8:1 13 It took seven days for the consecration of the priests and altar. Ex 29:35 37
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211. On the first day of the first month (Wednesday, April 21st) of the second year after they left Egypt, the tabernacle of the covenant was set up and filled with the glory of God. Ex 40:2,17,34 From it God uttered his will and commandments to Moses. These are recorded in the first 7 chapters of Leviticus. In the same year and first month, the Israelites, as commanded by God, celebrated the Passover at the evening of the 14th day. (Tuesday, May 4th) On this day some of the people complained to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the passover with the rest of the congregation on the appointed day because they were unclean from touching a dead body. God made a law that all such persons should keep their passover on the 14th day of the second month if they could not keep it on the day first appointed. Nu 9:1,14
212. On the first day of the second month (Friday, May 21st) God commanded Moses to take the number of all the males of the children of Israel from 20 years old to 60 by their tribes, except the Levites. He appointed the Levites for the service of the tabernacle and assigned the responsibilities for setting it up, taking it down and moving and carrying it from place to place. Nu 1:1 26:64
213. The census came to 603,550 Nu 10:1,46 the same number as 7 months earlier, when they were taxed for a contribution to the building of the tabernacle. Ex 38:26
214. Moses, according to God's command, Ex 29:37 30:22,30 40:9,25 anointed the tabernacle and the altar with all things in it with the holy oil, consecrating them to the Lord. He also consecrated Aaron and his four sons with the same oil and with rites and ceremonies necessary for the execution of the priestly office. He commanded them not to stay in the tabernacle for seven days. Le 8:1 36 This was the time required for the consecration of them and the altar. Ex 29:35 37 Le 8:33
215. Moses outlined the order and position of the tribes in their march and encampments Nu 2:1 34
216. The number of Levites from one month old and upward, was found to be 22,300. Nu 3:15,35 The 2200 firstborn of the Levites managed the service of God in lieu the firstborn of Israel. The number of the firstborn of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the Levites (their firstborn deducted) by 273. Therefore they were taxed for every additional person, five shekels for redemption money. Nu 3:39 50
217. The Levites were set apart and consecrated to God for his service. Every man was appointed a certain time when he was to perform his ministry. Nu 8:5 26
218. 8580 Levites were between 30 and 50 years old. Their offices and services were assigned among them according to their families. Nu 4:1 49
219. All leprous and unclean persons were put out of the camp. The laws for restoring of damages and of jealousy were ordained. Nu 5:1 31
220. The vow, the consecration and manner of the Nazarites was instituted. Nu 6:1 27
221. Upon the 8th day following the completion of the consecration, Aaron offered sacrifices and oblations, first for himself and then for all the people. All these offerings consumed by fire that fell from heaven upon them. This sign ensured belief of the people that the priestly office among them was ordained by God himself. Le 9:1 24
222. All the tabernacle was completely set up and anointed all over, together with the utensils and things belonging to it. The altar which had been consecrated for 7 days, was now dedicated by Aaron by his first oblation of sacrifices made on it. The seven previous days were for expiation, or cleaning and ordained for the hallowing of the altar. Ex 29:36,37
223. The heads of the tribes brought six covered wagons and twelve oxen, and jointly offered them before the tabernacle. All this was given to the Levites, the sons of Gershon and Merari for their duties. Every day leaders of the tribes brought their various sacrifices and things belonging to the ministry of the tabernacle and offered them towards the dedication of it. This took twelve days. Nu 7:1 11,84,88
224. On this first day, Naasson, (from whom David and according to the flesh, Jesus Christ himself) came and made his offering for the tribes of Judah. Then the rest, every one for his tribe, according to the order as they were ranked in their camps, made offerings. Nu 7:11 83
225. Nadab and Abihu were Aaron's two oldest sons who had gone with their father up into the Mount Sinai and saw the glory of God there. Ex 24:1,9,10 They went into the sanctuary with strange or common fire. This was not that fire which fell from heaven, Le 9:24 and which was perpetually to be kept alive and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times to come. They were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven. Le 10:1,9 Nu 3:2 4,26,60,61 The priests were forbidden to make lamentation for them. Moreover for their neglect of duty, all the priests were ordered to abstain from wine and strong drink before they were to go into the tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by the priests. Aaron's excuse for not doing this was allowed by Moses. Le 10:6 20
226. Upon this occasion the law was made (about the tenth day of this month, as it seems) that only the high priest should enter into the sanctuary once in a year. This was only to be on the day of atonement and the general fast which was to be kept on the 10th day of the seventh month. Le 16:1 34
227. On the 14th of this month, (Thursday, June 3rd) at evening, the passover was to be celebrated by those who were unable to keep it a month earlier because of their uncleanness Nu 9:1 24
228. By God's command, this blasphemous person, was carried out of the camp, and stoned. Le 24:10 13
229. All the laws contained in the 17 last chapters of Leviticus seem to have been made in this month.
230. God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, to call the congregation together for the times of their moving and marching and sacrificing. Nu 10:1 28
231. Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer who were left with him, to Moses, his son in law. He congratulated him and the people for their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. He publicly declared both by word and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. By his advise, Moses delegated the government of the people to some others and ordained magistrates for the deciding of lesser issues. Ex 18:1 27 De 1:9 18 Nu 10:29
232. The 19th day of this month seems to have been the last day that the 12 leaders of the tribes made their oblations for the dedication of the altar. This day Ahira made his offering for the tribe of Naphtali. Nu 7:78,88
233. On the 20th day of the second month (Wednesday, June 9th) God commanded the Israelites to break camp and to start their journey to take possession of the promised land. Nu 10:11,12 De 1:6,7 Moses asked Jethro to go along with him, but he refused and returned home. Nu 9:29,30 Ex 18:27
234. The cloud rose from the tabernacle and they arranged themselves into four squadrons, or battalions and marched from Sinai. They had been there almost a year. After 3 days journey they came to the wilderness of Paran, Nu 10:12,33 where they stayed and rested for 23 days.
13. At their 13th camp, at a place called Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 33:16 some who murmured were struck with fire from heaven. Hence that place was called Tabor. They were saved by the intercession of Moses yet again murmured and provoked God by their loathing of manna and desiring of flesh to eat. Nu 11:1 10 Ps 78:19 21
235. Moses complained to God of the great burden of this government and desired to be relieved from it. God chose 70 elders to help him. Two of these, Eldad and Medad, prophesied in the camp. Nu 11:10 17,24 30
236. God gave the people quails for a whole month, not just for a day as he did the year before. Ex 16:12,13 He sent a most grievous plague among them. From the graves of those who lusted, that place was called, Kibroth attaavah, Nu 11:31 34 Ps 78:26 31 Ps 106:15
14. The fourteenth camp was at Hazeroth. Nu 11:35 33:17 Miriam and Aaron spoke evil of Moses their brother because he had married a woman of Ethiopia. Zipporah his wife was from Madian, which was a part of the Eastern Ethiopia, otherwise called Arabia. They made themselves equal in all points with him. God honoured Moses more than they and struck Miriam with leprosy. She was sent outside of the camp. At the prayer of Moses, she was healed after seven days. Nu 12:1 15 De 24:9
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237. Miriam was cleansed some time during the 4th month. After she returned to camp, the Israelites left that place.
15. They camped in Hazeroth, in the desert of Paran, Nu 12:6 33:18 near Kadeshbarnea, Nu 13:26
238. On the fifth month.
239. From the wilderness of Paran, Nu 13:3 or Kadeshbarnea, Nu 32:8 De 1:19,22 9:23 Jos 14:7 at the time of ripened grapes, God commanded Moses to send 12 spies from every tribe Nu 13:1,2to thoroughly spy out the land. Moses and the people were agreeable to this plan. De 1:22,23 Among these men was 40 year old Caleb, the son of Jephunneh (of the tribe of Judah) Jos 14:7 and Oshea (the son of Nun, whom Moses called Joshua, from the tribe of Ephraim. These men entered the land from the south by the desert of Sin, passing through to the very northern part to Rehob. Nu 13:21,22 De 1:23
240. The sixth month.
241. The spies spent 40 days in searching out the land and returned to Kadesh in the wilderness of Paran. They brought one branch of a vine with a cluster of grapes on it gathered from the valley of Eshcol. This valley was named for its pomegranates and figs. Nu 13:23 27 De 4:24,25 This likely happened before the 7th month before the feast of tabernacles. This feast was kept on the 15th day of that month when the fruits of the barn and winepress, were always gathered. Ex 23:16 Le 23:39 De 16:13 Ten of the twelve men spoke ill of the country and its barrenness, magnifying the city's strength and the giants living there. This discouraged the people from marching any further toward it. However, Caleb did all he could, to persuade the people to go on. Nu 13:28 33 32:9
242. The people were terrified by the report made by the rest and threatened to return again to Egypt. They were ready to stone Caleb and Joshua for their conflicting report. When God threatened the people with sudden destruction, Moses again prayed and their lives were spared. However, God declared that all of them who were over 20 years old would die in the wilderness and would never see the promised land but wander in the wilderness for forty years. Nu 14:1 35 26:64,65 32:10 13 De 1:26 36 9:23 Jos 5:6 Ps 95:8 11 106:24 26 Their children entered the promised land in the 39th year. Nu 32:13 De 2:14
243. God destroyed the 10 rebellious spies by sudden death. Nu 14:36,37 In memory of this event, the Jews keep a fast on the seventh day of the sixth month, called Elul.
244. God commanded them to break camp and return back into the desert near the Red Sea. Instead they disobeyed him by going forward into the mountain and were pursued all the way to Hormah and defeated by the Amalekites and Canaanites. Therefore they sat down and wept before the Lord, but he would not hear them. Nu 14:40 45 De 1:40 45
245. After this incident, as the Israelites continued to die in the wilderness, Moses composed the 90th Psalm, Lord thou hast been our refuge, &c. He also showed that the normal age of men was reduced to 70 or 80 years. Therefore,
246. The age of man was shortened to a third of what it was before
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247. The Israelites continued in Kadesh many days. De 1:46 For whether it was for a day, a month, or a year, as long as the cloud continued over the tabernacle, the camp did not move. Nu 9:22 In some places the camp stayed for many years since in the 37 years there were only 17 camps mentioned. After leaving Kadesh, they returned into the wilderness toward the Red Sea and camped around the hill country of Seir many days. De 2:1 Jud 11:16 The 17 camps for this time in the wilderness of Seir were mentioned in the 33rd chapter of Numbers in this order: