If the responder has a true negative response, he has three possible raises of opener’s major. With 0-3 HCP, he will make a “warning bid” (discussed in a subsequent section) and then make the cheapest possible bid of opener’s suit. With 4-6 HCP, he will raise directly to two of the suit. With 7-8 HCP he will raise to three.
There is a fourth possibility. With four card support , 7-8 HCP, and a singleton in a side suit, he can make an “impossible negative” jump in his short suit. The entire “impossible negative” bidding scheme is described in the next section.
“The Impossible Negative”
The original Precision Club “impossible negative” was very specific. Responder bid 1D, promising a weak hand, and then made a later jump that showed values it was “impossible” for him to have. Specifically, it showed 4441 distribution and a positive response. The jump is made in responder’s singleton. If the singleton is in opener’s suit , the jump is in no trump. The California Club uses the basic Precision idea, but with a couple of significant adjustments.
I have added one additional type of hand to the convention. That is the 4+ card limit raise (7-8 HCP) with a side singleton mentioned in the last section. It may have any distribution as long as it has at least four trump and a singleton.
The second change is the mechanism which allows opener to inquire about responder’s exact hand. After the jump, opener makes the cheapest possible bid to ask about responder’s hand. Responder answers in steps, as follows:
5th step= 4441, 15-16 HCP 6th step=unlikely, but ….
Opener can ask for aces by bidding the singleton or the cheapest no trump. He should be able to set the contract accurately at that point, but he can ask for kings if a grand slam is possible.
New Suit Responses
If the responder does not have a fit for opener’s major, he has two options. With 5-8 HCP and a 5-card suit, he can bid a new suit. With 0-4 HCP he must first make a “warning bid”(1S over 1H or 1NT over 1S-see the next section). In that case he may not ever bid his suit. He may just pass opener’s rebid or take him back to his major on a doubleton. Since 1S is the warning bid over 1H, a 1NT bid substitutes for the 5-card spade suit with 5-8 HCP.
The “Warning Bid”
After a forcing rebid of 1H or 1S, the cheapest next bid is the “warning bid.” This bid warns the opener that responder has one of four types of hands:
A very weak hand (0-3 HCP) with at least three card support for opener’s major. Responder’s next call will be the cheapest possible bid of opener’s suit.
A very weak hand (0-4 HCP) with no fit for opener’s suit but support for any other suit (220.127.116.11 or 18.104.22.168 with shortness in opener’s suit). Responder may pass any new suit bid by opener.
A non-fitting (22.214.171.124 or 126.96.36.199) hand with 5-8 HCP. Responder will raise any new suit bid by opener or bid 2NT.
A very weak (0-4 HCP) hand with a long (6+) suit and 0 or 1 cards in opener’s major. A later bid of the long suit is optional.
In cases 1, 2, and 4, this warning bid serves essentially as a second negative, similar to those used by some standard bidders after a strong 2C opening.
To repeat, the warning bid is the cheapest bid available after the auction goes: 1C-1D-1H or 1S. If the 1C opener rebids 1H, the warning bid is 1S. Over a 1S rebid, the warning bid is 1NT. Opener, having been warned that his partner may have a very unhelpful hand, will now proceed cautiously. Unless he actually can guarantee a play for game opposite a possible trickless dummy, he simply rebids NT, bids a second suit at the two level, or bids his major again with six cards in the suit. These bids can be passed. If the responder happens to hold the type 3 hand, he may give a simple raise in the second suit. He may also bid 2NT or raise the major to 3 if the rebid shows a 6-card major.
The use of the warning bid usually ensures that the bidding will not get past the two level when responder has a really miserable hand. It allows the partnership to find a secondary 4-4 fit at the 2 level or to stop at 2 of opener’s major.
At the risk of being redundant, here is a review of responder’s bids when he doesn’t make a “warning bid.” I realize I have already explained some of these bids.
Bids of 2C, 2D, and 2H (over 1S) show 5-8 HCP. Single raises show 4-6 HCP and double raises show 7-8. Jumps to 2NT, 3C, 3H over 1S are the impossible negative, usually showing 4-4-4-1 distribution and 9+ HCP. However, I have modified this bid to include 7-8 point hands with 4 trumps and a side singleton, even with 5-4-3-1 shape. The next bid asks responder for clarification.
After the auction 1C-1D-1S, 2-level bids in a new suit show 5 cards in that suit and from 0-2 spades. With 3 or more spades, responder would give an immediate raise of some sort. After 1C-1D-1H, bids of 2C and 2D are the same. However, since 1S is the second negative response to 1H, 1NT is used to show a 5-card spade suit and 5-8 HCP. After responder’s first rebid, bidding is essentially natural.
Non-fitting 4-4-4-1 or 4-4-3-2 hands are begun with the second negative bid. With 5-8 HCP, a rebid of 2NT or a raise of a second suit is made to deny a 0-4 HCP bust.
Very weak (0-4 HCP) hands with long suits are also shown by bidding the second negative first. Responder later bids his suit, if convenient.
On the next seven pages there are extensive examples which illustrate all these bids. They may clarify some things which are still unclear.
Getting back to the 1C bidder, he can still show a monster hand and force the weak hand to bid again. He does this by jumping in a second suit or his own suit. If he knows that responder is not going to be of much help, he can also just jump to game.
If opener makes any simple rebid, he knows it can be passed. Responder has already warned him he either has a non-fitting hand or a very weak raise.
With shortness in opener’s major, he very likely has three or four card support for a second suit. He will pass with 0-4 HCP or raise with 5-8. Otherwise, with 0-3/4 HCP he will return to opener’s major with three or more trump or bid a long suit of his own.
Here are some eamples to illustrate the scheme:
The following is an average 1C opening with five hearts:
♠ Ax ♥AKJxx ♦ Kxx ♣ KJxx
How will the auction go when responder has a heart fit? Let’s see.
Responder’s Hand OR
A.♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ Qxxx 1H 1S(warning bid)
♦ Jxxx 2C 2H(heart raise,0-3 HCP)
♣ xxx P
B.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ Qxxx 1H 2H(heart raise, 4-6 HCP)
C.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ Qxxx 1H 2S (impossible negative)
♦ Qxxxx 2NT (asking bid) 3C( in this case,7-8 HCP
♣ Axx etc. limit raise)
D.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ Qxxx 1H 2S(impossible negative)
♦ AQxx 2NT(asking) 3H(4441, 11-12 HCP)
♣ Axxx etc.
Now let’s look at some non-fitting hands.Opener’s hand remains the same.
E.♠ xxxx 1C 1D
♥ x 1H 1S (warning!)
♦ xxxx 2C(17-21 HCP,NF) P(whew!)
F.♠ Kxxx 1C 1D
♥ x 1H 1S(warning)
♦ Qxxx 2C 3C(5-8 HCP)
♣ Qxxx *may pass or try
G.♠ Kxxx 1C 1D
♥ x 1H 2NT(4144, 9+HCP)
♦ Qxxx 3C (asking) 3H (11-12 HCP)
♣ AQxx etc. (when sing. is in opener’s suit,1st step=9-10)
With at least a 5-card suit and 0-2 cards in opener’s suit, the suit can be bid directly or after a warning bid.
J.♠ QJxxx 1C 1D
♥ xx 1H 1NT(5-8 HCP, 5 spades)
♦ QJxx etc.
K. ♠ xxx 1C 1D
♥ Qx 1H 2C(5-8 HCP,5+clubs)
♦ xxx etc.
L. ♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ x 1H 1S(warning)
♦ xxxxxxx 2C 2D(0-4 HCP)
♣ Qxx P
Sometimes responder may return to two of opener’s major with only 2-card support but remote prospects for game.
K. ♠ Qxxx 1C 1D
♥ xx 1H 1S(warning)
♦ xxxx 2C 2H(game prospects not
♣ Axx great-may be best to
The 2H rebid supposedly shows 0-3 HCP and three trump, but 2H may be the best spot to play, especially at matchpoints. Responder is allowed to make a judgement call.
When the auction goes 1C-1D-1S, responder’s rebids are essentially the same as those for hearts. Obviously, 1NT no longer shows 5+ spades. It is the “warning bid.” As the cheapest bid, it becomes the second negative, It also handles the weak raise and non-fitting 4441 and 4432 bids. Direct 2C, 2D, and 2H bids show 5+card suits and less than three spades. Two spades (4-6 HCP) and three spades (7-8 HCP) are normal raises. Jumps to 2NT, 3C, 3D, and 3H are “impossible negatives.”
Here is a typical 1C-1D-1S hand and some responding hands:
Opener:♠ KQxxx ♥ Ax ♦ AKxx ♣ Qx
♠ Jxx 1C 1D
♥ xx 1S 1NT(warning bid)
♦ Jxxx 2D 2S (0-3 HCP,3+spades)
B. ♠ Jxx 1C 1D
♥ xxx 1S 2S(3+ spades, 4-6 HCP)
♦ Qxxx P or game try
C.♠ Axxx 1C 1D
♥ Qx 1S 3S(3+ spades,7-8 HCP
♦ Qxxx 4S no singleton)
D.♠ xxxx 1C 1D
♥ Kxx 1S 3D(impossible neg..)
♦ x 3H(asking) 3S(7-8 HCP, sing. D)
♣ KJxx 4S
E.♠ AJxx 1C 1D
♥ KQxx 1S 3C(impossible neg.)
♦ QJxx 3D(asking) 3NT(13-14 HCP,4441)
♣ x 4C(aces? or total controls? you pick) 4D wd = RKCB
F.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ KQxx 1S 2NT(9+HCP,sing.spade)
♦ Qxxx 3C(asking) 3D(9-10 HCP)
♣ Kxxx 3NT P
G.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ Kxxx 1S 1NT(warning)
♦ xxxx 2D P(whew!)
H.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ Kxxx 1S 1NT(warning)
♦ Qxxx 2D 3D (5-8 HCP- most likely 7-8)
I.♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ Kxxx 1S 1NT(warning)
♦ Qxx 2D 2S or P-?(2S=known 5-2 fit;
♣ xxxx D mb 4-3 or 5-3)
J.♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ Kxxx 1S 1NT
♦ Qxx 2D 2NT(prob. 7-8 HCP; with 5-6
♣ Kxxx would prob. bid 2S)
K. ♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ QJxxx 1S 2H(5+ hearts, 5-8 HCP)
♦ Qxx 2NT? P?
L.♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ x 1S 2D
♦ QJxxxx 3D 4C
♣ AJxx 5D
M.♠ x 1C 1D
♥ xx 1S 1NT
♦ xxx 2D 3C(0-4 HCP)
Now let’s vary the 1C opener.
N. ♠ QJxxx ♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ AKx ♥ Qxx 1S 2D
♦ Ax ♦ Kxxxx 2NT P
♣ Axx ♣ Qxx
O.♠ Kx ♠ Qxxxx 1C 1D
♥ AQJxx ♥ xx 1H 1NT(5+ spades, 5-8 HCP)
♦ Kxxx ♦ Qxx 2D 2H
♣ Ax ♣ Qxx
P.♠ AKJxx ♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ AQxx ♥ Kxx 1S 2C
♦ Axx ♦ Kxx 2H 2NT
♣ x ♣ Q10xxx 3NT
Q.♠ Axx ♠ Kxxxx 1C 1D
♥ AQxxx ♥ x 1H 1NT(5+spades,5-8 HCP)
♦ AKx ♦ Qxxx 2S P
♣ Kx ♣ xxx
R.♠ KQxxxx ♠ Jx 1C 1D
♥ KQx ♥ xxx 1S 2D
♦ Ax ♦ KQxxx 2S 3S
♣ Ax ♣ xxx 4S
S.♠ KQxx ♠ xxx 1C 1D
♥ AJxxx ♥ xx 1H 2C
♦ Kx ♦ Axx P
♣ Ax ♣ KJxxx
After the 1C-1D-1M-2M sequence, opener can use the same long and short-suit game tries that are used after 1S-2S or 1H-2H. (See “Constructive Raises” - P.37-38) The cheapest bid starts the long-suit tries (LSGT) and the next three bids are short-suit tries (SSGT). When opener starts the long-suit try, responder can ignore the relay and bid a short suit of his own.
Here are some examples:
A.♠ AKxxx ♠ Qxx 1C 1D
♥ xxx ♥ xx 1S(forcing) 2S (4-6 HCP)
♦ AQx ♦ Kxxx 2NT(relay-LSGT) 3C(forced)
♣ Ax ♣ xxxx 3D (LSGT) 4S
B.♠ AKxxx ♠ Qxx 1C 1D
♥ xxx ♥ xx 1S 2S
♦ AQx ♦ xxxx 2NT 3C
♣ Ax ♣ Qxxx 3D (LSGT) 3S
On B, it turns out the doubleton heart is useful , but four hearts needs a lot of luck. You’d have to be pretty desperate to bid it.
C.♠ AKxxx ♠ Qxx 1C 1D
♥ xxx ♥Ax 1S 2S
♦ AQx ♦ xxxx 2NT 3C
♣ Ax ♣ xxxx 3D 3H
3S or 4S
D.♠ xxx ♠ xx 1C 1D
♥ AKJxx ♥ Qxx 1H 2H
♦ AQx ♦ Kxxxx 2S(relay-LSGT) 2NT(forced)
♣ Ax ♣ xxxx 3D(LSGT) 4H
E.♠ xxx ♠ Qxx 1C 1D
♥ AKJxx ♥ Qxxx 1H 2H
♦ AQx ♦ xxx 2S 2NT
♣ Ax ♣ Qxx 3D 3H
With a singleton, the responder may ignore the relay and bid his short suit. When 2S is the relay, 3H shows a singleton spade.
F.♠ xxx ♠ x 1C 1D
♥ AKJxx ♠ Qxxx 1H 2H
♦ AQx ♦ xxxx 2S(relay-LSGT) 3H(ignoring relay)
♣Ax ♣ Qxx 4H
G.♠ xxx ♠ xxxx 1C 1D
♥ AKJxx ♥ Qxx 1H 2H
♦ AQx ♦ x 2S(relay-LSGT) 3D(ignoring relay)
♣ Ax ♣ QJxxx 3H
H.♠ Ax ♠ Kxxx 1C 1D
♥ AKJxx ♥ Qxx 1H 2H
♦ AQx ♦ xxxxx 2S(relay) 3C(ignoring relay)
♣ xxx ♣ x 4S
With a better raise (7-8 HCP), responder either raises to three of the major or makes a mini-splinter raise with four trumps and a singleton. This bid is made even without perfect 4441 distribution. There is no danger of confusion with a “real” impossible negative ( 9+ HCP, 4441) because opener can use the cheapest bid over the splinter to ask for clarification.
I.♠ AJxxx ♠ Kxx 1C 1D
♥ Kx ♥ Qxxx 1S 3S(7-8 HCP)
♦ KQx ♦ Jxxx 4S(3NT possible)
♣ AJx ♣ Qx
J.♠ AJxxx ♠ Kxx 1C 1D
♥ Kx ♥ Qxxxx 1S 3S(only 3 trump)
♦ KQx ♦ Jxxx 4S
♣ AJx ♣ x
K.♠ AQxxx ♠ Kxxx 1C 1D
♥ Kx ♥ Axxxx 1S 3C(4 trumps,sing.)
♦ KQx ♦ Jxx 3D(asking) 3H(7-8 HCP)
♣ AJx ♣ x 3NT (baby 1430) 4H
STANDARD STRONG TWO BIDS IN THE MAJORS So what happens when the 1C opener has an old-fashioned strong two bid, or a hand the modern standard bidder would open 2C? Very simple- at his second turn he jumps in a new suit or in his first-bid suit. This forces responder to bid again. If responder has shown at least 4 HCP, the jump is forcing to game. If he has made a warning bid, it is forcing for one round.
Here are some examples:
L.♠ AKJ10xx ♠xx 1C 1D
♥ AQJx ♥ Q10xx 1S(forcing) 1NT(warning)
♦ AQ ♦ Jxxx 3H(forcing) 4H
♣ J ♣ xxx
M.♠ AK ♠ Qxx 1C 1D
♥ KQJ109xx ♥ xx 1H 2C
♦ A ♦ xxx 4C(RKCB-1430) 4D(1KC)
♣ KJx ♣ Axxxx 6H
N.♠ AQ ♠ xxx 1C 1D
♥ AKQxxx ♥ x 1H 1S(warning)
♦ KQ10xx ♦ J9xx 3D(forcing) 4D
♣ ♣ xxxxx 6C(void) 6D
BIG SUIT-ORIENTED HANDS (MINORS)
When opener has a big (but not ostentatious) one club opener (17-21 HCP) with a long minor, he has a couple of options. If the hand is truly unbalanced (having a singleton or void) he makes a simple rebid of 2C or 2D. With a semi-balanced (say 6322) hand and 17-19 HCP he may occasionally decide to rebid 1NT. This will allow responder to easily transfer into a major and may cause the defense problems when they try to figure out the hand. At any rate, opener does not have to jump to the three level to show strength.
A unique part of the system occurs when opener has the equivalent of a strong two-bid (usually 22+ HCP) and a long minor. As we shall see in an upcoming section, we have a special scheme to describe those hands.
After 1C-1D-2C, responder is allowed to pass. However, with 5 or more HCP, he should make an effort to keep the bidding alive. A 2D bid at this point is semi-artificial. It denies a 5-card major and invites opener to bid a 4-card major or 2NT. A bid of 2H or 2S is natural, showing a 5+card suit and 5-8 HCP. 2NT is natural , showing a maximum 1D response (7-8 HCP) and tenaces in at least two suits outside clubs. 3C is a simple raise, showing 3+ clubs and 5-8 HCP. Jumps to 3D, 3H, 3S, and 3NT are the “impossible negative”, guaranteeing 9+ HCP and 4441 distribution. 4C is a 7-8 HCP club raise with 4+ trumps and a side singleton.
After 1C-1D-2D, the auction is more cramped. Responder has no way to ask for a 4-card major at the 2-level. The good news, however, is that opener will rarely have one.With 17-20 HCP,5+ diamonds, and a 4-card major, he should open 1D and use a “1D with muscles” sequence (See p.15-16 ). With 7-4 distribution he may open 1C. If so, he’ll probably have to bid his major at the 3-level if he can. At any rate , most of responder’s rebids will be identical to those used after 1C-1D-2C. 2H and 2S will show 5-8 HCP and a 5+card suit, as will 3C. 2NT still shows 7-8 HCP and tenaces. 3D and 4D are still the simple and jump raises, and 3H, 3S, 3NT,and 4C are still “impossible negatives” (9+ HCP, 4441 distribution, and a singleton in the bid suit). If all this is not yet crystal-clear, I will try to outline all of the major rebids discussed above in the form of a chart:
1C – 1D
2C - ? PASS- 0-4 HCP
2D = semi-artificial, denies a 5-card major
5-8 HCP, invites opener to bid a
4-card major or 2NT
2H/2S = 5+ card suit, 5-8 HCP
2NT =7-8 HCP, tenaces
3C = 5-8 HCP,3+ clubs,4C = 7-8 HCP, 4+ clubs
3D/3H/3S/3NT(clubs) = singleton, 4441, 9+ HCP
1C - 1D PASS = 0-4 HCP
2D - ? 2H/2S/3C = 5-8 HCP, 5+card suit
2NT = 7-8 HCP, tenaces
(opener unlikely to have 3D = 5-8 HCP, 3+ diam., 4D = 7-8 HCP, 4+ diam.
4-card major-would open 3H/3S/3NT(diam.)/4C = singleton,4441, 9+ HCP
1D-then reverse or jump-
shift- see “1D with muscles”)
STANDARD STRONG TWO-BIDS IN THE MINORS
As we have seen, the fact that 1C-1D-1H and 1S are forcing frees 1C-1D-2H for use as a standard 2NT opener. It also frees jump rebids of 2S and2NT for a very useful purpose. These jump rebids can now be used as standard strong two bids in clubs and diamonds. They provide the same advantage over the standard bids as the 1C-1D-2H sequence. By starting two denominations lower than the standard bids, they leave more room for responder to describe his hand.
To cite one obvious example, it is very hard to use 3C as a second negative response after an auction of 2C-2D-3C or 2C-2D-3D. In the latter case it is downright impossible for responder to transfer to 3H. As we shall see, with this system we can do those things and more.
Before getting into specifics, I’d like to make a couple of general observations. Big hands with long minor suits are among the most awkward hands for standard bidders to handle. The auctions get too high too quickly, and invariably seem to wind up with the weak hand declaring the hand and the strong hand exposed as dummy. Big hands with long diamonds are by far the worst. That is why several bidding theorists have come up with 2D opening bids that combine big diamond hands with other secondary meanings. The bids I have included in this system may not solve all the problems inherent in these hand types , but they are at least an improvement over standard bidding.
One defect we can’t get around is the wrongsiding of a lot of diamond contracts. When responder has to respond 1D to a 1C opening, he obviously will be declarer if the contract ends up in diamonds. There are, however, mechanisms built into the bidding scheme to allow the strong hand to play a substantial majority of the major suit and no trump contracts.This alone is a good reason to give this scheme a try.
Let’s start with the strong standard two bid in clubs. This will be handled with an opening bid of 1C. After a 1D response, a jump rebid of 2S shows 5+ clubs and approximately 22+ HCP.Responder can now bid 3C as a super-negative (0-3 HCP). This removes the game force. Opener can conceivably pass. A 3D bid shows 4-8 HCP and is semi-artificial. It denies a 5-card major and invites opener to bid a 4-card major or 3NT. A 3H rebid by opener now presents no problems. He is unlikely to hold two 4-card majors.Responder can raise to 4H or relay to 3NT by bidding 3S. Of course , he can also go back to 4C. A 3S bid by opener presents more of a problem. If there is no 4-4 spade fit, responder will have to choose between playing 3NT from the weak side or going for the minor suit game.
If responder has a 5-card major, he can transfer into it. How? To use my favorite overworked word,”Simple.” 3H is an obvious transfer to spades.
But 3D is already spoken for.How do we transfer into hearts? We treat 3S as a “Flip-Flop Transfer”, showing 5+ hearts. In either case, opener can accept the transfer with three or more cards in responder’s suit or bid 3NT or four of his own suit without a fit. If responder has six or more of the major, he can retransfer (4D=6+hearts, 4H=6+spades) at the four level.
Of course, responder may just want to give partner an immediate raise. There are two bids available for the purpose- 3NT and 4C. My preference would be to use 3NT for a strong (7-8HCP) raise and 4C for a weaker(4-6 HCP) raise. Others may choose different definitions. After either raise, 4D by opener asks for keycards (1430, 1340,“Texas” all possible- you pick )
Finally, what does responder do with an “impossible negative?” He could jump to the four level, but that is going to get the auction very high and inhibit careful investigation for a possible grand slam. It is far more efficient to use an unused bid at the two level- 2NT.
One of the basic tenets of the system is that weak hands never bid NT if they can avoid it. But using both 2NT and 3NT as good raises in this scheme makes sense.If responder has four clubs and a side singleton, the contract will probably wind up in clubs - not NT. If he has a singleton club, the hand will probably play pretty well from his side.And the NT bid by a presumably weak hand will almost certainly wake up opener and remind him that something unusual is happening. Responder’s 2NT bid will show any 4441 hand with 9+ HCP. Opener bids 3C to ask for the short suit. A 3NT reply shows a singleton in clubs. After the short suit is determined, 4C asks for responder’s range (4D=9-10, 4H=11-12, 4S=13-14, etc.) A cue bid of the singleton asks for keycards (again-your choice of convention), or is simple Blackwood if clubs is the short suit.
The setup is very similar when the suit involved is diamonds.After 1C-1D, a jump to 2NT shows approximately 22+ HCP and 5+ diamonds, the equivalent of a strong two bid in diamonds. Responder’s three level bids are identical to those after the 1C-1D-2S auction. 3C is the super-negative, 3D shows 4-8 HCP, and 3H and 3S are the “Flip Flop Transfers.” The weaker diamond raise(4-6 HCP) can be handled by bidding 3D and then rebidding 4D if appropriate. This also gives opener a chance to bid 3NT, which could very likely be the best contract. 4D is still the maximum (7-8 HCP) raise.
The major difference is the handling of the “impossible negative”.
Obviously, 2NT is not available to handle those hands.The simplest
solution is to use the obvious available jumps to show the specific
singletons immediately.3NT shows a singleton diamond, and jumps
to 4C, 4H, and 4S show shortness in those suits. Opener then makes
the cheapest continuation bid to ask responder’s range. 4NT is keycard-asking
( 0314, 1430, or “Texas”, depending upon preferences).
Once again, a chart may help clarify the entire scheme: