Timeline Exercise: Annotate the timeline with two facts about the important effects of each event
Unit 3: 1450–1750 (Early Modern)
1453 Ottomans captured Constantinople; end of Byzantine
1450s Gutenberg’s Printing Press; Portuguese expand trade in West Africa: Benin, Kongo
1483 Babur conquered northern India, and founded the Mughal Empire
1492 Reconquista completed; Columbus claimed Americas for Spain
1498 Vasco da Gama attacked Calicut
1517 Martin Luther posted 95 theses
1521 Cortez conquered the Aztecs
1543 Copernican proof of heliocentrism published
1570s Manila Galleons Cross Pacific Ocean; Europeans Join Spice Trade in Asia
1588 English defeat of the Spanish Armada
1600s Beginnings of absolutism in Europe; seclusion act by Tokugawa in Japan; charters to British, Dutch, French East India Companies; Serfdom in Eastern Europe and Russia increases
1633 Galileo convicted of heresy for promoting heliocentrism; Calvinists flee to North America and South Africa
1644 End of Ming/Beginning of Qing Dynasty
1683 unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna
1689 Glorious Revolution/English Bill of Rights
Directions for Mapping the Columbian Exchange Historical Thinking Skills: Plausible Historical Arguments, Relatedness of Historical Developments Across Space, Historical Causality
Draw an outline map of the world from your memory (that’s called a mental map)
Place the following items in the hemisphere of their origin:
Draw lines showing where the items went (they all should travel to the other hemisphere, except for llamas).
Write a thesis statement explaining the major causes of the changes and continuities that resulted from the Columbian Exchange
Use the map above to compare the effects of the Columbian Exchange in Africa and the Americas. Be sure to include the effects on involuntary migrants from Africa. You can use the categories of political, economic, social, environmental, and/or cultural to guide you in categorizing the effects of the Columbian Exchange on these two regions.
Which are your favorite Early Modern Empires and States?
Early Modern Empire and State
Check which three are your favorites.
Explain why you picked those three Early Modern Empires and/or States as your favorites:
What did early modern states (governments) have most in common?
Parallel Timelines on the Maritime Revolution to 1550Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula
760 1250 1469 1492
Battle reconquered marriage of Expulsion of Jews
Of Tours all but Grenada Isabel&Ferdinand and Muslims; Granada; Columbus
1300 1389 1402 1453 1516-1517
defeat of Serbia SE Europe Constantinople Egypt
Seljuk Turks &Anatolia and Syria
Portuguese Atlantic Voyages
1415 1418-1460 1471 1486 1498 1500 Madeiras Ceuta and Elmina Benin trade, Kongo Vasco da Henry the Navigator fort Gama
Use the timelines and Chapter 15 to answer the following questions
What do the timelines show about each empire (Spain, Ottomans, and Portuguese)? Which empire had the most maritime power by 1550?
How do you think the Renaissance influenced the school of navigation created by the Portuguese prince Henry? Why did a Portuguese Prince establish a navigation school and the Spanish nobility were more focused on land as a form of power?
Which influenced Isabel and Ferdinand more -- the Crusades or the expansion of the Ottoman Empire? What kind of sources would help you answer this question?
Where did Isabel and Ferdinand get the funds for Columbus’ ships?
Why were the Madeira Islands and Ceuta important for Portuguese maritime expansion?
What events are missing from the timelines? Why might the missing events be important for determining which empire gained the most power by 1500?
How did Europeans get to the Renaissance and then to the Reformation?
(add notes on the blank lines)
Effects of Black Death and demise of some feudalism:
One third of Europeans died. Many priests did not stay with their parish; the Pope retreated into palace and refused to see anyone and then fled to Avignon, this resulted in the Babylonian Captivity when the French kings kept the popes in Avignon. Since there were fewer peasants, they demanded and got higher wages and lower rents and taxes.
Cannons weakened feudal castles and knights
Effects of Trade (consumer goods, math/science/medicine knowledge from Muslim world)
Taxes on crafts and guilds and Change in attitude toward usury by Church
Corruption in Church
breaking vows of poverty and celibacy
1) 1471-84 Sixtus IV (Cardinal Francesco della Rovere)
Nepotism: appointed 5/11 nephews and one grandnephew to be cardinals
He appointed 29 of the 34 cardinals in office during his tenure. There were only supposed to be 24.
He excommunicated Lorenzo de’Medici for hanging an archbiship.
2) 1484-92 Innocent VIII
Indulgences: He fathered two illegitimate children (son, Franceschetto, and daughter) as a young man. Once he became pope, he arranged for his son to marry a daughter of Lorenzo de’Medici. The party at the Vatican was so extravagant that he had to mortgage the papal tiara and other treasures. He also set up the Bureau For Sale of Favors and Pardons (for death penalty). Each purchase was 150 ducats: half went to the pope and the other half went to his son.
3) 1492-1503 Alexander VI
Nepotism: He got his cardinalship from his uncle, Pope Glixtus III
Simony: He bought his position with four mule loads of gold.
Lack of chastity: As a cardinal he fathered a son and two daughters with various women. Then with his mistress, Vanozza de Cataneis, he had 3 sons and a daughter. He arranged two marriages for his mistress.
4) 1503-1513 Julius II
Indulgences: He used sales of indulgences to hire 2500 laborers to demolish the Basilica, build the St. Peter’s cathedral, and commission Michelangelo to paint the ceiling. Monk Tetzel in German states.
5) 1513-21 Leo X
Simony: He was a de’Medici and his family bribed cardinals.
Immoral materialist excess: his coronation was like a Renaissance festival.
Schisms in Christianity and eventually Protestants
Nestorianism 5th century C.E. (Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople held that Mary bore a human not a divine child).
Christianity in India by 6th C. C.E. had some links to Thomism but today claims to be Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic split from Eastern Orthodox definite by Fourth crusade in 12th century C.E.; Orthodox Churches also in Egypt, Syria, Serbia, Greece, Ethiopia, and Russia
Corruption in Catholic Church:
relaxed ban on usury increased profits for merchants in Italian city-states
Renaissance emphasis on beauty and pleasure (examples from art)
Paintings of “Madonna and Child” and other famous Renaissance paintings
Portraits of popes
indulgences expanded to raise money for Sistine Chapel and other church projects
Protestant split from Roman Catholic Church:
Martin Luther -- 1517 – He posted 95 theses
John Calvin – 1533 (theocracy in Geneva); predestination; Puritans/Pilgrims
Anabaptists – early 16th c. (only adults should be baptized)
Henry VIII – 1534 “Parliamentary Act of Supremacy” created the Church of England (Anglican)
Counter-Reformation after Council of Trent (1545 – 1563)
Jesuit missionaries expanded what Franciscans and Dominicans began; missionaries active with mariners in Americas and Asia
Carmelites gave personal prayer options
What was the global effect of the European Renaissance and Reformation?
Who was the best at early modern conquests?
Spanish Reconquista expanded to the Americas and later to Pacific (failure: Spanish Armada)
Ottoman Expansion from Central Asia to Anatolia to Mediterranean (failure: Vienna and Battle of Lepanto)
Russian Expansion from Moscow east to Kazan/Central Asia, Siberia, Pacific and west to Baltic and attempts at Black Sea region (various battles with the Ottomans, Swedes, Qing)
Who was the best Early Modern State?
Spanish monarchy of Isabella and Ferdinand to Charles (Hapsburg) to Philip II; intertwined with other European monarchies; Roman Catholic Church and Inquisition; extensive colonial governments; mercantilism and monopoly on silver for Asian trade (pirate problem); French immigrant workers into Spain; African slave trade for plantations in Caribbean; encomienda system in Americas
Ottoman sultans (no rules for succession); extensive bureaucracies Janissaries; Islam; millet system for Jewish and Christian subjects; capitulations to European merchants; tax farming; slave markets mostly for domestic work and trade
Russian czars; Russian Orthodox Church; Cossack mercenaries; serfs and boyars; furs and lumber
Definition of Absolutism – Absolute Rulers
Ultimate political power, sovereignty, rested in the person of the monarch
Rule by divine right; the monarch is responsible only to God
Used bureaucracies to raise taxes, apply mercantilism, and maintain a standing army
Bureaucrats usually came from the nobility, but in France the bureaucracy was filled with men of the middle class. Bureaucrats composed of career officials accountable only to the king.
Model of Absolute Ruler: Louis XIV, King of France, reigned 1643-1715
Required that the French nobility live at his palace Versailles for several months a year
Created a permanent party at Versailles so the nobility would get status for being invited but little power to influence matters of state
Never called a meeting of the Estates General, the French legislature
Created a spy network to keep an eye of the nobility which might seek to overthrow him
Old feudal agreements prevented him from taxing the nobility
Gave exemptions to much of the middle class; the poor climate – wet and cold in the summer (1688, 1694)– made it difficult to keep raising taxes on the peasants
Applied mercantilism to raise money for the state
Wanted to implement: one king, one law, one faith, e.g. revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 1685; Hugenots fled to Holland, Prussia, and England
DIRECTIONS: In this box, draw a portrait of an absolute ruler and annotate how the portrait shows the power she or he held in the early modern period.
Early Modern Empires Created by European Monarchs
color the empires in the key
identify what religion (Protestant/Catholic) was dominant for each European empire
color each port city for the European country(s) which controlled it
How does the map support the argument that European economic power increased beginning in the early modern period?
Hindus part of military & govt. Fighting against rebel Hindu forces
Creation of Sikhism
Aurangzeb tried to rid Indian Islam of Hindu influences; forbade construction of new Hindu temples
Janissaries armed with guns paid by treasury
Mounted Turkish cavalry rewarded with land then tax farming
Navy (90 warships)
Defeat in 1571 at Lepanto
Venice paid tribute
Ottoman navy assisted Muslims in Red Sea and Persian Gulf against Portuguese
Turkic-warriors-nobles assigned peasant villages to supply them with food and labor
Slave corps of professional soldiers with guns
Nonhereditary land revenues to military officers (both Muslim and Hindu) and govt. officials
Taxes on Agricultural base
Trade with Mediterranean, Indian Ocean, Silk Road, Eastern Europe
Taxes on Agricultural base Trade with Indian Ocean, Silk Road
Taxes on Agricultural base
Trade with Indian Ocean, Silk Road, Southeast Asia
Rugs, weapons, ceramics, miniature paintings, metal utensils, monumental architecture
Silk, Rugs, weapons, miniature paintings, metal utensils, monumental architecture
Textiles especially cotton and cashmere (Kashmir), miniature paintings
Suleiman’s wife exception
Elite Muslim women secluded; Islamic court records show women asserting marriage and inheritance rights
Elite Muslim women secluded
Elite Muslim and Hindu women secluded;
Akbar tried to outlaw sati (Widow self-immolation) and child brides; created special market for women so they could trade
Early Modern Empires of the Islamic World
Directions: color in the key and then use those colors to identify which empire controlled all of the cities listed on the map
Compare the political, economic, and social structures in the three empires on the map above.
Use the map below to write a thesis statement taking a position on the political and social effects of silver in the early modern world economy.
Essay Question: “Compare the development of empire-building from 1450 – 1750 of two of the following empires: Spanish, Ottoman, Russian”
Annotate and score the following “essay” using the APWH comparative essay rubric
Like Qing China and Tokugawa Japan, the Islamic empires largely retained control of their own affairs throughout the early modern era. Ruling elites of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires came from nomadic Turkic-speaking peoples, and they all drew on steppe traditions in organizing their governments while keeping the needs of their agriculturally-based subjects in mind.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, all the Islamic empires enjoyed productive economies that enabled merchants to participate actively in the global trade networks of early modern times. By the early eighteenth century, however, these same empires were experiencing economic difficulties that led to political and military decline. Like the Ming, Qing, and Tokugawa rulers in East Asia, the Islamic emperors mostly sought to limit European imports and cultural influences. The Ottomans and Mughals ruled peoples with diverse religions and cultures, but the Muslim clerics (ulama) promoted Islamic values and advised against the use of the European printing press and innovations in European scientific knowledge.
By the late eighteenth century, the Safavid Empire had collapsed, while decreasing tax revenues and growing European military strength weakened the power of the Ottoman and Mughal political elites.
Slavery in Africa
(Underline the key ideas that show how the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade developed.)
How did people become slaves in Africa before European merchants arrived?
If one were cut off from an African lineage one could be enslaved by another lineage. This could happen through war, through punishment for crime, or as a consequence of not being able to pay debts. Slaves were put to work in fields, mines, and on trading routes; their allocation was controlled by (and benefited) the elite.
Early trading posts
Europeans initially focused on gold, ivory, and wood products; later they began focusing more on slave trade, as opportunities expanded for plantation development.
Portuguese established trading posts (feitoria) at islands of São Tomé Principe (1470) and Fernando Po (1471) in Bight of Biafra, plus mainland posts on the "gold coast" of Ghana.
First region of slave derivation in 1400s was the western coast closest to the Cape Verde Islands: "Guinea of Cape Verde".
The 1500s: focus on Central Africa
During the 1500s the Portuguese expanded slave exports from the Congo and the Ndongo Kingdom in Angola.
Kingdom of Kongo (Bakongo) included 60,000 square miles with 2.5 million people. The Kongo king was baptized by the Portuguese, but the kingdom collapsed as the king failed to monopolize the slave trade. Portuguese soldiers and mulattos moved into the interior, capturing slaves, imposing a slave tribute on local leaders, and purchasing slaves at markets. Eventually a series of kingdoms arose in central Africa that controlled the trade in slaves all the way to the eastern coast.
The Portuguese were replaced by the Dutch and later by British in slave trade.
The British influenced the growing importance of West Africa: the coast between Liberia (grain coast) and mouths of the Niger (slave coast).
Trade was often controlled by African "big men" who established city-states with the help of European firearms and supplied slaves to traders. During the 1700s the Asante expanded in Ghana on the basis of selling their military captives as slaves in exchange for guns and other resources. The state of Benin played a similar role in Nigeria. In the Niger delta, kinship lineages rather than states controlled the trade as kinds of corporations or mafias based on control of the slave trade, and cemented by elaborate religious beliefs (oracles which could determine guilt of witches, sorcerers, or ordinary criminals).
In 1800s, the British stopped most of the slave trade but Brazil continued to receive slaves from Congo and Angola
The result of massive slave trade was an implantation of African cultural influences, perhaps including cattle herding, agricultural items, religious practices, languages, and burial practices.
Comparing African Diasporas Define Diaspora:
(Fill in the following chart from information in Chapters 17 and 18.)
Contributions of Africans in the Americas
English Colonies in North America
French and English Colonies in the Caribbean
Portuguese Colony in Brazil
Spanish Colony in Mexico
What kind of forced labor did African slaves do? What kind of
industrial work did African slaves and freed people of color do?
What kind of self-directed labor did African slaves do? How did African slaves participate in local markets? What kind of industrial/non-agricultural work did African slaves do for themselves?
Social: What kind of private and public
relationships did African slaves have with European owners/overseers?
What kind of relationships did African slaves have with other African slaves? With freed people of color? With Native Americans? With people of mixed European/Native American/African heritage?
How did social and economic restraints on African slaves affect the development of law and attitudes of slave owners and others who profited from the slave trade or economic systems which depended on slave labor?
Comparing the African Diasporas: 1. What is a broad generalization you can make about the impact of the African Diasporas in the different regions of the Americas?
2. What is a more narrow generalization you can make about the impact of the African Diasporas in the different regions of the Americas?
3. What are some specific details that support your generalizations?