For medical reasons, seven of our classmates were not commissioned and became civilians immediately after graduation.1 Others were retired medically during the Vietnam War. After losing a leg when he stepped on a mine in Vietnam in March 1966, Jack Terry, for example, had no desire, as he said, to stay in the Army “pushing papers,” so he was retired medically in October 1966.2 As we reached four years of service, the years required to fulfill our active duty service obligation, many of us were extended for another year, but by the time we reached the six-year mark, about 35% of us had resigned our commissions. By the late 1970s about 50% and by the late 1990s about 95% of us had left active duty. Except for a small number of us, we spent more time in our working lives as civilians than in uniform. More importantly, our classmates’ achievements as civilians rivaled our classmates’ achievements as military leaders.
When we took off our uniforms, whether after four years or 40, we discovered that the education, skills, attitudes, and values we had acquired at West Point and in the service of our country provided a sound foundation for success in our civilian careers. At West Point we received a “general” education without any majors but with a balanced curriculum that favored Math-Science-Engineering over the Humanities and Behavioral and Social Sciences. That balance came from the Army’s desire to produce officers with sufficient versatility to fit into a wide range of academic and professional specialties after graduation, but it also gave us the academic foundation to pursue many different careers as we entered our nation’s civilian work force. Additionally, at West Point and in our military service, we learned how to lead others, solve complex problems, use our time wisely, take advantage of opportunities, and prosper in widely different cultures. We also learned to “choose the harder right over the easier wrong” and to show respect for others. As cadets and officers, we had faced and overcome many challenges, and that experience gave us greater confidence as we faced other challenges later in our lives.
Our education did not end when we graduated from West Point. Some of us continued our education while still in uniform, and some of us did so after we took off our uniforms. Sixteen of us became M.D.’s. One became an optometrist, seven became dentists, and two became veterinarians. At least 56 of us (or 9.4% of the Class) earned our J.D degree, though not all practiced law. Using The Register of Graduates and including those who obtained their degree while in the service, 34 of us received a Ph.D. (including at least one Ed.D.) degree, and 422, or 71% of our graduating class of 596, acquired an advanced degree (including J.D. and Ph.D.). The actual number with advanced degrees is undoubtedly higher since some classmates did not report their advanced degrees to the Association of Graduates.
Whether as businessmen, entrepreneurs, attorneys, or physicians, we often took career paths in our military and civilian lives that we had not anticipated in July 1961 or June 1965. Some of us such as Ed Knauf chose paths that enabled us as civilians to make distinguished contributions as civil servants and businessmen to our nation’s defense (and are discussed in the Post-Vietnam chapter); others such as Walt Divers chose paths that enabled us to make distinguished contributions as civilians and as military officers in health fields (and are covered in this chapter). As we searched for a path to success and fulfillment, we sometimes reacted to events or took advantage of opportunities appearing before us, and we recognized and adapted to the rapid technological, social, and economic changes occurring around us in an age of remarkable change and challenge. We learned how to “reinvent” ourselves before doing so became a commonly accepted idea. We also learned to adapt by building on our knowledge, interests, and skills. As we faced new challenges, we demonstrated an impressive willingness and ability to acquire new knowledge and skills, adjust to new environments, create innovative solutions, and succeed in the civilian world.
And we never lost our high ethical and moral standards and our desire to serve our country and our local community.
AN ENVIRONMENT OF CHALLENGE AND CHANGE
As we began working in the civilian world, we usually entered mid-level positions or attended graduate school to prepare ourselves for future professional and personal challenges. As our careers progressed, we were surrounded by extensive political, economic, social, and technological change. Such turbulence was not new to us, for we had experienced substantial change as cadets and as officers. This time was different, however, for we were about to live through the transition from a traditional manufacturing-intensive “Machine Age” economy to a services-intensive “Information Age” economy and from the U.S.’s dominating the world’s economy to its fighting to maintain an edge against fierce international competition. As the nature and size of the U.S. economy evolved, we had to master new technologies that revolutionized communications, manufacturing, and transportation, and as international economic competition increased, we had to face the challenges of globalization, transnational corporations, “out-sourcing,” and international finance. Amidst these numerous challenges we lived through no less than seven different recessions. Many of us felt the bite of these recessions the most in the early seventies, just as we were beginning to establish our civilian careers, when the 1973 oil crisis and other events disrupted our plans for an easy transition to civilian life. We had to contend with other brief recessions in subsequent decades.
Dramatic changes also occurred in the growth of the U.S. population and the expansion of real estate. The population of the United States grew from 194.3 million in July 1965 to 311.6 million in July 2010. The average selling price of a new home in the United States went from $21,500 in June 1965 to $256,700 in June 2010.3 Over the next 45 years, the total housing inventory went from 63,993,000 in the 2nd quarter of 1965 to 132,718,000 in the 2nd quarter of 2012.4 And a similar expansion occurred in commercial real estate, including office buildings, warehouses, and retail stores. At the same time the landscape of front streets in America changed with the appearance of super stores such as Walmart, restaurants such as McDonald’s, and home improvement stores such as Home Depot. Other changes such as the introduction of ATM’s, internet banking, and index mutual funds also significantly affected how we managed our finances.
Even more remarkable changes occurred in technology. Of the many experiences our classmates had during the adolescent years of computers, Dave Gabel’s journey reflected how some of us had to adjust to the many changes occurring in the last decades of the 20th century. After receiving an MS in electrical engineering from Stanford and teaching at West Point for three years, Dave became the Management Information System Officer for the 82d Airborne Division at Fort Bragg in 1975. As OIC in charge of an IBM 360/30 with about 256 kilobytes of memory, he ran the division’s requisitioning system for all Class IX items, its property book, and its personnel system. After leaving the Army in 1976, he went to work for the Packard Electric Division of General Motors as a design engineer in the Advance Engineering Group. Here he worked on something called the “multiplexing project” which eventually evolved into a network system that allowed an engine’s control computers to handle many functions inside the automobile and communicate with those different functions over wire (much like the internet today).
In 1978 Dave moved to Electronic Engineering Times, a newspaper for electronic and electrical engineers published by CMP Publications. A fine writer and electronic engineer, Dave ran the section of the paper dealing with computers and data processing. The written content, however, still relied on electric typewriters and yellow copy paper, as well as typesetters, photo-set galleys, and photo-offset printing. Two years later Dave moved to Hayden Publishing as Editor-in-Chief of Computer Times, a start-up newspaper that folded a few months later. Dave remained with Hayden Publishing and became Executive Editor and then Editor-in-Chief for Personal Computing. By now he was using an Apple II computer with a long-since disappeared word processor. He saved his work on floppy disks (5 1/4") and sent them via messenger to the typesetter. After editing, the galleys went to the traditional cut-and-paste operation.
During this period Dave attended a memorable press conference on the introduction of the IBM personal computer. The individual giving the briefing announced that Microsoft MS-DOS would be the operating system of choice, not Digital Research’s CP/M operating system. Dave notes, “This is what started Microsoft on its meteoric rise.” He also notes that the introduction of the IBM personal computer “started the revolution in computing for business and personal use.” As editor-in-chief for Personal Computing, he had been reporting for about a year that business managers were sneaking personal computers into their offices and describing them as office equipment. In reality, they were putting computers into the hands of the users and taking them out of the hands of the “priesthood,” Dave’s word, that served the mainframe computers. He notes, “And now IBM, which made most of the mainframes, had ‘blessed’ the little personal computers, and we were all off to the races. Sales went through the roof, and complete industries sprang up almost overnight.”
Growing tired of the long commute to work, Dave quit in 1982 but worked at home, sending stories to the publication over a modem. He wrote, “I guess I was one of the first telecommuters, although we, in the computer press, had been writing about it for a while.” He used an Apple II computer with a Hayes 300 baud modem, which is slow by modern standards but which enabled him to submit his stories over his telephone line. Dave did this for a few years and then became an independent freelance writer. By this time, he was using a PC from Hewlett-Packard and a word processing package called XYWrite, which ran on personal computers but was compatible with a minicomputer-based word processing and typesetting system.5
In 1990 he returned to an office setting, working briefly for Electronics Magazine and then for Electronic Buyer’s News. He used a mainframe-based typesetting system but also had a PC in his office which he used for databases for his writing. The two systems were not networked very well, and he used the central system for composing his stories. By this time he was writing a half-page feature every week called “Technology to Watch,” a responsibility that exposed him to the latest developments in technology. In this rapidly changing environment, Dave moved from Electronic Buyer’s News to Windows Magazine, which was known as a “hot book” and had a circulation of about half a million. Dave was responsible for hardware and software reviews and had a staff of four technically competent writers do them. He wrote, “It was a lot of work, but we all got to play with new stuff all the time, so it was a lot of fun.”
During this period Dave witnessed significant advances in the management of information; he worked with a decentralized typesetting system that was based on PCs and Macs and connected with a network. He said: “We wrote the story, sent it over the network to the copy editors, who sent it to the art department, who laid it out on the pages, along with photos we received over email and forwarded to the art department. After the story was laid out in the page format, editors would proof for typos, and also cut stories to fit. When we got done with the page composition, we sent it to the central production department, which sent it, via direct telecom link, to the printing press, where the printers struck the offset plates and we were published. It saved so much time it was unbelievable. This is how everyone publishes newspapers and magazines today, but at the time, in the mid-to-late 90s, it was really gee-whiz stuff.”
Dave worked a while as Chief Technical Editor at VARBusiness Magazine, where he designed and then managed the magazine’s test lab for all sorts of computer-related products. Though the work was interesting, he soon moved to TechTarget.com, a company that focused on websites for professionals in the Information Technology business. While working at home, he needed only a computer, internet connection, and a telephone line. He wrote many tips himself, but he oversaw the creation and publication of many others. He wrote, “Before I got there, people called ‘site editors’ were doing tips, and they didn’t know a bit from a bazooka, so I was able to upgrade the technical quality of the tips and increase the volume significantly, which increased revenue significantly.” Dave concluded, “Since I was in technology writing, I got to be in pretty much on the ground floor of this publishing revolution. So I really went from yellow copy paper and pencil editing to computer-based page composition and direct transmission of pages to the printing press.”6
Another classmate who showed a remarkable ability to adapt and contribute significantly was Mike Connor. After he retired from the Army in 1992, Apple hired him to become the company’s first ever "Manager, Engineering Project Management.” He arrived at Apple during a time of great change in the internet and in computing. In 1990, there were about 300,000 computers on the Internet; by 1996, there were close to 10 million. Speaking of his “six-year adventure at Apple” where he implemented important project management practices, Mike wrote: “Projects included all software and hardware projects done at Apple between 1992 and 1997. I convinced Apple to develop software offshore around the world. By doing this they would be able to understand better the international marketplace, do software design, and build and test approximately 22 hours a day rather than the ten hours that engineers were putting in at Cupertino. Next I was asked to add ‘Software Configuration and Release Management’ to my responsibilities. I completely changed Apple's systems so that we could release software anywhere we manufactured in the world, and within seconds the software would be available at all manufacturing stations to be downloaded to computers on assembly lines. Consequently, Apple could make as few as one product at a time rather than the thousands of batch-made products with the previous system. The advantages of these changes made Apple the fastest computer manufacturer in the world to design, produce and implement new systems.”
“Next,” he said, “as Corporate VP I became Apple's first executive responsible for worldwide quality and reliability. At that time Apple had a serious quality problem, ranked in the bottom quarter of all computer manufacturers. Within one year Apple was ranked number one in quality and has maintained that position ever since. Additionally, in 1994 I was put in charge of determining and producing Apple's first commercial internet product. The ‘Apple Internet Connection Kit’ was sold in early 1995 as a separate software product. It allowed buyers to choose a service [provider], enter credit card info to create an account, access and do email, and browse the Internet using Netscape’s new browser. In three years connections to the Internet went from 3% to over 85% of Mac users. After the first year all Macs were sold with the connection software included. Soon, Microsoft, Dell, Hewlett Packard, et al copied us. Who knew then what the Internet would become?”
“Next,” he continued, “as corporate VP I became responsible for all internationalization and localization. I changed the way Apple did products for the international market by adding unicode to the software, thereby allowing simultaneous release of products worldwide. This changed how Apple released products into the marketplace, since the old serial method, extremely expensive and slow, meant some countries might never see a product. Next I was given responsibility for ‘Developer Tools.’ These are the software tools needed by developers to code software for Apple products. So by 1997 I had more than 3000 people working for me worldwide.”
Mike concluded, “With four CEOs in six years I was exhausted and needed a change. I elected to leave Apple in late 1997 and join ADP Brokerage, a major division of ADP responsible for more than one out of every five trades done on the NASDAQ and NY stock exchanges, the largest back-office operation in the world. I enabled the design and development of the hardware and software that permitted more than 100 brokerages (our customers) to enable on-line trading of securities by their customers, drastically lowering trading costs everywhere. I also got ADP through Y2K [or Year 2000 problem] successfully. In 2000 I was hired to return to California to integrate a $6.4 billion acquisition of ‘Global Center’ into Exodus Communications, then the largest datacenter provider in the world, with customers like Microsoft, Merrill Lynch, McDonalds, American Airlines and even a new startup called Google. What was expected to take a year to 18 months we accomplished in 5.5 months using advanced project management techniques that I perfected at Apple. When the dot com implosion happened in 2001 I was made CIO and then COO of Exodus. I took the company through bankruptcy.... Exodus was bought by Cable and Wireless and I became COO of C&W America.”
After retiring in 2003, Mike founded a nonprofit organization focused on helping children around the world, but in 2009 he went to work for a small startup, Verde Power Supply, Inc., which was later renamed Verde Power Solutions, Inc. Mike wrote: “Our focus: Inventing a new energy conversion paradigm that would radically change how we do energy conversion. This is a $70 billion market and when adopted will save over one half of the electricity energy produced in the world today. That means a potential of over $1 trillion saved every year.”7 One of the powerpoint slides explaining Verde Power’s business model states: “We approached energy conversion differently: Physics instead of electrical engineering.”8 OTHER OPPORTUNITIES TO TRANSFORM OURSELVES
Facing such challenges differently was only one of many “approaches” taken by members of our Class, for an environment of change surrounded all of us as we pursued our civilian careers. To adapt to the new environment and stay competitive, we often had to transform ourselves. While Dave Gabel’s and Mike Connor’s experiences were in computers, which came of age from the time we were cadets until the mid-point of our adult lives, they reflect how all of us--whether in business, manufacturing, financial services, legal fields, or the medical community--had to approach challenges differently, retool ourselves, rethink our strategic goals, adjust our tactical methods, etc.
The experiences of Chuck Shaw illustrate how we took advantage of emerging opportunities, entered new fields, and met new challenges. After leaving the Air Force, Chuck joined the Bank of the Southwest and worked first in Houston, Texas, and then in Paris. He initially was a loan officer in the oil and gas department and then dealt with oil and gas exploration and development in the Middle East and North Sea. In 1978 Chuck founded the Charles F. Shaw Vineyard and Winery in Napa Valley, California. He ran the vineyard and winery for 14 years and became well known for one of his wines, nick-named “Two Buck Chuck.” His bargain-priced premium wines succeeded so well that retailers could not keep them on the shelves. His wines introduced many non-wine drinkers to an inexpensive, drinkable wine and, in doing so, he greatly expanded the wine market in the U.S.9 Dave La Rochelle, who described himself as Chuck’s “chief wine taster,” recalled assisting Chuck during his first grape harvest in 1978. He said they picked some seven tons of grapes on a Sunday afternoon in Napa Valley.10 In 1992 Chuck sold the California vineyard and winery and became president of DataBase Network Systems, a custom database and network engineering contractor, but he eventually returned to the wine business, this time in Michigan. In 2011 he released his first Michigan wine, which he described as a “fine and delicate Riesling produced in the tradition of a classic Mosel Valley Spätlese.”11 Chuck observed, “Wine production and sales is really fun, and I hope to finish my life in the wine business as a producer.”12
Opportunities came from many sources, including advances in science. As a young Air Force captain, Rick Osgood developed a new highly efficient gas laser and received the Samuel Burka Award for best professional paper in the USAF Avionics Laboratory. After leaving the Air Force and receiving his Ph.D. in physics at MIT, he became a member of the scientific staff and then project leader at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, a federally funded research and development center that applied advanced technology to problems of national security. While there he began his service as a scientific advisor to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Secretary of Energy. He next moved to Columbia University where he was Higgins Professor of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics from 1981-2011. For many years he directed a 20-person group with research into advanced optical technology and another group with a focus on fundamental understanding of condensed matter and surface reactions. From 2000 to 2002 he served as Associate Director of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the national laboratory of the Department of Energy (DOE). He was director of Basic Energy Sciences, had $80 million in annual revenue, had 300 employees, and started the Center for Functional Nanomaterials.
Rick wrote: “My most notable achievement was managerially turning around the Basic Energy Sciences Directorate (BES) at Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island (BNL). When I went to BNL, DOE worried very much whether we could keep our large BES program. I left BNL a few years later with a new Nanoscience Department and Building, a new Materials Science Department, and the initial plan for a $1B Synchrotron Ring for X-ray studies (this facility is currently under construction).” Rick explained: “A synchrotron is a large circular tube of extremely high speed electrons, which typically gives off a narrow beam of X-ray light. They are used to study and understand biological systems and other forms of matter.”13 At one point he served on a national science committee with Tom Johnson to review advanced uranium isotope separation using lasers. Rick understood completely that research conducted at universities and national labs were essential for achieving important innovations and driving economic growth.
Some classmates helped shape innovations stemming from advances in science and technology and transform them into practical business opportunities. Dave Bodde took advantage of the fellowship he received from the Atomic Energy Commission upon graduation from USMA. After leaving the Army, he received a master’s degree in Nuclear Engineering, another in Management at MIT, and then a Ph.D. in Business Administration at Harvard. Working first for TRW, Inc., as a manager in the Engineering Analysis Office, he served as Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office and then Deputy Assistant Secretary in the DOE. He then moved to the National Academy of Sciences for four years as Executive Director of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems and then to the Midwest Research Institute where he was Corporate VP and President of MRI Ventures. In 1997 he returned to the academic world with a joint appointment at the University of Missouri, Kansas City; he was Professor of Engineering and Business Administration and held the Charles N. Kimball Chair in Technology and Innovation. In 2004 he moved to Clemson University where he was Senior Fellow and Professor in the Arthur M. Spiro Institute for Entrepreneurial Leadership. In this position he did research, taught, and consulted in technology and strategy in the energy industries, new venture investments, advanced energy technology, and corporate entrepreneurship. He also served as a Board Member and advisor to numerous venture-backed companies in energy and technology and worked especially on the transition from technology-based opportunity to practical business model. Adding to his illustrious career, he is the Founding Director of “The Commerce Funds,” a family of mutual funds with $2.2 billion under management in 2011. In his usual understated style, Dave noted, “Growth and Bond funds achieved a Morningstar 5-star ranking, 1995 to the present .”14