594. From twelve o'clock, on the first day of the Egyptian month Thoth, from Wednesday, February 26th, in the evening, in the year 747 BC, all astronomers unanimously start the calender of Nabonassar.
595. Meles in Lydia reigned 12 years, (Euseb. Chron.) of whom more is to be read about in Herodotus. (l. 1. c. 84.)
596. Ninus the younger, held the kingdom of the Assyrians (reduced now to the old boundaries). The empire was quite diminished in Sardanapalus' 19 years. Eusebius explained the errors in Chronology in many large volumes of his Greek Chron. out of Castor the Rhodian. This Ninus, for good luck, seemed to have assumed the name of the first founder of the Assyrian kingdom. His own original name was Eliam, as l. 12. Histor. Annal. and Thilgamus tell us. In the scriptures he is known as "Tilgathpilneser" 1Ch 28:20 or "Tiglathpileser". 2Ki 15:29 16:7,10 3262c AM, 3972 JP, 742 BC, 17 SK, 18 NK
597. Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham at the very end of the 17th year of Pekah, the son of Remaliah and reigned 16 years in Jerusalem, 2Ki 16:1,2 2Ch 28:1
598. Towards the end of the reign of Jotham, God began to stir up Resin the king of Syria and Pekah the son of Remaliah against Judah. 2Ki 15:37 Judah was terrified at the approach of these enemies and expected a quick defeat at their hands. God sent a gracious message to Ahaz by Isaiah the prophet with a promise of his deliverance and the destruction of his enemies. For a sign of his deliverance (when the incredulous king was asked what sign he wanted, he said none), God made him a promise that a virgin would bear Immanuel. He would be both God and man, or God with us, or dwelling in our flesh. With regard to his office, he is the only Mediator between God and man. 1Ti 2:5 He would bring to pass that God would "be with us" Isa 8:10 gracious and propitious to us and a very present help in trouble. Ps 46:1,2,7 Ro 8:31,32 This message was most befitting the present situation in that all promises of God in Christ, are "Yea and Amen", 2Co 1:20 to be fulfilled generally in him and for him. Besides this the land of Judah was to be privileged to be Immanuel's land. Isa 8:8 Pertaining to the flesh, he was to be born not only of the Jews but also of the very house of David. According to the prophecy of Jacob. Ge 49:10 This would happen before the sceptre would depart from Judah. That is, before Judah would cease to be a nation ruled by kings. Therefore at that time Judah need not fear the destruction of the house of David or the nation of the Jews. However, 65 years later this happened to the Northern Kingdom as predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1 8:22
599. For a sign of the destruction of those kings who came against Ahaz, the prophet was commanded to bring out Ahaz's son, Shearjashub. He told Ahaz that his son would eat butter and honey until he was old enough to know right from wrong. Before this happened both these kings would be dead. Isa 7:3,15,16 At the same time Isaiah's wife, a prophetess, bore him another son. God named him Mahershalalhashbaz signifying that the Assyrian would hurry and take away the spoil. They would plunder both Syrians and Israelites before the child would be able plainly to pronounce, "My father", or "My mother." So the sons of the prophets were made to serve for signs from God to the Israelites. Isa 8:3,4,18 After these prophecies Rezin and Pekah came up together to besiege Jerusalem where Ahaz was. They could not take it as was predicted by Isaiah. Isa 7:1 7 2Ki 16:5 This wicked Ahaz was no sooner delivered out of this imminent danger, but he forsook God his deliverer and walked in the ways of the kings of Israel. He set up the idolatrous worship of Baal and offered incense in the valley of Benhanan. He made his own son to pass through the fire. He offered sacrifices in the high places, upon the hills and under every green tree. 2Ch 28:2 4 2Ki 16,3,4
3263c AM, 3973 JP, 741 BC, 2 SK, 19 NK
600. SK When Ahaz forsook God, God also forsook him. When Rezin and Pekah divided their forces, they overcame him. This they could not do when their forces were united. God gave him over into the hands of the Syrians who defeated him and carried away a great multitude of his people captive to Damascus. Also the king of Israel defeated him and slaughtered a great number of his people. 2Ch 28:5
601. At the same time, Rezin conquered Elath, which Uzziah had recovered for Judah. Rezin rebuilt it and repopulated it with Syrians. 2Ki 14:22 2Ch 26:2 2Ki 16:2
602. NK Pekah killed 120,000 valiant men of Judah in one day. Zichri, a mighty man of the tribe of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king's son, Azrikam, the steward of the king's house and Elkanah who was next to the king in authority. The Israelites also carried away captive from Judah and Jerusalem 200,000 women, boys and maids. They plundered their goods and carried all away to Samaria. When warned by Hadlai a prophet of God, they released all of the prisoners and restored their goods to them in the presence of their princes and the whole congregation of Samaria. They treated them kindly and escorted them safely to Jericho. 2Ch 28:6 15
3264c AM, 3974 JP, 740 BC, 3 SK, 20 NK
603. SK The Edomites invaded Judah and carried away many captives. The Philistines whom king Uzziah had conquered, 2Ch 26,6,7 now attacked the cities of Judah in the low countries and southern parts and dwelt there. God gave Judah over to their enemies because of Ahaz's sin and because he had led Judah into sin. 2Ch 28:17 19
604. Ahaz took all the gold and silver that was found in the Lord's house and in the treasury of the king's house. He sent it for a present to Tiglathpileser king of Assyria wishing him to come and deliver him from the kings of Syria and Israel. He came and took Damascus, and carried away all its inhabitants to Kir and killed Rezin the king of Syria. 2Ki 16:7 9 This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, 2Ki 7:16 8:4 9:11 as well as of Amos who long before had foretold the ruin of the king of Damascus, in these words.
``I will send a fire upon the house of Hazael, which shall consume the palaces of Benhadad and I will break in pieces the bars of Damascus and root out the inhabitants of the valley of Aven, and him that beareth the sceptre out of the house of Eden and the people of Syria shall be carried away into Assyria, saith the Lord,'' Am 1:4,5
605. So the kingdom of Damascus, of Hamath came to an end. (Am 6:2 and of Arpad, Jer 49:23 Isa 10:9 36:19 37:12,13) This kingdom began with a man called Rezon, 1Ki 11:23,24 and ended with one of the same name. It lasted for 10 generations, as Nicol. Damascenes, cited by Josephus, l. 7. Antiquit. c. 6. affirms. See note 2960 A.M.
606. When Ahaz went to meet Tiglathpileser at Damascus, he congratulated him for his great victory. He saw there an altar and he sent the pattern of it to Uriah, the priest, so that he might make one like it in Jerusalem. When he returned, he and the people offered their sacrifices on it. He moved the brazen altar far from the front of the house so that it would not stand between his altar and the house of the Lord. 2Ki 16:1 20
607. NK When Ahaz implored the aid of the kings of Assyria, (as it is said in 2Ch 28:16 "kings" in the plural, by a usual analogy, or change of the number, Ps 105:30 Jer 19:3 25:22 Isa 1:52) against Pekah, Tiglathpileser came. He led away the people of Gilead or Peraea, to wit, the Reubenites and the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh, to Habor and Hara and the river Gozan. When he then passed over Jordan, he occupied Galilee and carried away all the inhabitants of Naphtali, who Benhadad had left, together with the men of Galilee into Assyria. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 15:29 1Ki 15:20 Isa 9:1
3265c AM, 3975 JP, 739 BC, 4 SK, 1 NK
608. SK When Ahaz had now made himself a servant to the king of Assyria, then he found that he had received more harm than help from him. 2Ch 28:20,21 Isaiah had previously intimated to him of this using the allegory:
``The Lord shall shave off the hair of thy head and feet with an hired razor, from beyond the river, even the king of Assyria, and it shall also consume the beard.'' Isa 7:20
609. Therefore Ahaz built a secret passage between the king's house to the house of the Lord because he feared the king of Assyria. 2Ki 16:18 Tremelius understands this to mean that for fear lest the king of Assyria would assault him from that way and break into his palace. In the midst of all of his afflictions, he sinned still more and more against the Lord. 2Ch 28:22
610. NK When Hoshea, the son of Elah, murdered Pekah the son of Remaliah, he took over the kingdom 20 years after Jotham started to reign over Judah, 2Ki 15:30 38 or the 4th year of the reign of Ahaz. See Gill on "2Ki 15:30" However the kingdom was in civil disorder and anarchy for nine years and Hoshea had a troubled reign.
3269 AM, 3979 JP, 735 BC, 8 SK, 5 NK
611. Candaules, whom the Greek authors call, as Herodotus said, Myrsylus, the son of Myrsus was the last of the family of the Heraclydae. He reigned in Lydia for 17 years. (Euseb. Chron.)
3271 AM, 3981 JP, 733 BC, 10 SK, 7 NK
612. Nadius, or Nabius reigned over the Babylonians for 2 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.)
3273c AM, 3983 JP, 731 BC, 12 SK, 9 NK
613. Chinzirus and Porus, reigned over the Babylonians, 5 years. (Ptol. in Reg. Canone.)
3274c AM, 3984 JP, 730 BC, 13 SK, 1 NK
614. NK When Hoshea restored order in Israel, he began a peaceful reign in the latter end of the 12th year of Ahaz king of Judah. 2Ki 17:1
3276b AM, 3986 JP, 728 BC, 14 SK, 2 NK
615. NK Tiglathpileser or Ninus the younger reigned for 19 years according to Castor and died. After him came Shalmaneser, called Evemassar as in the Greek copy of Tobias. This man seems to be that Shalman, who in the prophesy of Ho 10:14 is said to have laid waste Betharbel. The place was famous later for the defeat of Darius the Persian. This is the country of Arbella, in the land of Assyria, beneath Arpad. Against Hoshea, king of Israel, Shalmaneser came up. He made him to serve and pay him tribute. 2Ki 17:3
3277c AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC, 1,16 SK, 4 NK
616. After Sabacon, an Ethiopian, had taken Boccoris king of Egypt alive, he burnt him in the fire and reigned in his place 8 years. (Affica.)
617. SK In the last year of his reign, Ahaz made his son Hezekiah viceroy with him in the kingdom. This was in the latter end of the third year of Hoshea king of Israel. Hezekiah reigned 29 years in Jerusalem. 2Ki 18:1,2
3278a AM, 3987 JP, 727 BC
618. Jugaeus or Julaeus, reigned over the Babylonians 5 years, (Ptol. reg. Canon.)
3278b AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC
619. SK Ahaz died in this year. The prophet Isaiah foretold the destruction of the Philistines (who at that time, unjustly held a part of Judah, as was shown before, in the 3264th AM.) Isa 14:28 32 Likewise he predicted a great disaster to happen to the Moabites within three years. Isa 15:1 16:14 For fulfilment of these prophesies, see 3280 AM and 3284 AM.
3278c AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC, 1 SK
620. SK After Ahaz died, Hezekiah, toward the latter end of the first year of his reign in the first month Abib, opened the doors of the Lord's house which his father had shut up. 2Ch 28:24 He commanded the priests and Levites to sanctify themselves and then to clean up the temple. 2Ch 29:3,4
621. They were encouraged by Hezekiah and on the first day of the first month, (Sunday, April 21st) they sanctified themselves. According to the king's command, came to cleanse the house of the Lord. On the 8th day of the some month, (Sunday, April 28th.) they entered into the porch of the temple and sanctified the house of the Lord for 8 days. On the 16th day of the first month,
(Sunday, May 6th.) they finished that work. 2Ch 29:15 17
622. Early next morning (Monday, May 6th.), king Hezekiah called together all the rulers of the city. He went up into the house of the Lord together with the people. With the ministry of the priests and Levites, he offered many sacrifices upon the altar of the Lord with great joy and gladness. 2Ch 29:20 36
623. According to the law in Nu 9:10,11, the passover was delayed until the second month for the following reasons. The Passover could not be kept at the same time when that meeting and the cleansing of the temple was being done. The number of sanctified priests was not enough. All the people were not gathered together from all the country to Jerusalem. Notice was sent to all the people from Beersheba even to Dan. Not only the Jews, but some also out of the tribes of Asher, Manasseh and Zebulun, came together in Jerusalem. The rest of the tribes laughed at the notice. 2Ch 30:1 12 The altars for idols and of incense were destroyed first and then thrown into the brook Kidron. They killed the Pascal lambs on the 14th day of the second month, (Sunday, June 3rd.) They kept the feast of unleavened bread for 7 days. They offered their sacrifices of thanksgiving and sang praises to the God of their fathers. 2Ch 30:13 22 As further testimony of their thankfulness to God, they continued 7 more days. This time was kept and celebrated with great glee and joy of heart. 2Ch 30:23
624. When they had finished these activities, then all the Israelites, who were present there, about the end of the second month, went out into all the cities of Judah. They broke down the images and cut down the groves and destroyed the high places and altars throughout Ephraim and Manasseh until they had finished the work. When this was done, the Israelites returned home. 2Ch 31:1
625. Hezekiah went further. He broke in pieces the very brazen serpent that Moses had set up Nu 21:9 because in those days the Israelites burnt incense to it. In contempt of it, he called it by a diminutive term, "Nehushtan", "a little piece of brass." 2Ki 18:4 He appointed the priests and Levites to their duties. He provided for them food and maintenance by establishing again the law of first fruits and tithes. 2Ch 31:1 21
626. On the 3rd month, every man brought in their first fruits and tithes and gave them to the priests. 2Ch 31:5 7
3279a AM, 3988 JP, 726 BC
627. SK In the 7th month after the harvest of the fruits of the whole year was completed, Ex 29:16 the collection of the first fruitnd tithes was completed. 2Ch 31:7 Hezekiah appointed officers for the proper distribution of them. 2Ch 31:1 21
3279b AM, 3989 JP, 725 BC, 3 SK, 6 NK
628. NK Hoshea the king of Israel, consulted beforehand with So king of Egypt and refused to pay tribute any longer thalmaneser. 2Ki 17:4
629. This So or Sua, as Jerome calls him, seems to be none other then Sabacon the Ethiopian.
630. Chrysostome, in his 30th Homile on John, says that this Hoshea made an alliance with the Ethiopians. Severus Sulpicius, in hiacred History l.1 says
``that he allied with the kings of the Ethiopians, who at that time, held the kingdoms of Egypt.''
3280b AM, 3990 JP, 724 BC, 4 SK, 7 NK
631. NK When Shalmaneser knew that Hoshea had allied himself with the king of Egypt, he first secured all the land of thoabites. So that he might have no enemy at his rear to annoy his army, he razed to the ground their two chief cities, Arnon anirhareseth. This fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah foretold three years earlier. Isa 16:7 11 See Tremellius on this. Then he wenhrough and wasted all the land of Israel and marched toward Samaria in the 4th year of Hezekiah. In the 7th year of Hoshea, hesieged Samaria for 3 years, 2Ki 17:4 6 18:9
3283 AM, 3993 JP, 721 BC, 6 SK, 9 NK
632. After Nabonasser's 26 year reign, Mardocempadus began to reign in Babylon for 12 years according to Ptolemy's Reganon. By the prophet Isaiah, Merodach Baladan, is called the son of Baladan, Isa 39:1 as being Belesis, or the son, or accordino a most usual Hebrewism, nephew of Nabonasar. In Mardocempadus' first year the moon was eclipsed at Babylon, according ttolemy in his 4th book of his great Syntaxis, c. 6. This was in the 27th of Nabonasar, 29th of the month Thoth, as the Egyptianall it, (that is toward the end of our March 19th) two and an half hours before midnight.
633. NK Toward the end of the 3rd year of the siege of Samaria, in the 6th year of the reign of Hezekiah and 9th of Hosheahalmaneser took Samaria. He carried away the Israelites into his own country and settled them in Halah, Habor and the riveozan and in the cities of the Medes. Tiglathpileser had formerly transported to this place the inhabitants of Perea, or the twribes and a half living on the other side Jordan. 1Ch 5:26 2Ki 17:6 8:10,11 Anarchy was in Media before the kingdom of Media
was taken by "Deioces". This gave occasion to the Assyrians to invade and take over that whole country. This was the plachere Tobit or Tobias the elder states that he at this time with Anna his wife and his country men, the Nepthalites, were carrieway into the land of the Assyrians. There they provided grain and other food for Shalmaneser's household. Also he was carriento Media and there placed in a principal city of Media called Rages. There he deposited ten talents of silver in the hand and trusf Gabael his near kinsman and one that was carried away captive with him to the same place. /APC Tob 1:22 This was the enf the kingdom of Israel after if revolted from the kingdom of Judah 254 years earlier.
3284b AM, 3994 JP, 720 BC
634. In the second year of Merodach's reign, there was another eclipse of the moon in Babylon. This happened in the 28th year oabonasar, on the 18th day of the month of Thoth, at midnight. The Julian calendar dates it on Saturday, March 9th. Exactly 17ays and 20 and an half hours later, a third eclipse of the moon took place. This occurred on the 15th day of the month Phamenotunday, September 1st. three hours and an half before midnight. (Ptolemy l. 4. Magn. Syntax, c. 6, and 7.)
3285 AM, 3995 JP, 719 BC
635. Seuechus the Ethiopian, Sabacon's son, reigned in Egypt for 14 years. (African,) He seems to also be called Sethos, priest tulcan who is mentioned by Herodotus in his second book c. 141.
3286 AM, 3996 JP, 718 BC
636. When Candaules indecently exposed his wife to his courtier named Gyges the son of Dascylus, his wife ordered Gyges turder him. As a result he married the wife of the murdered king and took over the kingdom of Lydia. This is mentioned in a poey Archilocus from the Isle of Paros, who lived at the same time. So the kingdom of Lydia went from the clan of the Heraclidanto the clan of Merduades. This clan ruled it for 170 years. Gyges himself reigned 18 years. (Herod. l.1.) Gyges was but ondslave as appears by that saying of Cresus his grandchild in Xenophon, (Justit.Cyri. l. 7.)
``I understand that the first of my ancestors that here reigned, was made a king and a free man both at the same time.''
637. Plato in his 2 de Repub. states that he was master of the king's cattle and his name was Gyges. In the eastern dialect this
seems to have been Gug, or Gog.
3287 AM, 3997 JP, 717 BC
638. When Gyges took over the kingdom, he sent various large offerings to Delphi. He made war upon Miletus and Smyrna anook the city of Colophos by force. (Herod. l. 1. c. 17.)
639. When the Gitteans revolted, Eluleus king of Tyre, sailed there and subjected them again. Shalmaneser the king of Assyriarched with his army and invaded all Phoenicia and came against Tyre. Shortly after he made peace with them and returneome again. Not long after, Sidon and Ace (called later Ptolomais) and Poletyrus or old Tyrus, with various other cities defecterom the Tyrians to the Assyrians. When only the Tyrians now stood against him, he returned a second time. In this action thhoenicians furnished him with 60 ships, and 800 sailors. The Tyrians attacked this fleet with only 12 ships, routed all the navy anook 500 prisoners. By this the Tyrians obtained a good reputation as a naval force. Shalmaneser returned to besiege Tyre. He seuards by the river and conduits which served the city and cut them off. This hindered them from getting water. They held out foive years and at last were forced to dig wells within their city walls to get water. This is from Menander of Ephesus, in hihronicles, translated into Greek, from the Tyrian Annals, cited by Joseph. 9. Antiq. c. ult. Eluleus is called Ayluleus by Rufinus ancient Latin historian. Hence Scaliger calls him Eliseus. I disagree with him in this that he here says that the Cyprians were benander called Kitteans. However he by the name of Gitteans, understood indeed the inhabitants of Gitta, or Gath well known bhat name in the Bible. 2Sa 15:18 21:19 1Sa 17:4 These were also added to Judah by Hezekiah in the very time of this Eluleus oliseus, as may be gathered from Josephus. He says that Hezekiah made war on the Philistines and defeated them. He added alheir cities (except one) and country from Gath to Gaza to the kingdom of Judah. (9. Antiq. cap ult.) Also from 2Ki 15:18 18:ezekiah smote the Philistines as far as Gaza and its territories. Isaiah prophesied against the Tyrians who at this time were growroud and insolent by reason of their wealth and success in wars. Isa 23:1
640. When Shalmaneser died, his son Sennacherib reigned in his stead. /APC Tob 1:18 Herodotus in l. 2. calls him the king both ossyria and Arabia too. It could be at that time that the Assyrians ruled over Peraea, or the land of Gilead and Hamath, or Ituraea
and held also a part of Arabia, either Petraea, or Deserta. For that Ivah, or Ava, which Sennacherib boasted much of seems tave been conquered by him or his ancestors. 2Ki 18:34 19:13 Isa 37:13 This was a country lying in the desert of Arabia, Framunius affirms based on 2Ki 17:24. The prophet Isaiah foretold the calamity which was to fall upon the Moabites by Shalmaneser,
(of which I spoke in 3278 AM. and 3280 AM.). This is taken from Bersus' History of the Chaldeans as cited by Josephus. (lib. 10. 1.) He says that Sennacherib reigned in Assyria and also that he waged a fierce war on all Asia and Egypt.
3291c AM, 4001 JP, 713 BC
641. This war of his upon Egypt lasted 3 whole years and Palestina also joined with him in the war. This is deduced from Isa
20:1 6. Isaiah is told to take off his coat of hairy cloth (belonging to his prophetic function, as in Zec 13:4) from his loins and hihoes from his feet. He was commanded to walk up and down naked and bare foot for 3 years for a sign to the Egyptians anthiopians. This intimated that when that time expired, they likewise would be stripped of their clothes and go bare foot intaptivity and bondage by the king of Assyria. This command the prophet is said to have received in the year when Tartan was seny Sargon king of Assyria and besieged Ashdod and took it. Isa 20:1 Sargon is also called Sennacherib. Taran was one of hiommanders. 2Ki 18:17 By Ashdod, that famous city Azotus, a city of the Philistines, we showed before from Josephus that it waonquered by king Hezekiah.
642. Hezekiah had shaken off the king of Assyria's yoke (which his father Ahaz had taken) and would no longer serve him. 2Ki
17:7 In the 14th year of his reign, toward the end of it, Sennacherib, came up against the kingdom of Judah. He besieged theiortified cities and took many of them. Isa 36:1 2Ki 18:13 2Ch 32:2 When Hezekiah perceived that he intended also to attacerusalem, he consulted with his princes. He plugged up all the fountains that were around the city and diverted the brook Kidrohich ran through the region. Then he built up all that part of the wall which Joash the king of Israel had demolished in the time omaziah. He fortified the house of David, and provided arrows and shields in great abundance and set captains and colonels ovehe people. He called them together and he made a very short speech to them. He persuaded them to be of good courage and noo have any fear of the king of Assyria nor of his army. 2Ch 32:2 8,30