The Early Modern Period


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Name: ____________________ Period: _____


Unit Four: 1450 to 1750 CE

“The Early Modern Period”

Due Date: _________ Score: ____/30

This packet will guide you through the fourth unit in AP World History and prepare you for the reading quizzes, vocabulary quizzes, essays, and the unit test on January ___, 2010

You must complete ALL of the pages in the workbook by yourself to get credit; incomplete or incorrect work will result in a zero for the whole packet.

Unit 4 Vocabulary Terms
Quiz #1

  1. Scientific Revolution (p. 410)

  2. heliocentrism (p. 410)

  3. sacrament (p. 396)

  4. Renaissance (p. 405)

  5. bourgeoisie (p. 413)

  6. republic (p. 422)

  7. Protestant Reformation (p. 406)

  8. Jesuit (p. 409)

  9. joint-stock companies (p. 415)

  10. mercantilism (p. 468)

Quiz #2

  1. caravel (p. 384)

  2. conquistadors (p. 394)

  3. Columbian Exchange (p. 431)

  4. maritime (p. 402)

  5. manumission . (p.467)

  6. coerced labor systems (p.475)

  7. plantation cash crop (p.470)

  8. tariffs (p.469)

  9. indigenous (p.393)

  10. encomiendas (p. 439)

  11. serfs (p.529)

  12. mestizo (pp. 442 – 45)

Historical Thinking Skills: Periodization, Causation, Contextualization

Timeline Exercise: Annotate the timeline with two facts about the important effects of each event

Unit 3: 1450–1750 (Early Modern)

1453 Ottomans captured Constantinople; end of Byzantine

1450s Gutenberg’s Printing Press; Portuguese expand trade in West Africa: Benin, Kongo

1483 Babur conquered northern India, and founded the Mughal Empire

1492 Reconquista completed; Columbus claimed Americas for Spain

1498 Vasco da Gama attacked Calicut

1517 Martin Luther posted 95 theses

1521 Cortez conquered the Aztecs

1543 Copernican proof of heliocentrism published
1570s Manila Galleons Cross Pacific Ocean; Europeans Join Spice Trade in Asia

1588 English defeat of the Spanish Armada

1600s Beginnings of absolutism in Europe; seclusion act by Tokugawa in Japan; charters to British, Dutch, French East India Companies; Serfdom in Eastern Europe and Russia increases

1633 Galileo convicted of heresy for promoting heliocentrism; Calvinists flee to North America and South Africa
1644 End of Ming/Beginning of Qing Dynasty

1683 unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna

1689 Glorious Revolution/English Bill of Rights

Directions for Mapping the Columbian Exchange
Historical Thinking Skills: Plausible Historical Arguments, Relatedness of Historical Developments Across Space, Historical Causality

  1. Draw an outline map of the world from your memory (that’s called a mental map)

  2. Place the following items in the hemisphere of their origin:

    1. Eastern Hemisphere

      1. cows

      2. sheep

      3. pigs

      4. horses

      5. wheat

      6. rice

      7. cotton

      8. silk

      9. sugar

      10. coffee

      11. measles

      12. small pox

      13. chicken pox

      14. influenza

      15. bubonic plague

    1. Western Hemisphere

      1. turkey

      2. llama

      3. tobacco

      4. chocolate (cacao)

      5. corn (maize)

      6. squash

      7. beans

      8. chilies

      9. potatoes

      10. tomatoes

  1. Draw lines showing where the items went (they all should travel to the other hemisphere, except for llamas).

  1. Write a thesis statement explaining the major causes of the changes and continuities that resulted from the Columbian Exchange

Use the map above to compare the effects of the Columbian Exchange in Africa and the Americas. Be sure to include the effects on involuntary migrants from Africa. You can use the categories of political, economic, social, environmental, and/or cultural to guide you in categorizing the effects of the Columbian Exchange on these two regions.

Unique Effects on Native Americans

Similar Effects on Native Americans and Africans

Unique Effects on Africans

Which are your favorite Early Modern Empires and States?

Early Modern Empire and State

Check which three are your favorites.

Explain why you picked those three Early Modern Empires and/or States as your favorites:





Qing (Manchu)


Tokugawa Japan











What did early modern states (governments) have most in common?

Parallel Timelines on the Maritime Revolution to 1550

Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula

760 1250 1469 1492

Battle reconquered marriage of Expulsion of Jews

Of Tours all but Grenada Isabel&Ferdinand and Muslims; Granada; Columbus

Ottoman Conquests

1300 1389 1402 1453 1516-1517

defeat of Serbia SE Europe Constantinople Egypt

Seljuk Turks &Anatolia and Syria

Portuguese Atlantic Voyages

1415 1418-1460 1471 1486 1498 1500 Madeiras Ceuta and Elmina Benin trade, Kongo Vasco da Henry the Navigator fort Gama

Use the timelines and Chapter 15 to answer the following questions

  1. What do the timelines show about each empire (Spain, Ottomans, and Portuguese)? Which empire had the most maritime power by 1550?

  1. How do you think the Renaissance influenced the school of navigation created by the Portuguese prince Henry? Why did a Portuguese Prince establish a navigation school and the Spanish nobility were more focused on land as a form of power?

  1. Which influenced Isabel and Ferdinand more -- the Crusades or the expansion of the Ottoman Empire? What kind of sources would help you answer this question?

  1. Where did Isabel and Ferdinand get the funds for Columbus’ ships?

  1. Why were the Madeira Islands and Ceuta important for Portuguese maritime expansion?

  1. What events are missing from the timelines? Why might the missing events be important for determining which empire gained the most power by 1500?

How did Europeans get to the Renaissance and then to the Reformation?

(add notes on the blank lines)

Effects of Black Death and demise of some feudalism:

One third of Europeans died.  Many priests did not stay with their parish; the Pope retreated into palace and refused to see anyone and then fled to Avignon, this resulted in the Babylonian Captivity when the French kings kept the popes in Avignon. Since there were fewer peasants, they demanded and got higher wages and lower rents and taxes.

Cannons weakened feudal castles and knights

Effects of Trade (consumer goods, math/science/medicine knowledge from Muslim world)

Taxes on crafts and guilds and Change in attitude toward usury by Church

Corruption in Church

    • simony

    • nepotism

    • breaking vows of poverty and celibacy

1)  1471-84 Sixtus IV (Cardinal Francesco della Rovere)

  Nepotism:  appointed 5/11 nephews and one grandnephew to be cardinals
    He appointed 29 of the 34 cardinals in office during his tenure.  There were only supposed to be 24.
  He excommunicated Lorenzo de’Medici for hanging an archbiship.
2)  1484-92 Innocent VIII

  Indulgences:  He fathered two illegitimate children (son, Franceschetto, and daughter) as a young man.  Once he became pope, he arranged for his son to marry a daughter of Lorenzo de’Medici.  The party at the Vatican was so extravagant that he had to mortgage the papal tiara and other treasures.  He also set up the Bureau For Sale of Favors and Pardons (for death penalty).  Each purchase was 150 ducats:  half went to the pope and the other half went to his son.

3)  1492-1503 Alexander VI

  Nepotism:  He got his cardinalship from his uncle, Pope Glixtus III
  Simony:  He bought his position with four mule loads of gold.
  Lack of chastity:  As a cardinal he fathered a son and two daughters with various women.     Then with his mistress, Vanozza de Cataneis, he had 3 sons and a daughter.  He arranged two marriages for his mistress.

4)  1503-1513 Julius II

  Indulgences:  He used sales of indulgences to hire 2500 laborers to demolish   the Basilica, build the St. Peter’s cathedral, and commission Michelangelo to paint the ceiling.  Monk Tetzel in German states.

5)  1513-21 Leo X

  Simony:  He was a de’Medici and his family bribed cardinals.
  Immoral materialist excess:  his coronation was like a Renaissance festival.

Schisms in Christianity and eventually Protestants

  1. Nestorianism 5th century C.E. (Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople held that Mary bore a human not a divine child).

  1. Christianity in India by 6th C. C.E. had some links to Thomism but today claims to be Roman Catholic

  1. Roman Catholic split from Eastern Orthodox definite by Fourth crusade in 12th century C.E.; Orthodox Churches also in Egypt, Syria, Serbia, Greece, Ethiopia, and Russia

  1. Corruption in Catholic Church:

  1. relaxed ban on usury increased profits for merchants in Italian city-states

  1. Renaissance emphasis on beauty and pleasure (examples from art)

Paintings of “Madonna and Child” and other famous Renaissance paintings

Portraits of popes


  1. indulgences expanded to raise money for Sistine Chapel and other church projects

  1. Protestant split from Roman Catholic Church:

  • Martin Luther -- 1517 – He posted 95 theses

  • John Calvin – 1533 (theocracy in Geneva); predestination; Puritans/Pilgrims

  • Anabaptists – early 16th c. (only adults should be baptized)

  • Henry VIII – 1534 “Parliamentary Act of Supremacy” created the Church of England (Anglican)

  1. Counter-Reformation after Council of Trent (1545 – 1563)

    1. Jesuit missionaries expanded what Franciscans and Dominicans began; missionaries active with mariners in Americas and Asia

    2. Carmelites gave personal prayer options

What was the global effect of the European Renaissance and Reformation?

Who was the best at early modern conquests?

  • Spanish Reconquista expanded to the Americas and later to Pacific (failure: Spanish Armada)

  • Ottoman Expansion from Central Asia to Anatolia to Mediterranean (failure: Vienna and Battle of Lepanto)

  • Russian Expansion from Moscow east to Kazan/Central Asia, Siberia, Pacific and west to Baltic and attempts at Black Sea region (various battles with the Ottomans, Swedes, Qing)

Who was the best Early Modern State?

  • Spanish monarchy of Isabella and Ferdinand to Charles (Hapsburg) to Philip II; intertwined with other European monarchies; Roman Catholic Church and Inquisition; extensive colonial governments; mercantilism and monopoly on silver for Asian trade (pirate problem); French immigrant workers into Spain; African slave trade for plantations in Caribbean; encomienda system in Americas

  • Ottoman sultans (no rules for succession); extensive bureaucracies Janissaries; Islam; millet system for Jewish and Christian subjects; capitulations to European merchants; tax farming; slave markets mostly for domestic work and trade

  • Russian czars; Russian Orthodox Church; Cossack mercenaries; serfs and boyars; furs and lumber

Definition of Absolutism – Absolute Rulers

  • Ultimate political power, sovereignty, rested in the person of the monarch

  • Rule by divine right; the monarch is responsible only to God

  • Used bureaucracies to raise taxes, apply mercantilism, and maintain a standing army

  • Bureaucrats usually came from the nobility, but in France the bureaucracy was filled with men of the middle class. Bureaucrats composed of career officials accountable only to the king.

Model of Absolute Ruler: Louis XIV, King of France, reigned 1643-1715

  • Required that the French nobility live at his palace Versailles for several months a year

  • Created a permanent party at Versailles so the nobility would get status for being invited but little power to influence matters of state

  • Never called a meeting of the Estates General, the French legislature

  • Created a spy network to keep an eye of the nobility which might seek to overthrow him

  • Old feudal agreements prevented him from taxing the nobility

  • Gave exemptions to much of the middle class; the poor climate – wet and cold in the summer (1688, 1694)– made it difficult to keep raising taxes on the peasants

  • Applied mercantilism to raise money for the state

  • Wanted to implement: one king, one law, one faith, e.g. revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685; Hugenots fled to Holland, Prussia, and England

DIRECTIONS: In this box, draw a portrait of an absolute ruler and annotate how the portrait shows the power she or he held in the early modern period.

Early Modern Empires Created by European Monarchs


  1. color the empires in the key

  2. identify what religion (Protestant/Catholic) was dominant for each European empire

  3. color each port city for the European country(s) which controlled it

How does the map support the argument that European economic power increased beginning in the early modern period?



Compare the Muslim Empires in the Early Modern Period

(Directions: highlight the similarities)


1300 – 1917


1502 - 1722


1526 - 1761

Main Religions: Sunni Islam, Orthodox Christianity, Judaism a minority

Main Religions: Shi’a Islam, Armenian Christianity (merchants), Sunni Islam and Judaism a minority

Main Religions:

Hinduism and Islam, Sufi missionaries, Sikhism (16th c.), few Buddhists, Judaism and Christianity a minority

Government: Sultan but claimed caliphate as well

Famous rulers—

Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520 – 1566)

Government: Shah (emperor) of Persia/Iran

Famous rulers—

Shah Ismail (r. 1502 – ~1530),

Shah Abbas I (r. 1587 – 1629)



Famous rulers—

Akbar the Great (r. 1556 – 1605),

Shah Jahan (1627 – 1658) [Taj Mahal], Aurangzeb (r. 1658 – 1707)

Toleration of Difference:

Millet system

Little Toleration of Difference:

Forced conversion to Shi’ite Islam

Uneven Toleration of Difference:

Hindus part of military & govt. Fighting against rebel Hindu forces

Creation of Sikhism

Aurangzeb tried to rid Indian Islam of Hindu influences; forbade construction of new Hindu temples



Janissaries armed with guns paid by treasury

Mounted Turkish cavalry rewarded with land then tax farming

Navy (90 warships)

Defeat in 1571 at Lepanto

Venice paid tribute

Ottoman navy assisted Muslims in Red Sea and Persian Gulf against Portuguese



Turkic-warriors-nobles assigned peasant villages to supply them with food and labor

Slave corps of professional soldiers with guns

No navy



Nonhereditary land revenues to military officers (both Muslim and Hindu) and govt. officials


No navy

Economic System:

Taxes on Agricultural base

Trade with Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, Silk Road, Eastern Europe

Economic System:

Taxes on Agricultural base

Trade with Indian Ocean, Silk Road

Economic System:

Taxes on Agricultural base

Trade with Indian Ocean, Silk Road, Southeast Asia

Industrial workshops:

Rugs, weapons, ceramics, miniature paintings, metal utensils, monumental architecture

Industrial workshops:

Silk, Rugs, weapons, miniature paintings, metal utensils, monumental architecture

Industrial workshops:

Textiles especially cotton and cashmere (Kashmir), miniature paintings

Gender Roles:


Suleiman’s wife exception

Elite Muslim women secluded; Islamic court records show women asserting marriage and inheritance rights

Gender Roles:


Elite Muslim women secluded

Gender Roles:


Elite Muslim and Hindu women secluded;

Akbar tried to outlaw sati (Widow self-immolation) and child brides; created special market for women so they could trade

Early Modern Empires of the Islamic World

Directions: color in the key and then use those colors to identify which empire controlled all of the cities listed on the map
Compare the political, economic, and social structures in the three empires on the map above.

Use the map below to write a thesis statement taking a position on the political and social effects of silver in the early modern world economy.

Essay Question: “Compare the development of empire-building from 1450 – 1750 of two of the following empires: Spanish, Ottoman, Russian”

Annotate and score the following “essay” using the APWH comparative essay rubric

Essay #1

Like Qing China and Tokugawa Japan, the Islamic empires largely retained control of their own affairs throughout the early modern era. Ruling elites of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires came from nomadic Turkic-speaking peoples, and they all drew on steppe traditions in organizing their governments while keeping the needs of their agriculturally-based subjects in mind.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, all the Islamic empires enjoyed productive economies that enabled merchants to participate actively in the global trade networks of early modern times. By the early eighteenth century, however, these same empires were experiencing economic difficulties that led to political and military decline. Like the Ming, Qing, and Tokugawa rulers in East Asia, the Islamic emperors mostly sought to limit European imports and cultural influences. The Ottomans and Mughals ruled peoples with diverse religions and cultures, but the Muslim clerics (ulama) promoted Islamic values and advised against the use of the European printing press and innovations in European scientific knowledge.
By the late eighteenth century, the Safavid Empire had collapsed, while decreasing tax revenues and growing European military strength weakened the power of the Ottoman and Mughal political elites.

Slavery in Africa

(Underline the key ideas that show how the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade developed.)

How did people become slaves in Africa before European merchants arrived?

  • If one were cut off from an African lineage one could be enslaved by another lineage. This could happen through war, through punishment for crime, or as a consequence of not being able to pay debts. Slaves were put to work in fields, mines, and on trading routes; their allocation was controlled by (and benefited) the elite.

Early trading posts

  • Europeans initially focused on gold, ivory, and wood products; later they began focusing more on slave trade, as opportunities expanded for plantation development.

  • Portuguese established trading posts (feitoria) at islands of São Tomé Principe (1470) and Fernando Po (1471) in Bight of Biafra, plus mainland posts on the "gold coast" of Ghana.
  • First region of slave derivation in 1400s was the western coast closest to the Cape Verde Islands: "Guinea of Cape Verde".

The 1500s: focus on Central Africa

  • During the 1500s the Portuguese expanded slave exports from the Congo and the Ndongo Kingdom in Angola.

  • Kingdom of Kongo (Bakongo) included 60,000 square miles with 2.5 million people. The Kongo king was baptized by the Portuguese, but the kingdom collapsed as the king failed to monopolize the slave trade. Portuguese soldiers and mulattos moved into the interior, capturing slaves, imposing a slave tribute on local leaders, and purchasing slaves at markets. Eventually a series of kingdoms arose in central Africa that controlled the trade in slaves all the way to the eastern coast.

1600s and 1700s: West Africa

  • The Portuguese were replaced by the Dutch and later by British in slave trade.

  • The British influenced the growing importance of West Africa: the coast between Liberia (grain coast) and mouths of the Niger (slave coast).

  • Trade was often controlled by African "big men" who established city-states with the help of European firearms and supplied slaves to traders. During the 1700s the Asante expanded in Ghana on the basis of selling their military captives as slaves in exchange for guns and other resources. The state of Benin played a similar role in Nigeria. In the Niger delta, kinship lineages rather than states controlled the trade as kinds of corporations or mafias based on control of the slave trade, and cemented by elaborate religious beliefs (oracles which could determine guilt of witches, sorcerers, or ordinary criminals).
  • In 1800s, the British stopped most of the slave trade but Brazil continued to receive slaves from Congo and Angola

  • The result of massive slave trade was an implantation of African cultural influences, perhaps including cattle herding, agricultural items, religious practices, languages, and burial practices.

Comparing African Diasporas
Define Diaspora:

(Fill in the following chart from information in Chapters 17 and 18.)

Contributions of Africans in the Americas

English Colonies in North America

French and English Colonies in the Caribbean

Portuguese Colony in Brazil

Spanish Colony in Mexico


What kind of forced labor did African slaves do? What kind of

industrial work did African slaves and freed people of color do?


What kind of self-directed labor did African slaves do? How did African slaves participate in local markets? What kind of industrial/non-agricultural work did African slaves do for themselves?

Social: What kind of private and public

relationships did African slaves have with European owners/overseers?


What kind of relationships did African slaves have with other African slaves? With freed people of color? With Native Americans? With people of mixed European/Native American/African heritage?


How did social and economic restraints on African slaves affect the development of law and attitudes of slave owners and others who profited from the slave trade or economic systems which depended on slave labor?

Comparing the African Diasporas:
1. What is a broad generalization you can make about the impact of the African Diasporas in the different regions of the Americas?

2. What is a more narrow generalization you can make about the impact of the African Diasporas in the different regions of the Americas?

3. What are some specific details that support your generalizations?

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