The Illinois Open 2004: The Philosophy of Spite Tossups by uc berkeley


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The Illinois Open 2004: The Philosophy of Spite

Tossups by UC Berkeley (Juliana Froggatt, Jeff Hoppes, and Ray Luo, feat. Paul Reverdy and Larry Wang)
Tossup 1. Events of this type occurred in Poland at Iese in 1941, and at Kielce in 1946. An archetypal one of these occurred at Kishinev in April, 1903,after a period of about twenty years during which few occurred, though they had been systematically condoned since 1881. The Black Hundreds and their armed wing, the Yellow Shirts, actively supported them, and Okhranka, the Tsarist secret police, probably organized them. For ten points, name these organized, governmentally condoned attacks on Jewish communities, named for the Russian for riot.

Answer: pogroms

Tossup 2. This being’s nose is so long that it rattles the even her high ceiling when she snores, and she always snores. She can fly through the air in a large iron kettle, or in a mortar that she rows with a pestle, and she lives with two identical sisters who, despite their voracious appetites, are all thin as a skeletons. She lives in the woods accompanied by ghostly servants and three colorfully described horsemen, and the hut that she calls home is protected by an iron fence topped with human skulls, and constantly spins on bird’s legs. For ten points, name this guardian of the fountain of the waters of life and death; the iron-toothed witch of the Russian forest.

Answer: Baba-Yaga (or Baba-jaga)

Tossup 3. This writer’s poems include “A letter left behind” and “…your feelings, thin as summer clothes,” and are collected in a namesake shu, a collection of 128 tanka
. The nikki is a diary that this author kept for about three years, and that provides most of what we know of her life. The name by which this writer is generally known is a compound of the name of a character from her most famous work, and the term for a position in the Bureau of Ceremony held by this writer’s father. Married to Nobutaka, she was given a man’s education, much against the customs of Heian-era Japan. For ten points, name this lady in waiting to Empress Akiko and author of The Tale of Genji.

Answer: Murasaki Shikibu

Tossup 4. A 1935 personal crisis caused this composer to shift decidedly towards religious music, and recitals with baritone Pierre Bernac during this time resulted in one of his most performed works, the 1959 Gloria. He was well known in his homeland even before taking lessons with Koechlin and writing the ballet Les Biches for Diaghilev. Although he wrote orchestral works like the Organ Concerto and chamber works like his Sonatas for flute, oboe, and clarinet, he may be best known for piano works like 1918’s Sonata for Piano Duet and Trois Movuvements Perpétuels, and for an opera that depicts a couple who swap roles. For ten points, name this member of Les Six who composed music for the absurd Apollinaire piece Les mamalles de Tiresias.

Answer: Francis Poulenc

Tossup 5. The Peace of Rueil ended the first of these with a negotiated settlement making concessions to parliamentary grievances. The Grande Conde, victor of the battle of Rocroi, shortly instigated a second one, but was forced to flee to the Spanish by Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin. For ten points, a sling popular on the streets of Paris gives its name to what series of seventeenth century uprisings against the French crown?

Answer: the Frondes

Tossup 6. Modigliani’s “Caryatid” and Matisse’s “Backs” series pay homage to this other series, and one of their umber, notable for its completion in 1516, stands in the Louvre, its left hand resting uneasily on the back of its head. Four of them are currently housed in the Galleria dell’Accademia but, until the late 1700’s, they could be found in the grotto of the Boboli Gardens, for which they are sometimes named. Their artist worked on these 7’5” marbles for 40 years, but left them unfinished after his patron, Pope Julius II, died, his tomb incomplete. For ten points, name these Michelangelo statues in varying degrees of completion that line the walk to his David and are named because their subjects can’t get out of the rock in which they’re carved.

Answer: Prisoners (or Prigioni or Dying Captives or Bound Slaves or Boboli Captives; accept anything reasonably close, since they don’t have an “official” title)

Tossup 7. This writer studied effective methods of debate for assemblies in Essay on Political Tactics and of trial for courts in Rationale of Judicial Evidence. The author of Constitutional Code and Manual of Political Economy, this thinker attracted the attention of Lord Shelburne after criticizing Blackstone's Commentaries in A Fragment on Government. His Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation proposed a “hedonic calculus” and advocated the greatest good for the greatest number. For ten points, name this son of a lawyer who drempt-up the panopticon and founded of utilitarianism.

Answer: Jeremy Bentham

Tossup 8. Edward Long's 1774 history celebrated the plantation culture of this place, but its less than enthusiastic slaves fled to its mountainous interior, where they fought two "Maroon Wars" against the British authorities. Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent settlement here at New Seville in 1509, while 1534 saw the founding of Santiago de la Vega, which would later be known as Spanish Town. This island served as a base for the pirate Henry Morgan after Penn captured it in 1655. For ten points, name this West Indian nation whose capital was moved is Kingston.

Answer: Jamaica

Tossup 9. This work in eight sections of fifteen lines each notes that the central concept “must live within herself” at line twenty-three, and discusses the early life of Jove, saying “No mother suckled him” at line thirty-two. Asking “What is divinity if it can come / Only in silent shadows and dreams?” a woman sits amidst "Complacencies of the peignoir," dreaming a little and feeling “the dark encroachment of that old catastrophe.” Although she still feels “the need for some imperishable bliss,” she is skeptical of religion severed from the real world. For ten points, name this early Wallace Stevens poem that takes place at a time designated for church going.

Answer: "Sunday Morning"

Tossup 10. “For me, novel writing is a virtuoso performance. It is not a collaborative art” she proclaimed in her a recent, and most public, response to critics who, in her words, “used [] as if it were a public urinal to publish falsehood and lies” about her latest book. The book she refers to is Blood Canticle, which is, mercifully, the last in a series that she has been publishing since 1977. If you want your money back, you can write to the New Orleans address posted by, for ten points, which author of Exit to Eden and Interview with the Vampire?

Answer: Anne Rice (or Howard Allen O’Brien)

Tossup 11. This being saved Thrud from having to marry the dwarf Alvis by keeping him up with tests of wisdom until the sun rose, at which point Alvis turned to stone. He slew Gerriod with the help of some things he borrowed from Grid, though he was unable to defeat the goddess Elli in a wrestling match. With Jarnsaxa, he fathered Modi and Magni; and his wife was a goddess whose golden hair had to be replaced by Ivaldi’s sons after Loki cut it off, Sif. For ten points, name this might son of Jord and Odin; the Norse god of thunder.

Answer: Thor (or Donar)

Tossup 12. In this work, Beriah Sellers is revealed as a heartless criminal before being disgraced by his embroilment in a railroad finance imbroglio. This work initially centers on a scheme of Abner Dilworthy to establish a public university in Tennessee through massive graft, which scheme is foiled when Dilworthy’s partner in crime shoots Sellers in New York. Laura Hawkins is then acquitted due to temporary insanity and attempts to establish herself on the lecture circuit, but is booed off stage and dies of remorse; a melodramatic touch that was inserted at the behest of the authors’ wives. Senator Dilworthy is based upon Samuel Pomeroy in, for ten points, what work of political satire by Charles Dudley Warner and Mark Twain, whose title impugns the corruption America in the 1870s?

Answer: The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today

Tossup 13. These organisms are the source of chloroplasts in cryptomonads and they store photosynthetic products in floridean starch. Producers of mucilaginous polysaccharides, they have no flagellated stages, but often have calcium carbonate in their cell walls. They have different colors at different ocean depths, but are colorless as parasites. Used to carageenan and agar, they are colored by the phycobilin phycoerythrin and phycocyanin, like cyanobacteria. For ten points, name these members of rhodophyta, an alga found in coral reefs.

Answer: red algae (accept rhodophyta before it is mentioned)

Tossup 14. This river has five headstreams, including the Mandākina, all of which arise in Uttarakhand. The Yamuna, its chief tributary, joins it at Allahabad, though it is joined by another river called the Yamuna at Goalundo Ghāt, after which it is called the Padma. The Sundarbans, a swampy forest inhabited by tigers, are formed on the far side of its delta, but it is more famous for rituals performed at Kasi, Haridwar, and Varanasi. For ten points, name this river system into which the Brahmaputra flows; the chief river of northern India of Hinduism.

Answer: Ganges (or Ganga; accept Padma before it’s mentioned)

Tossup 15. In the relativistic limit, this process is known as Thompson scattering and is an important plasma electron characterization technique. Debye interpreted it independently in a 1923 paper, and Planck's constant divided by the product of the scattering center rest mass and the speed of light gives its namesake wavelength. Discovered by measuring the intensity distribution resulting from an x-ray beam incident on graphite, this type of scattering results in a cyclically anisotropic shift in wavelength. Classically, conservation of linear momentum and relativistic energy are used to derive the characterization of this process, in which a photon and electron collide. For ten points, name this effect in which short-wavelength photons are scattered by electrons.

Answer: Compton scattering (or Compton effect; accept Thompson scattering before it is mentioned)

Tossup 16. While at a ball in Chapter 18, Captain Frederick notes that, if men have not hearts, they do have eyes that give them torment enough. He says this to Isabella, who expected the protagonist's brother James to have a substantial inheritance. Eleanor reveals the General's gambling debts to the protagonist, of whom the author says "no one… would have supposed her born to be an heroine." A reading of Ann Radcliffe's Mysteries of Udolpho causes that heroine to assume the worst of the Tilneys, but she is reconciled with Henry Tilney at the end. For ten points, name this Jane Austen novel about the misadventures of Catherine Morland at the titular adobe.

Answer: Northanger Abbey

Tossup 17. The protagonist of this work awakes in the middle of the night, unable to forget the tune “Gotta Have Me Go with You,” which he heard the night before. He then drives to the Ambassador, where the Glenn Williams orchestra is no longer playing, and eventually chases down the woman he’s looking for at the Downbeat Club, where she sings of “The Man that Got Away.” While her career goes uphill, his goes down the toilet, and he becomes an alcoholic and drowns himself to relieve wife of the burden of his failure after she wins an Academy Award. For ten points, name this remake of a 1937 William Wellman film; a musical directed by George Cukor and starring Judy Garland as Mrs. Norman Maine.

Answer: A Star Is Born

Tossup 18. This author of The Psychology of Wants, Interests, and Attitudes and An Introduction to the Theory of Mental and Social Measurements worked with Robert S. Woodworth to expose a lack of transference in learning different tasks, which he interpreted as undermining a rival school of though. This student of Cattell and James noted that behaviors that lead to good results are more likely to occur in response to similar stimuli, and that the frequency of a stimulus-response pairing is strongly correlated to the “strength” of a given behavior designed to respond to that stimulus. For ten points, name this author of Animal Intelligence who postulated the laws of exercise and effect to underpin behaviorism.

Answer: Edward Lee Thorndike

Tossup 19. Most works in this genre featured a symmetric pair of zanni, and many of its conventions were created by Francesco Andriani, who headed the Gelosi. Carlo Goldoni both borrowed from and attempted to eradicate this style, which, two centuries earlier, had arisen from an earlier version of the same form known as erudita, from which it differed in its use of professional actors and colloquial dialects. This style of acting was known for its comic action, often aided by a battacio, or “slap-stick,” and stock situations and characters, like Gianduia, Brighella, and Pedrolino. For ten points, name this 16th to 18th century Italian theatrical form, which gave the world Scaramouche, Punch, and Harlequin.

Answer: commedia dell’arte (or comedy of art; accept comedy of professional artists, or Comédie-Italienne, or other close equivalents)

Tossup 20. This enzyme was found in all conditional mutants incubated with tritium thymidine by Hirota, and its digestion by trypsin yields 2 fragments. This enzyme catalyzes the nucleophilic attack of the terminal 3’-OH upon the inner phosphorous of a free nucleotide, and is driven by elimination and hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate. This enzyme was found by John Cairns to be unnecessary until the amber suppressor mutation interfered with its 5'-3' [“five prime to three prime”] exonuclease fragment. Arthur Kornberg then purified the other versions of this enzyme, the II and III versions, both of which are much more processive. For ten points, name this enzyme that needs an RNA primer and a DNA template to accomplish its functions of DNA replication and error checking.

Answer: DNA polymerase I (do not accept “DNA polymerase II” or “DNA polymerase III”)

Overtime Tossup. Ribó showed the unexpected result that, in porphyrins, this property can change as a result of macroscopic system stresses, particularly stirring direction. Due to average symmetry of interconverting molecules, gauche butane has this property, though butane generally does not. The presence of asymmetric carbons characterizes this property, which can make molecules in a pure mixture optically active. All amino acids possess it, except glycine. Molecules with this property have no plane of symmetry, and has a stereocenter designated either R or S. For ten points, name this property of organic molecules that have non-superimposable mirror images, from the Greek for handedness.

Answer: chirality

The Illinois Open 2004: The Philosophy of Spite

Bonuses by UC Berkeley (Juliana Froggatt, Jeff Hoppes, and Ray Luo, feat. Paul Reverdy and Larry Wang)
Bonus 1. He denied he was ever born in Lowell, Massachusetts, saying “I shall be born when and where I want, and I do not choose to be born in Lowell.” For ten points each…

1. Name this American proponent of "art for art's sake" who sued John Ruskin for accusing him of “flinging a pot of paint in the public's face” by way of criticizing 1874's Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, and created an Arrangement in Black and Gray which shows his mother.

Answer: James Abbott McNeill Whistler

2. Whistler’s brief flirtation with Japanese art culminated in this 1875 work, which depicts a man on a barge near the pier of a bridge in a greenish-blue evening. The lights of a city are visible on the horizon, while the upper-right shows a burst of fireworks.

Answer: Nocturne: Blue and GoldOld Battersea Bridge (accept either)

3. This 1862 painting of Whistler's mistress Joanna Heffernan was rejected by both the Royal Academy and the Paris Salon, and currently hangs in the Tate Gallery. In it, the red haired title character stands atop a bear rug, holding a small flower in her left hand.

Answer: Symphony in White No. 1:The White Girl (accept either)

Bonus 2. Answer the following about a conspiracy of the 1760’s for ten points each.

1. This leader of the Ottowa planned a coordinated surprise attack against British outposts near the Great Lakes.

Answer: Pontiac

2. Pontiac's forces were defeated by British Colonel Henry Bouquet at this battle in August, 1763.

Answer: Battle of Bushy Run

3. The Battle of Bushy Run ended the two-month siege of this post, formerly known as Fort Duquesne.

Answer: Fort Pitt

Bonus 3. Name these concepts from syntax for ten points each.

1. A morpheme that is phonologically dependent and syntatically independent is known as this. For the “s” in “he's,” the genitive and contracted “is” are both examples of this type of bound morpheme that attaches to a phrase.

Answer: clitic morpheme

2. This is the number of phrases with grammatical relations to the verb, or the number of arguments of the verb. For example, intransitives have values of 1, transitives have 2, and ditransitives have 3. This concept stole its name from a very similar property in chemistry.

Answer: verbal valence

3. Also known as selection, this is the information about a word’s complement options. For example, the English verb “put” takes a noun phrase and a prepositional phrase as complements, determining the syntactic structure in which “put” can occur.

Answer: subcategorization

Bonus 4. Name these European mountain ranges for ten points each.

1. This barrier to the Iberian Peninsula lent its name to a 1659 treaty between Louis XIV and Philip IV.

Answer: the Pyrenees

2. This Scottish range, traditionally the southern boundary of the Highlands, includes the peak of Ben Nevis.

Answer: the Grampians

3. Stretching from Calabria to the Maritime Alps, this chain forms the backbone of the Italian Peninsula.

Answer: the Apennines

Literature Bonus 1. Name these poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson from lines for ten points each.

1. “And all at once they sang, 'Our island home / Is far beyond the wave; we will no longer roam.'” “Is there any peace / In ever climbing up the climbing wave?”

Answer: “The Lotos-Eaters

2. “On thy cold gray stones, O Sea!” “But the tender grace of a day that is dead / Will never come back to me.”

Answer: “Break, Break, Break

3. “Death closes all. But something ere the end, / Some work of noble note, may yet be done, / Not unbecoming men that strove with gods." "To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield.”

Answer: “Ulysses

Bonus 5. Answer these things about Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring for ten points each.

1. Part One of the ballet, containing the Dances of the Young Girls and the Procession of the Oldest and Wisest among other sections, is known by this name.

Answer: The Adoration of the Earth (or L'Adoration de la terre)

2. The Adoration of the Earth opens with a throwaway solo theme from this instrument in an unusually high register.

Answer: bassoon

3. After the bassoon solo, The Right of Spring opens in earnest with a relentless, repetitive, disconcerting, and famous section in the strings based on this interval. It is sometimes known as diabolus in musica for its dissonance.

Answer: tritone (or augmented fourth, or diminished fifth)

Bonus 6. Name these gas laws for ten points each.

1. This two-parameter equation of state is a second-order improvement on the ideal gas equation suggested on the basis of naive molecular arguments by its namesake Dutchman in 1873. Its simplest form is [“p equals r t over v minus b, minus a over v squared”], where p is the pressure, R is the gas constant, T is the temperature, v is the specific volume, and a and b are fitted parameters.

Answer: van der Waals equation of state

2. This other two-parameter equation of state is almost entirely empirical, but gives better results than the van der Waals, Berthelot, or Dieterici equations. It may be stated [“p equals r t over quantity v minus b, close quantity, minus a over quantity v root t times quantity v plus b, close quantity, close quantity”], where all variables are as before.

Answer: Redlich-Kwong equation of state

3. This five-parameter equation of state has reduced form [“p equals r t over v, plus beta over v squared, plus gamma over v cubed, plus delta over v to the fourth”], where β, γ, and δ are the namesake constants. Benedict, Webb, and Rubin extended this equation to eight parameters.

Answer: Beattie-Bridgeman equation of states

Bonus 7. Name each of the following Dark Ages for ten points each.

1. This monk of Wearmouth and Jarrow immortalized the miracles of the Northumbrian Saint-Kings in his Ecclesiastical History of the English People.

Answer: Venerable Bede

2. This sixth-century bishop's Ten Books of Histories are our primary source for the gory details of Merovingian dynastic politics.

Answer: Saint Gregory of Tours (or Gregory Florentius; prompt on “Gregory”)

3. This author of the Romana is better known for the bizarrely disjointed Getica, a history of the Germanic tribes that he based upon a now-lost work of Cassiodorus.

Answer: Jordanes
Bonus 8. Name these characters from Shakespeare's As You Like It for ten points each.

1. This daughter of the exiled Duke is banished by her uncle Frederick. She drags it up as the beautiful youth Ganymede to roam the forest with Celia, which leads to the finest Sapphic scene in all of Shakespeare.

Answer: Rosalind

2. This young fellow defeats the hubristic wrestler Charles, rescues his brother Oliver from snakes and a lion, and marries the now properly attired Rosalind with consent of the exiled Duke.

Answer: Orlando

3. This comical man tries to woo the dull but beautiful Audrey, and exclaims "I'd rather bear with you than bear you" while chasing Rosalind and Celia all around Arden.

Answer: Touchstone

Bonus 9. Samuel invited Jesse and all his sons to the sacrifice at Bethlehem and, seeing the youngest son to be missing because he was looking after the sheep, Samuel anointed him the next king of Israel. For the stated number of points…

1. (5 points) Name this handsome lad with ruddy cheeks and bright eyes, of whom King Saul was jealous of because he made havoc among tens of thousands by killing Goliath.

Answer: David

2. (10 points) When crazy old Saul was determined to drive a spear into David, David escaped with his harp when this daughter of Saul let him down through a window to slip away. David later made this woman his first wife.

Answer: Michal

3. (10 points) David escaped to this friend. This man was then told by Saul that David threatened both his life and crown, but this son of Saul told David to flee in safety to the Cave of Adullam anyway.

Answer: Jonathan

4. (5 points) East of the Rocks of the Wild Goats, Saul came to relieve himself in a cave in which David and his men were hiding. Instead of killing him, David cut off what of Saul’s? Because David did not kill him, Saul left swearing mutual respect.

Answer: a piece of Saul's cloak or clothing (accept anything close)

Bonus 10. Answer each of the following about a certain class of compounds for ten points.

1. Name the hydrocarbon compounds, also called olefins, characterized by the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond.

Answer: alkenes

2. When electrophilic addition of a halogen is conducted in a water and base solvent, an alkene may be used as a vicinal haloalcohol, in which case it undergoes intramolecular ring closure to form one of these 3-membered ring compounds, the simplest cyclic ether.

Answer: epoxide (or oxacyclopropane, or oxirane, or ethylene oxide)

3. After a halonium ion is formed in an electrophilic addition of halogens, the nucleophile attacks the more substituted carbon of the ring, because it is more positive, and resembles a carbocation. This is an instance of what general rule for electrophilic additions of alkenes?

Answer: Markovnikov rule

Bonus 11. Answer each of the following appertaining to the work of Edmund Husserl for ten points each.

1. Because "I think, therefore I am" presupposes the method of doubt, Husserl starts, instead with the clearer basis "I always think of something," and concludes, therefore, that consciousness is always pointing towards some object. Name the term that describes the directionality of consciousness, an idea also associated with John Searle.

Answer: intentionality (or intention)

2. By this, Husserl means detachment from any point of view regarding the objective world, so that we may observe phenomena by without judgment or valuation.

Answer: bracketing (or phenomenological epoche)

3. This is the pre-scientific mode of experience advocated by Husserl describes the entirety of human experiences without presupposition.

Answer: lebenswelt (or life-world)

Bonus 12. Identify the following relating to decompositions from linear algebra for ten points each.

1. A square matrix can often be decomposed in terms of these first-rank objects, the right product of any of which with the matrix is a scalar multiple of itself. In otherwords, for a matrix A, these are the v such that Av = λv [“a v equals lambda v”] for λ a scalar.

Answer: eigenvectors

2. For symmetric matrix A, there exist matrices P and D such that A = PDP-1 [“a equals p times d times p inverse”]. Therefore, we can write A as a linear combination of the outer products of corresponding eigenvectors with themselves, with the corresponding eigenvalues as weights. Name this decomposition of A by the eigenspace of A.

Answer: spectral decomposition

3. If A is m by n with rank r, then there exists a pseudo-diagonal object σ [“sigma”] with the square roots of the eigenvalues of ATA [“a transposed times a”] on its diagonals. σ performs this decomposition of A, since there exist orthogonal objects U and V, such that A = UσVT [“a equals u times sigma times v transposed”]. The Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse is based on the reduced version of this decomposition.

Answer: singular value decomposition (accept svd)

Bonus 13. Name these anti-Scholastics for ten points each.

1. This Doctor of the Church attacked the scholastic Gilbert de la Porree at the 1148 council of Rheims and was primarily responsible for building the Cistertian order.

Answer: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux

2. Although this author of the Discourse on Method was an avowed anti-scholastic, he stole most of the terms he used in his philosophy from that movement, which is appropriate, since he stole so much of his philosophy and scientific work from others in the first place.

Answer: Rene Descartes

3. This author of the Skeptical Chemist, arch-empiricist, and member of the Royal Society responded to an attack by the Jesuit Franciscus Linus with a namesake law.

Answer: Robert Boyle

Bonus 14. Everyone loves issuing edicts, so name these for ten points each.

1. This document of Henry IV's from 1598 granted precarious religious toleration to the “pretended reformed religion” of the Huguenots.

Answer: Edict of Nantes

2. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II attempted to restore the position of the Counter-Reformation Church with the 1629 proclamation, but succeeded only in enraging the Protestant princes of North Germany.

Answer: Edict of Restitution

3. This most famous outcome of the battle of the Milvian Bridge granted legal rights to the Christians of the Roman Empire.

Answer: Edict of Milan
Bonus 15. Answer each of the following regarding an author and his works for ten points each.

1. This writer tells the story of Tertuliano Maximo Afonso and Antonio Claro, two men who are identical down to their fingerprints, in The Double. He also wrote The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reyes and Manual of Painting and Calligraphy.

Answer: José Saramago

2. This book by Saramago concerns a mysterious affliction that befalls everyone in an unnamed country except “the doctor’s wife,” who, like all the characters, is unnamed.

Answer: Blindness (or Ensaio sobre a cegueira)

3. This novel set in 18th century Portugal is about a real priest, Bartolomeu Lourenco de Gusmao, who wants to construct a flying machine with the help of a soldier and a clairvoyant, after whom the English translation is titled.

Answer: Baltasar and Blimunda (or Memorial do Convento)

Bonus 16. Answer the following about photophosphorylation, the light reactions of photosynthesis, for ten points each.

1. Photophosphorylation takes place in the membranes of these individual units that make up the chloroplast grana.

Answer: thylakoids

2. After P680 photosystem II abstracts electrons from water, it reduces pheophytin-I, which initiates an exergonic chain involving complexes of this molecule, whose c type is involved in the electron transport chain.

Answer: cytochrome

3. This type of photophosphorylation produces no oxygen and reduces no NADP, so it is invoked when NADPH levels are too high. In it, photosystem I passes electrons to ferredoxin and the redox chain, which results in reduction of P700 chlorophyll.

Answer: cyclic photophosphorylation

Bonus 17. Answer each of the following about preference theory for the stated number of points.

1. (5 points, 5 points) For preferences to be rational, they must have these three properties. Name any two of them for five points each.

Answers: transitive, reflexive, or complete

2. (10 points) The fundamental object of preference theory is this mapping that produces a preference order for a set of individuals, given the rational preference orders of each member of the set.

Answer: social choice function

3. (10 points) This theorem states that, for a set of two or more non-imposed, non-dictatorial, rational individual preference orders in three or more options, a universal, monotonic, and irrelevancy-independent choice function cannot generally be constructed. It was elucidated in its namesake’s 1951 work Social Choice and Individual Values.

Answer: Arrow’s impossibility theorem (or Arrow’s paradox)

Bonus 18. He notes that “when God made cripple, He mean’ him to be lonely.” He later shelters an outcast, pays for the funeral of Robbins, and sings “I got plenty o' nuttin'.” For ten points each.

1. Name this dude who goes in search of his woman in NY on a goat cart in a George Gershwin opera.

Answer: Porgy

2. This song is first sung by Jake's wife, Clara, as a lullaby in response to the failure of “A Woman is a Sometime Thing”. It describes a Saturday night when “the livin' is easy” and is later rendered by Bess as she searches for Clara's baby.

Answer: “Summertime

3. This husband of Bess appears after the song to take Bess back, but is stabbed by Porgy. This stevedore had earlier taken refuge on Kittiwah Island after killing Robbins with his cotton hook.

Answer: Crown

Bonus 19. Identify these anti-colonial activists from their writings for ten points each.

1. I Speak of Freedom: A Statement of African Ideology.

Answer: Kwame Nkrumah

2. The Story of My Experiments with Truth.

Answer: Mohandas Gandhi

3. The Wretched of the Earth.

Answer: Frantz Fanon
Bonus 20. Name the author from clues, 30-20-10.

1. (30 points) Federico Garcia Llorca wrote in an Ode to this author, stating “Never for one moment… / Have I stopped seeing your beard full of butterflies… / Or your muscles of a virgin Apollo.”

2. (20 points) Ezra Pound tried to placate this writer with A Pact, imagining himself “…as a grown child / Who has had a pig-headed father” in this fellow poet.

3. (10 points) He himself wrote November Days and Leaves of Grass.

Answer: Walter Whitman


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