The journal of roman studies


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VOLUME 105 (2015)


MARCELLO MOGETTA, A New Date for Concrete in Rome, 1–40

HANNAH CORNWELL, The King Who Would Be Prefect: Authority and Identity in the Cottian Alps, 41–72

BRENT D. SHAW, The Myth of the Neronian Persecution, 73–100

DIANA NG, Commemoration and Élite Benefaction of Buildings and Spectacles in the Roman World, 101–123

R. R. R. SMITH and C. H. HALLETT, Troilos and Achilles: A Monumental Statue Group from Aphrodisias, 124–182

HEIDI WENDT, Ea Superstitione: Christian Martyrdom and the Religion of Freelance Experts, 183–202

CHRISTOPHER MALLAN and CAILLAN DAVENPORT, Dexippus and the Gothic Invasions: Interpreting the New Vienna Fragment (Codex Vindobonensis Hist. gr. 73, ff. 192v193r), 203–226

ANGELOS CHANIOTIS and TAKASHI FUJII, A New Fragment of Diocletians Currency Regulation from Aphrodisias, 227–233

ALEXANDER SKINNER, Violence at Constantinople in A.D. 3412 and Themistius, Oration 1, 234–249

ALAN CAMERON, City Personifications and Consular Diptychs, 250–287

JUSTIN STOVER, Olybrius and the Einsiedeln Eclogues, 288–321
PETER VAN NUFFELEN, Not Much Happened: 410 and All That, 322–329


(in alphabetical order)

Alföldy, G. (Ed.), Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Vol. 2: Inscriptiones Hispaniae Latinae. Pars 14, Conventus Tarraconensis. Fasc. 3, Colonia Ivlia Vrbs Trivmphalis Tarraco (CIL II2/14, 3) (by Francisco Beltrán Lloris), 406

Allison, P. M., People and Spaces in Roman Military Bases (by Elizabeth M. Greene), 390

Altmayer, K., Die Herrschaft des Carus, Carinus und Numerianus als Vorläufer der Tetrarchie (by Olivier Hekster), 347

Anguissola, A. (Ed.), Privata Luxuria: Towards an Archaeology of Intimacy: Pompeii and Beyond: International Workshop Center for Advanced Studies, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (24–25 March 2011) (by Eric E. Poehler), 366

Appelbaum, A., The Dynasty of the Jewish Patriarchs (by John Curran), 383

Atkins, J. W., Cicero on Politics and the Limits of Reason: The Republic and Laws (by Matthew Fox), 428

Augoustakis, A. and A. Traill (Eds), A Companion to Terence (by Costas Panayotakis), 444

Aylward, W., Excavations at Zeugma, Conducted by Oxford Archaeology (by Rubina Raja), 379

Baker, P. A., The Archaeology of Medicine in the Greco-Roman World (by Christine F. Salazar), 385

Beck, H., A. Duplá, M. Jehne and F. Pina Polo (Eds), Consuls and Res Publica: Holding High Office in the Roman Republic (by J. W. Rich), 392

Bell, P. N., Social Conflict in the Age of Justinian: Its Nature, Management, and Mediation (by Maria Kouroumali), 475

Bérenger, A. and F. Lachaud (Eds), Hiérarchie des pouvoirs, délégation de pouvoir et responsabilité des administrateurs dans l’antiquité et au moyen âge: Actes du Colloque de Metz, 16–18 juin 2011 (by Alexander Skinner), 394

Berndt, G. M. and R. Steinacher (Eds), Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed (by Jamie Wood), 472

Bernstein, N. W., Ethics, Identity and Community in Later Roman Declamation (by Diederik Burgersdijk), 460

Boislève, J., A. Dardenay and F. Monier (Eds), Peintures murales et stucs d’époque romaine: de la fouille au musée. Actes des 24e et 25e colloques de L’AFPMA, Narbonne, 12 et 13 novembre 2010 et Paris, 25 et 26 novembre 2011 (by Stephanie Pearson), 364

Boudon-Millot, V., Galien de Pergame: un médecin à Rome (by Caroline Petit), 387

Bourdin, S., Les Peuples de l’Italie préromaine: identités, territoires et relations inter-ethniques en Italie central et septentrionale (VIIIe–Ier s. av. J.-C.) (by E. H. Bispham), 331

Boyle, A. J., Seneca: Medea (by Christopher Trinacty), 442

Broekaert, W., Navicularii et Negotiantes: A Prosopographical Study of Roman Merchants and Shippers (by Antonio Aguilera Martín), 397

Cain, A., Jerome’s Epitaph on Paula: A Commentary on the Epitaphium Sanctae Paulae with an Introduction, Text, and Translation (by Paul B. Harvey, Jr.), 458

Choi, J., Jewish Leadership in Roman Palestine from 70 C.E. to 135 C.E. (by John Curran), 383

Cooley, A., The Cambridge Manual of Latin Epigraphy (by Jonathan R. W. Prag), 403

Damschen, G. and A. Heil (Eds), Brill’s Companion to Seneca: Philosopher and Dramatist (by James Ker), 440

Day, H. J. M., Lucan and the Sublime: Power, Representation and Aesthetic Experience (by Paul Roche), 438

De Angelis, F. (Ed.), Regionalism and Globalism in Antiquity: Exploring their Limits (by Martin Pitts), 408

Den Boeft J., J. W. Drijvers, D. Den Hengst and H. C. Teitler, Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXIX (by Gavin Kelly), 457

Devillers, O. (Ed.), Les Opera Minora et le développement de l’historiographie Tacitéenne (by Christopher Whitton), 447

Devillers, O. and K. Sion-Jenkis (Eds), César sous Auguste (by Luke Pitcher), 340

Di Filippo Balestrazzi, E., Sculture romane del Museo Nazionale Concordiese di Portogruaro (by Jane Fejfer), 358

Dinter, M. T., Anatomizing Civil War: Studies in Lucan’s Epic Technique (by Matthew Leigh), 436

Donciu, R., L’empereur Maxence (by Simon Corcoran), 465

Elliott, J., Ennius and the Architecture of the Annales (by Nora Goldschmidt), 424

Esmonde Cleary, A. S., The Roman West, AD 200–500: An Archaeological Survey (by Bryan Ward-Perkins), 468

Fabrizi, V., Mores veteresque novosque. Rappresentazioni del passato e del presente di Roma negli Annales di Ennio (by Joseph Farrell), 421

Fayer, C., Meretrix: La Prostituzione femminile nell’antica Roma (by Thomas A. J. McGinn), 351

Fischer, A. and I. Wood (Eds), Western Perspectives on the Mediterranean: Cultural Transfer in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, 400–800 AD (by Jamie Wood), 476

Flohr, M., The World of the Fullo: Work, Economy, and Society in Roman Italy (by Elizabeth A. Murphy), 398

Fodorean, F., The Topography and the Landscape of Roman Dacia (by Jason Morris), 375

Franchi dell’Orto, L. (Ed.), Pinna Vestinorum e il popolo dei Vestini. Storia e civiltà di Penne I (by Michael Crawford), 333

Franchi dell’Orto, L. (Ed.), Pinna Vestinorum: la città romana. Storia e civiltà di Penne II (by Michael Crawford), 333

Galinsky, K. (Ed.), Memoria Romana: Memory in Rome and Rome in Memory (by Rebecca Usherwood), 419

Galvão-Sobrinho, C. R., Doctrine and Power: Theological Controversy and Christian Leadership in the Later Roman Empire (by Jaclyn Maxwell), 454

Gaskin, R., Horace and Housman (by David Butterfield), 435

Gleba, M. and J. Pásztókai-Szeöke (Eds), Making Textiles in Pre-Roman and Roman Times: People, Places, Identities (by Hero Granger-Taylor), 362

Golden, G. K., Crisis Management during the Roman Republic: The Role of Political Institutions in Emergencies (by Nathan Rosenstein), 335

Goldman, R. B., Color-Terms in Social and Cultural Context in Ancient Rome (by Mark Bradley), 381

Goldschmidt, N., Shaggy Crowns: Ennius’ Annales and Virgil’s Aeneid (by Joseph Farrell), 421

Gran-Aymerich, J. and A. Domínguez-Arranz (Eds), La Castellina a sud di Civitavecchia: origini ed eredità: origines protohistoriques et évolution d’un habitat étrusque (by Eóin O’Donoghue), 332

Green, S. J., Disclosure and Discretion in Roman Astrology: Manilius and his Augustan Contemporaries (by Pauline Ripat), 343

Griebel, J., Der Kaiser im Krieg: Die Bilder der Säule des Marc Aurel (by Elizabeth Wolfram Thill), 374

Hall, J. M., Artifact & Artifice: Classical Archaeology and the Ancient Historian (by Eberhard W. Sauer), 409

Hall, J., Cicero’s Use of Judicial Theater (by Gesine Manuwald), 427

Hardie, P., The Last Trojan Hero: A Cultural History of Virgil’s Aeneid (by Fiona Cox), 434

Harrison, C., C. Humfress and I. Sandwell (Eds), Being Christian in Late Antiquity: A Festschrift for Gillian Clark (by David M. Gwynn), 450

Hemelrijk, E. and G. Woolf (Eds), Women and the Roman City in the Latin West (by Kristina Milnor), 351

Horsfall, N., Virgil, Aeneid 6: A Commentary (by Elena Giusti), 432

Huebner, S. R., The Family in Roman Egypt: A Comparative Approach to Intergenerational Solidarity and Conflict (by Richard Alston), 353

Jenkyns, R., God, Space and City in the Roman Imagination (by Timothy M. O’Sullivan), 420

Kemezis, A. M., Greek Narrative of the Roman Empire under the Severans: Cassius Dio, Philostratus and Herodian (by Graham Andrews), 345

König, J., K. Oikonomopoulou and G. D. Woolf (Eds), Ancient Libraries (by Kathryn Stevens), 401

Koortbojian, M., The Divinization of Caesar and Augustus: Precedents, Consequences, Implications (by D. Wardle), 341

Lamp, K. S., A City of Marble: The Rhetoric of Augustan Rome (by Michèle Lowrie), 342

Langford, J., Maternal Megalomania: Julia Domna and the Imperial Politics of Motherhood (by Caillan Davenport), 348

Lauritzen, D. and M. Tardieu (Eds), Le Voyage des légendes: hommages à Pierre Chuvin (by Laura Miguélez-Cavero), 453

Lavan, M., Slaves to Rome: Paradigms of Empire in Roman Culture (by Catharine Edwards), 344

Lee, B. T., E. Finkelpearl and L. Graverini (Eds), Apuleius and Africa (by S. J. Harrison), 448

Lennon, J. J., Pollution and Religion in Ancient Rome (by Daniele Miano), 338

Leyerle, B. and R. Darling Young (Eds), Ascetic Culture: Essays in Honor of Philip Rousseau (by Lucy Grig), 452

Liddel, P. and P. Low (Eds), Inscriptions and their Uses in Greek and Latin Literature (by Paola Ceccarelli), 405

López, A. G., Shenoute of Atripe and the Uses of Poverty: Rural Patronage, Religious Conflict and Monasticism in Late Antique Egypt (by Paul C. Dilley), 456

Mattern, S. P., The Prince of Medicine: Galen in the Roman Empire (by Caroline Petit), 387

Mattusch, C. C. (Ed.), Rediscovering the Ancient World on the Bay of Naples, 1710–1890 (by Shelley Hales), 370

Maurizi, L., Il Cursus honorum senatorio da Augusto a Traiano. Sviluppi formali e stilistici nell’epigrafia latina e greca (by Gregory Rowe), 393

McEvoy, M. A., Child Emperor Rule in the Late Roman West, AD 367–455 (by A. D. Lee), 467

McGillivray, B., Methods in Latin Computational Linguistics (by Marius L. Jøhndal), 410

Millar, F. G. B., Religion, Language and Community in the Roman Near East: Constantine to Muhammad (by Philip Wood), 478

Modéran, Y. (ed. M.-Y. Perrin), Les Vandales et l’empire romain (by Robin Whelan), 471

O’Sullivan, T. M., Walking in Roman Culture (by Tom Geue), 418

Pagán, V. E., Conspiracy Theory in Latin Literature (by Garrett G. Fagan), 416

Panella, C. (Ed.), I Segni del potere. Realtà e immaginario della sovranità nella Roma imperiale (by Simon Corcoran), 465

Panella, R., Roma la città dei fori: Progetto di sistemazione dell’area archeologica tra Piazza Venezia e il Colosseo (by Dunia Filippi), 371

Panella, C. and L. Saguì (Eds), Valle del Colosseo e pendici nord-orientali del Palatino (Materiali e contesti 1) (by Elisha Ann Dumser), 372

Panella, C. and L. Saguì (Eds), Valle del Colosseo e pendici nord-orientali del Palatino (Materiali e contesti 2) (by Elisha Ann Dumser), 372

Papanghelis, T. D., S. J. Harrison and S. Frangoulidis (Eds), Generic Interfaces in Latin Literature: Encounters, Interactions and Transformations (by Jared Hudson), 414

Pasek, S. (Ed.), Imperator Caesar Didius Iulianus Augustus. Seine Regentschaft und die Usurpationen der Provinzstatthalter (193 n. Chr.) (by Olivier Hekster), 347

Pearce, S., The Image and its Prohibition in Jewish Antiquity (by Lee I. Levine), 382

Perdicoyianni-Paléologou, H., Anaphore, cataphore et deixis chez Plaute: Les emplois de Is, Hic, Iste, Ille (by Evangelos Karakasis), 446

Porten Palange, F. P. and C. Troso, La Terra Sigillata italica della Collezione Stenico (by Joanna Bird), 363

Queyrel-Bottineau, A., J.-C. Couvenhes and A. Vigourt (Eds), Trahison et traîtres dans l’antiquité: Actes du colloque international (Paris, 21–22 septembre 2011) (by Garrett G. Fagan), 416

Quiroga Puertas, A. J. (Ed.), The Purpose of Rhetoric in Late Antiquity: From Performance to Exegesis (by Michael Stuart Williams), 461

Richardson, A., In Search of the Samnites: Adornment and Identity in Archaic Central Italy, 750–350 B.C. (by Tesse D. Stek), 330

Riess, F., Narbonne and its Territory in Late Antiquity: From the Visigoths to the Arabs (by John F. Drinkwater), 469

Russell, B., The Economics of the Roman Stone Trade (by Niccolò Mugnai), 399

Santangelo, F., Divination, Prediction and the End of the Roman Republic (by Lindsay G. Driediger-Murphy), 337

Sarantis, A. and N. Christie (Eds), War and Warfare in Late Antiquity: Current Perspectives (by Ariel S. Lewin), 473

Sears, G., P. Keegan and R. Laurence (Eds), Written Space in the Latin West, 200 BC to AD 300 (by Alexander Meyer), 402

Segal, A., Temples and Sanctuaries in the Roman East: Religious Architecture in Syria, Iudaea/Palaestina and Provincia Arabia (by Eris Williams Reed), 378

Seider, A. M., Memory in Vergil’s Aeneid: Creating the Past (by Fiachra Mac Góráin), 431

Seo, J. M., Exemplary Traits: Reading Characterization in Roman Poetry (by Luke Roman), 412

Smith, A. M. II, Roman Palmyra: Identity, Community and State Formation (by Peter Edwell), 376

Smith, R. R. R., The Marble Reliefs from the Julio-Claudian Sebasteion (by Diane Atnally Conlin), 357

Spevak, O., The Noun Phrase in Classical Latin Prose (by J. G. F. Powell), 411

Steel, C. (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero (by Ingo Gildenhard), 425

Steel, C. and H. van der Blom (Eds), Community and Communication: Oratory and Politics in Republican Rome (by Ingo Gildenhard), 425

Stocks, C., The Roman Hannibal: Remembering the Enemy in Silius Italicus’ Punica (by Raymond Marks), 334

Sutherland, J., Karystian Cipollino Marble: Its Export from Euboea and Distribution (by J. C. Fant), 356

Sweetman, R. J., The Mosaics of Roman Crete: Art, Archaeology and Social Change (by Maria Papaioannou), 361

Teatini, A., Repertorio dei sarcofagi decorati della Sardegna romana (by Fiona Anne Mowat), 360

Terpstra, T. T., Trading Communities in the Roman World: A Micro-Economic and Institutional Perspective (by Candace M. Rice), 395

Toner, J., Roman Disasters (by Neville Morley), 336

Torrance, A. and J. Zachhuber (Eds), Individuality in Late Antiquity (by Susan Wessel), 463

Ulrich, R. B. and C. K. Quenemoen (Eds), A Companion to Roman Architecture (by Penelope J. Goodman), 354

Urbano, A. P., The Philosophical Life: Biography and the Crafting of Intellectual Identity in Late Antiquity (by Jeremy Schott), 462

Valentini, A., Matronae tra novitas e mos maiorum: spazi e modalità dell’azione pubblica femminile nella Roma medio repubblicana (by Sharon L. James), 349

Van Andringa, W., H. Duday and S. Lepetz (Eds), Mourir à Pompei. Fouille d’un quartier funéraire de la nécropole romaine de Porta Nocera (2003–2007) (by John Pearce), 367

Van Ossel, P. and A.-M. Guimier-Sorbets (Eds), Archéologie des jardins: Analyse des espaces et méthodes d’approche (by Elizabeth Macaulay-Lewis), 389

Vesperini, P., La Philosophia et ses pratiques d’Ennius à Cicéron (by Gretchen Reydams-Schils), 430

Watson, L. and P. Watson (Eds), Juvenal: Satire 6 (by Catherine Keane), 439

Whitton, C. (Ed.), Pliny the Younger: Epistles Book II (by Thomas E. Strunk), 449

Zanobi, A., Seneca’s Tragedies and the Aesthetics of Pantomime (by George W. M. Harrison), 443

Zarmakoupi, M., Designing for Luxury on the Bay of Naples: Villas and Landscapes (c. 100 BCE–79 CE) (by Riccardo Olivito), 369

Marcello Mogetta: A New Date for Concrete in Rome
Concrete is regarded as a quintessentially Roman achievement. The spread of the technology is usually dated to the fourth or third centuries b.c., and interpreted as a symptom of Rome’s early expansion in Italy. In this paper I offer a reappraisal of the available evidence for early concrete construction in Rome. On the basis of stratigraphic evidence, I conclude that a later date should be assigned to most of the remains. I situate the origins of the technological innovation within the radical change in architectural styles that unfolded in the middle of the second century b.c., affecting both domestic architecture and public building. The new chronology has an impact on current models of cultural diffusion in Roman Italy, linking the development of Late Republican architecture with the broader debate on the cultural implications of the Roman conquest.
Hannah Cornwell: The King Who Would Be Prefect: Authority and Identity in the Cottian Alps

This paper examines the language of power and authority in the Italian Alps, after the Roman pacification of the area in 14 b.c. The focus of the examination is an arch set up at Segusio to Augustus by a local dynast named Cottius, which allows us to consider how the incorporation of the region into the Roman Empire was perceived and presented from a ‘local’ point of view, and how we might use our interpretations to construct ideas of identity and power relationships integral to early imperial provincial administration.

Brent D. Shaw: The Myth of the Neronian Persecution
A conventional certainty is that the first state-driven persecution of Christians happened in the reign of Nero and that it involved the deaths of Peter and Paul, and the mass execution of Christians in the aftermath of the great fire of July 64 c.e. The argument here contests all of these facts, especially the general execution personally ordered by Nero. The only source for this event is a brief passage in the historian Tacitus. Although the passage is probably genuine Tacitus, it reflects ideas and connections prevalent at the time the historian was writing and not the realities of the 60s.
Diana Ng: Commemoration and Élite Benefaction of Buildings and Spectacles in the Roman World
Current scholarship on élite munificence in the Roman Empire often sees architectural benefactions as being at least partially driven by the élite desire for personal commemoration. I use juristic opinions from the Digest and other textual evidence related to building gifts to argue that there was an ancient understanding of the physical and symbolic ephemerality of architectural benefactions. In contrast, I present legal and epigraphic evidence to argue that there was an explicit expectation for gifts of spectacles and monetary distributions to be lasting memorials for their donors, and that the perpetuation of identity was also a motivating factor in the euergetic choice of a spectacle.
R. R. R. Smith and C. H. Hallett: Troilos and Achilles: A Monumental Statue Group from Aphrodisias

A remarkable blue-grey marble horse with a white marble rider, found in the Basilica at Aphrodisias, has been a focus of recent research. The article describes the archaeology and history of the monument — how it can be reconstructed, with its base and in its precise setting in the Basilica. The group was a daring composition that had already fallen and been restored once in antiquity. What emerges is firstly a new full-size hellenistic-style statue group whose subject can be identified as Troilos and Achilles, and secondly a striking example of the long second lives of classical statues in Late Antiquity. The horse was a great public monument of the early imperial period that was moved to the Basilica probably in the mid-fourth century a.d., where it has a well-documented context. The subject of the group can be identified both from epigraphy and from its iconographic antecedents, and its version of the subject can be related to a particular strand in the rich later literary representations of the story.

Heidi Wendt: Ea Superstitione: Christian Martyrdom and the Religion of Freelance Experts
This paper situates Roman actions undertaken against Christians amidst an unofficial pattern of measures employed throughout the imperial period to manage the expanding influence of freelance religious experts. Questions about the historical circumstances of martyrdom or persecution tend to proceed from the assumption that Christians were perceived and dealt with as a distinct religious community. However, the penalties alleged by writers such as Paul and Justin were more commonly issued against self-authorized individuals (magi, astrologers, prophets, diviners, philosophers, and so forth) than against undifferentiated religious groups. Thus, I propose that Roman motivations for investigating and punishing Christians, at least in the first and second centuries, are best understood in relation to the wider phenomenon of freelance expertise and the range of concerns that it engendered.
Christopher Mallan and Caillan Davenport: Dexippus and the Gothic Invasions: Interpreting the New Vienna Fragment (Codex Vindobonensis Hist. gr. 73, ff. 192v–193r)

This article presents an English translation and analysis of a new historical fragment, probably from Dexippus’ Scythica, published by Gunther Martin and Jana Grusková in 2014. The fragment, preserved in a palimpsest in the Austrian National Library, describes a Gothic attack on Thessalonica and the subsequent preparations of the Greeks to repel the barbarian force as it moved south into Achaia. The new text provides several important details of historical, prosopographical and historiographical significance, which challenge both our existing understanding of the events in Greece during the reign of Gallienus and the reading of the main literary sources for this period. In this article we look to secure the Dexippan authorship of the fragment, identify the individuals named in the text, and date the events described in the text to the early 260s a.d.

Angelos Chaniotis and Takashi Fujii: A New Fragment of Diocletian’s Currency Regulation from Aphrodisias
An inscription found in Aphrodisias in 2014 is recognized as a fragment of a dossier concerning Diocletian’s currency regulation. This dossier, probably consisting of two edicts and a letter, was inscribed on two blocks of the civic basilica wall. The new fragment belongs to the letter that accompanied the edicts. The reference to the diocese suggests that the letter was addressed to the rationalis of the diocese of Asia. The new fragment belongs to the bottom right corner of the upper block. Thus, it provides new possibilities for the reconstruction of the fragments of the upper block.
Alexander Skinner: Violence at Constantinople in A.D. 341–2 and Themistius, Oration 1
This article argues that Oration 1 by Themistius was prompted by violence at Constantinople in 341–2, and that the likeliest date for the speech is as early as March 342. Detailed arguments are presented in support of this correlation, which contrasts with the usual assignment of Themistius’ speech to either 347/348 or 350/351. The wider significance of these arguments is also highlighted. In particular, there are implications for our understanding of the chronology and overall trajectory of Themistius’ early career; and implications for the development of imperial ideology in the 340s.

Alan Cameron: City Personifications and Consular Diptychs

This paper takes as its point of departure two much discussed fifth-century artifacts, an uninscribed and undated consular diptych in Halberstadt, and the inscribed and (on the face of it) exactly dated consular missorium of Ardabur Aspar in Florence, both hitherto presumed issued by western consuls and manufactured in western workshops. After calling into question the established criteria for distinguishing western from eastern diptychs, I propose a new set of criteria and a new date and interpretation of both objects, mainly in the light of a more comprehensive examination of the iconography of city personifications, in literature as well as art.
Justin Stover: Olybrius and the Einsiedeln Eclogues

Two ancient pastoral poems were published by Hermann Hagen in 1869 from a manuscript at Einsiedeln and were soon dated to the reign of Nero. In this study, I show that these poems are related to the Bucolicon Olybrii listed in a library catalogue of Murbach from around 850, and demonstrate on internal and external grounds that the poems must have been composed around the end of the fourth century by Anicius Hermogenianus Olybrius, the consul of 395. This attribution enhances our understanding of the literary culture of the age of Claudian and contributes to the on-going debate on the extent and import of Neronian literature.


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