The Manes in Amenta begins his course where he left off on earth when his mouth was closed in death; it is opened once more for him by Ptah and Tum, and Taht supplies him with the great magical words of power that open every gate. These were written on the roll of papyrus that is carried in his hand by the pilgrim who makes his progress through the nether regions in the subterranean pathway of the sun. The so-called Book of the Dead, then, here quoted as the Ritual for the sake of brevity, is the Egyptian book of life: life now, life hereafter, everlasting life. It was indeed the book of life and salvation, because it contained the things to be done in the life here
and hereafter to ensure eternal continuity (Rit., ch. 15, hymn 3). The departing soul when passing away in death, or, as the truer phrase is, when setting into the land of life, clasps and clings to his roll for very life. As the book of life, or word of salvation, it was buried in the coffin with the dead when done with on earth. It showed the way to heaven objectively as well as subjectively, as heaven was mapped out in the astral mythos. The Manes enters Amenta with a papyrus roll in his hand corresponding to the one that was buried in his coffin. This contains the written word of truth, the word of magical power, the word of life. The great question now for him is how far he has made the word of god (Osiris) truth and established it against the powers of evil in his lifetime on the earth. The word that he carries with him was written by Taht-Aan, the scribe of truth. Another word has been written in his lifetime by himself, and the record will meet him in the Hall of Justice on the day of weighing words, when Taht will read the record of the life to see how far it tallies with the written word and how far he has fulfilled the word in truth to earn eternal life. The sense of sin and abhorrence of injustice must have been peculiarly keen when it was taught that every word as well as deed was weighed in the balance of truth on the day of reckoning, called the Judgment Day. The questions confronting the Manes on entering Amenta are whether he has laid sufficient hold of life to live again in death? Has he acquired consistency and strength or truth of character enough to persist in some other more permanent form of personality? Has he sufficient force to incorporate his soul anew and germinate and grow and burst the mummy bandages in the glorified body of the Sahu? Is he a true mummy? Is the backbone sound? Is his heart in the right place? Has he planted for eternity in the seed-field of time? Has he made the word of Osiris, the word that was written in the papyrus roll, truth against his enemies?
The chapters for opening the Tuat, for dealing with the adversary in the nether world, for issuing forth victoriously and thus winning the crown of triumph, for removing displeasure from the heart of the judge, tend to show the ways of attaining the life everlasting by acquiring possession of an eternal soul. The Manes is said to be made safe for the place of rebirth in Annu by means of the books of Taht’s divine words, which contain the gnosis or knowledge of the things to be done on earth and in Amenta. The truth is made known by the words of Horus which were written down by Taht in the Ritual, but the fulfilment depends on the Manes making the word truth by doing it. That is the only way of salvation or of safety for the soul, the only mode of becoming a true being who would endure as pure spirit for ever. The Egyptians had no vicarious atonement, no imputed righteousness, no second-hand salvation. No initiate in the Osirian mysteries could possibly have rested his hope of reaching heaven on the Galilean line to glory. His was the more crucial way of Amenta, which the Manes had to treat with the guidance of the word, that step by step and act by act he must himself make true. It is said in the rubrical directions of chapter 72 that the Manes who knew it on earth and had it written on his coffin will be able to go in and out by day under any form he chooses in which he can penetrate his dwelling-place and also make his way to the Aarru fields of peace and plenty,
where he will be flourishing for ever even as he was on earth (Rit., 72, 9, 11). If chapter 91 is known, the Manes takes the form of a fully-equipped spirit (a Khu) in the nether world, and is not imprisoned at any door in Amenta either going in or coming out. Chapter 92 is the one that opens the tomb to the soul and to the shade of a person, that he may come forth to day and have the mastery over his feet. The book of giving sustenance to the spirit of the deceased in the under world delivers the person from all evil things (Rit., 148). There was another book wherewith the spirits acquired strength by knowing the names of the gods of the southern sky and of the northern sky (chs. 141-3). The Ritual was pre-eminently a book of knowledge or of wisdom, because it contained the gnosis of the mysteries. Knowledge was all-important. The Manes make their passage through Amenta by means of what they know. The deceased in one of his supplications says: “O thou ship of the garden Aarru, let me be conveyed to that bread of thy canal, as my father the great one who advanceth in the divine ship, because I know thee” (ch. 106, Renouf). He knew because, as we see by ch. 99, he had learned the names of every part of the bark in which the spirits sailed. Knowledge was power, knowledge was the gnosis, and the gnosis was the science of the mystery teachers and the masters of Sign-language. Ignorance was most dire and deadly. How could one travel in the next world any more than in this without knowing the way? The way in Amenta was indicated topographically very much in keeping with the ways in Egypt, chief of which was the water-way of the great river. Directions, names, and passwords were furnished in writing, to be placed with the mummy of the deceased. Better still, if these instructions and divine teachings were learned by heart, had been enacted and the word made truth in the life, then the Book of the Dead in life became the book of life in death. The word was given that it might be made truth by doing it as the means of learning the way by knowing the word. The way of life in three worlds, those of earth, Amenta, and heaven, was by knowing the word of god and making it true in defiance of all the powers of evil. According to this earlier Bible, death came into the world by ignorance, not by knowledge, as in the Christian travesty of the Egyptian teaching. As Hermes says: “The wickedness of a soul is ignorance. The virtue of a soul is knowledge” (Divine Pymander, B. IV, 27, 28). There was no life for the soul except in knowing, and no salvation but in doing, the truth. The human soul of Neferuben in the picture is the wise or instructed soul, one of the Khu-Akaru: he is a master of the gnosis, a knower or knowing soul, and therefore not to be caught like an ignorant fish in the net. Knowledge is of the first importance. In all his journeyings and difficulties it is necessary for the deceased to know. It is by knowledge that he is lighted to find his way in the dark. Knowledge is his lamp of light and his compass; to possess knowledge is to be master of divine powers and magical words. Ignorance would leave him a prey to all sorts of liers in wait and cunning enemies. He triumphs continually through his knowledge of the way, like a traveller with his chart and previous acquaintanceship with the local language; hence the need of the gnosis of initiation in the mysteries. Those who knew the real name of the god were in possession of the word
that represented power over the divinity, therefore the word of power that would be efficacious if employed. Instead of calling on the name of god in prayer, they made use of the name as the word of god. And as these words and mysteries of magic were contained in the writings, it was necessary to know the writings in which the gnosis was religiously preserved to be in possession of the words of power. Hence the phrases of great magical efficacy in the Ritual are called “the words that compel.” They compel the favourable action of the superhuman power to which appeal is made. To make magic was to act the appeal in a language of signs which, like the words, were also intended to compel, and to act thus magically was a mode of compelling, forcing, and binding the superhuman powers. Magic was also a mode of covenanting with the power apprehended in the elements. The quid pro quo being blood, this was a most primitive form of blood-covenant. Giving blood for food was giving life for the means of living.
The Ritual opens with a resurrection, but this is the resurrection in the earth of Amenta, not in the heaven of eternity. It is the resurrection of a body-soul emerging in the similitude of the moon-god from the dark of death. The first words of the Ritual are, “O Bull of Amenta [Osiris], it is Taht, the everlasting king, who is here!” He has come as one of the powers that fight to secure the triumph of Osiris over all his adversaries. After the life on earth there was a resurrection in Amenta, the earth of eternity, for the human soul evolved on earth. It was there that the claim to the resurrection in spirit and to life eternal in heaven had to be made good and established by long and painful experiences and many kinds of purgatorial purification, by which the soul was perfected eventually as an ever-living spirit. The word of promise had to be performed and made truth indeed, for the Ma-Kheru of immortality to be earned and endless continuity of life assured. Everyone who died was in possession of a body-soul that passed into Amenta to become an Osiris or an image of the god in matter, although it was not every one who was reborn or regenerated in the likeness of Ra, to attain the Horushood, which was portrayed as the hood of the divine hawk. Emergence in Amenta was the coming forth of the human soul from the coffin and from the gloom of the grave in some form of personality such as is depicted in the Shade, or the Ba, a bird of soul with the human head, which shows that a human soul is signified. Osiris the god of Amenta in a mummy form is thus addressed by the Osiris N. or Manes: “O breathless one, let me live and be saved after death” (ch. 41). This is addressed to Osiris who lives eternally. Though lying as a mummy in Amenta, breathless and without motion, he will be self-resuscitated to rise again. Salvation is renewal for another life; to be saved is not to suffer the second death, not to die a second time. According to Egyptian thought, the saved are the living and the twice dead are the damned. Life after death is salvation of the soul, and those not saved are those who die the second death—a fate that could not be escaped by any false belief in the merits of Horus or the efficacy of the atoning blood. There was no heaven to be secured for them by proxy.
The Ritual is not a book of beautiful sentiments, like the poetic literature of later times. It is a record of the things done by the
dramatis personæ in the Kamite mysteries. But now and again the beauty of feeling breaks out ineffably upon the face of it, as in the chapter by which the deceased prevails over his adversaries, the powers of darkness, and comes forth to the day, saying, “O thou who shinest forth from the moon, thou that givest light from the moon, let me come forth at large amid thy train, and be revealed as one of those in glory. Let the Tuat be opened for me. Here am I.” The speaker is in Amenta as a mummy soul appealing to the father of lights and lord of spirits that he may come forth in the character of Horus divinized to delight the soul of his poor mother. He wishes to capitalize the desires of those who “make salutations” to the gods on his behalf. These in modern parlance would be the prayers of the priests and congregation (ch. 3) for his welfare and safety in the future life, otherwise for his salvation. In the chapter by which one cometh forth to day he pleads: “Let me have possession of all things soever which were offered ritualistically for me in the nether world. Let me have possession of the table of offerings which was heapt for me on earth—the solicitations which0were uttered for me, ‘that he may feed upon the bread of Seb,’ or the food of earth. Let me have possession of my funeral meals,” the meals offered on earth for the dead in the funerary chamber (ch. 68).
The chief object of the deceased on entering Amenta is the mode and means of getting out again as soon as possible upon the other side. His one all-absorbing interest is the resurrection to eternal life. He says, “Let me reach the land of ages, let me gain the land of eternity, for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me” (ch. 13). Osiris or the Osiris passed into Amenta as the lord of transformations. Various changes of shape were necessitated by the various modes of progression. As a beetle or a serpent he passed through solid earth, as a crocodile through the water, as a hawk through the air. As a jackal or a cat he saw in the dark; as an ibis he was the knowing one, or “he of the nose.” Thus he was the master of transformations, the magician of the later folk-tales, who could change his shape at will. Taht is termed the great magician as the lord of transformations in the moon. Thus the deceased in assuming the type of Taht becomes a master of transformation or the magician whose transformations had also been made on earth by the transformers in trance who pointed the way to transformation in death. When Teta comes to consciousness on rising again in Amenta he is said to have broken his sleep for ever which was in the dwelling of Seb—that is, on the earth. He has now received his Sahu or investiture of the glorious body.
Before the mortal Manes could attain the ultimate state of spirit in the image of Horus the immortal, he must be put together part by part as was Osiris, the dismembered god. He is divinized in the likeness of various divinities, all of whom had been included as powers in the person of the one true god, Neb-er-ter, the lord entire. Every member and part of the Manes in Amenta has to be fashioned afresh in a new creation. The new heart is said to be shaped by certain gods in the nether world, according to the deeds done in the body whilst the person was living on the earth. He assumes the
glorified body that is formed feature by feature and limb after limb in the likeness of the gods until there is no part of the Manes that remains undivinized. He is given the hair of Nu, or heaven, the eyes of Hathor, ears of Apuat, nose of Khenti-Kâs, lips of Anup, teeth of Serk, neck of Isis, hands of the mighty lord of Tattu, shoulders of Neith, back of Sut, phallus of Osiris, legs and thighs of Nut, feet of Ptah, with nails and bones of the living Uræi, until there is not a limb of him that is without a god. There is no possibility of coming back to earth for a new body or for a re-entry into the old mummy. As the Manes says, his “soul is not bound to his old body at the gates of Amenta” (ch. 26, 6). Chapter 89 is designated the chapter by which the soul is united to the body. This, however, does not mean the dead body on earth, but the format or bodily type of the mummy in Amenta. “Here I come,” says the speaker, “that I may overthrow mine adversaries upon the earth, though my dead body be buried” (ch. 86, Renouf). “Let me come forth to day, and walk upon my own legs. Let me have the feet of the glorified” (ch. 86). At this stage he exclaims, “I am a soul, and my soul is divine. It is the eternal force.” In chapters 21 and 22 the Manes asks for his mouth, that he may speak with it. Having his mouth restored, he asks that it may be opened by Ptah, and that Taht may loosen the fetters or muzzles of Sut, the power of darkness (ch. 23). In short, that he may recover the faculty of speech. In the process of transforming and being renewed as the new man, the second Atum, he says, “I am Khepera, the self-produced upon his mother’s thigh.” Khepera is the beetle-type of the sun that is portrayed in pictures of the goddess Nut proceeding from the mother’s khepsh. The name of the beetle signifies becoming and evolving, hence it is a type of the becomer in making his transformation. The mouth being given, words of power are brought to him, he also gathers them from every quarter. Then he remembers his name. Next the new heart is given to him. His jaws are parted, his eyes are opened. Power is given to his arms and vigour to his legs. He is in possession of his heart, his mouth, his eyes, his limbs, and his speech. He is now a new man reincorporated in the body of a Sahu, with a soul that is no longer bound to the Khat or dead mummy at the gates of Amenta (ch. 26). He looks forward to being fed upon the food of Osiris in Aarru, on the eastern side of the mead of amaranthine flowers.
In one phase of the drama the deceased is put together bone by bone in correspondence to the backbone of Osiris. The backbone was an emblem of sustaining power, and this reconstruction of the deceased is in the likeness of the mutilated god. The speaker at this point says, “The four fastenings of the hinder part of my head are made firm.” He does not fall at the block. There are of course seven cervical vertebræ in the backbone altogether, but three of these are peculiar, “the atlas which supports the head, the axis upon which the head turns, and the vertebræ prominens, with its long spiral process” (ch. 30, Renouf). No doubt the Osiris was rebuilt upon this model, and the four joints were fundamental, they constituted a fourfold foundation. In another passage the Osiris is apparently perfected “upon the square,” as in the Masonic mysteries. It is the
chapter by which one assumes the form of Ptah, the great architect of the universe. The speaker says, “He is four times the arm’s length of Ra, four times the width of the world” (Rit., ch. 82, Renouf), which is a mode of describing the four quarters or four sides of the earth, as represented by the Egyptians. There were seven primary powers in the mythical and astronomical phases, six of whom are represented by zootypes, and the seventh is imaged in the likeness of a man. This is repeated in the eschatology, where the highest soul of seven is the Ka-eidōlon with a human face and figure as the final type of spirit which was human on the earth and is to be eternal in the heavens. The Manes who is being reconstituted says, “The [seven] Uræus divinities are my body. . . . My image is eternal” (ch. 85), as it would be when the seven souls were amalgamated into one that was imaged by the divine Ka. The seven Uræus divinities represented the seven souls of life that were anterior to the one enduring soul. In the chapter of propitiating one’s own Ka the Manes says, “Hail to thee, my Ka! May I come to thee and be glorified and made manifest and ensouled?” (ch. 103)—that is, in attaining the highest of the souls, the unifying one. These souls may be conceived as seven ascending types of personality. The first is figured as the shade, the dark soul or shade of the Inoits, the Greenlanders, and other aboriginal races, which is portrayed personally in the Ritual lying darkly on the ground. The shade was primary, because of its being, as it were, a shadow of the old body projected on the ground in the new life. It is portrayed as a black figure stretched out in Amenta. In this way the earth shadow of the body in life served as the type of a soul that passed out of the body in death. This may explain the intimate relationship of the shade to the physical mummy, which it is sometimes said to cling to and remain with in the tomb, and to draw sustenance from the corpse so long as it exists. Thus the shade that draws life from the dead body becomes the mythical prototype of the vampire and the legendary ghoul. It may be difficult to determine exactly what the Egyptians understood by the khabit or shade in its genesis as a soul, but the Inoit or Aleutians describe it as “a vapour emanating from the blood”; and here is wisdom for those who comprehend it. The earliest human soul, derived from the mother when the blood was looked upon as the life, was a soul of blood, and the Inoit description answers perfectly to the shade in the Egyptian Amenta. Amongst the most primitive races the typical basis of a future personality is the shade. The Aleutians say the soul at its departure divides into the shade and the spirit. The first dwells in the tomb, the other ascends to the firmament. These, wherever met with, are equivalent to the twin-souls of Sut the dark one, and Horus the soul of light. For we reckon the Egyptian seven to be earliest and old enough to account for and explain the rest which are to be found dispersed about the world. The soul as shade or shadow is known to the Macusi Indians as the “man in the eyes,” who “does not die.” This is another form of the shadow that was not cast upon the ground. Dr. Birch drew attention to the fact that whilst the deceased has but one Ba, one Sahu, and one Ka, he has two shades, his Khabti being in the plural (Trans. Society of Bib. Arch., vol. VIII, p. 391). These two correspond to the dark and light shades
of the aborigines. They also conform to the two souls of darkness and light that were imaged by the black vulture and the golden hawk of Sut and Horus, the first two of the total septenary of powers or souls. The shade, however, is but one-seventh of the series. The other self when perfected consists of seven amalgamated souls. Some of the Manes in Amenta do not get beyond the state of the shade or Khabit; they are arrested in this condition of mummied immobility. They do not acquire the new heart or soul of breath; they remain in the egg unhatched, and do not become the Ba-soul or the glorified Khu. These are the souls that are said to be eaten by certain of the gods or infernal powers. “Eater of the shades” is the title of the fourth of the forty-two executioners (ch. 125). The tenth of the mystical abodes in Amenta is the place of the monstrous arms that capture and carry away the Manes who have not attained a condition beyond that of the shade or empty shell. The “shells” of the theosophists may be met with in the Ritual. The Manes who is fortified with his divine soul can pass this place in safety. He says, “Let no one take possession of my shade [let no one take possession of my shell or envelope]. I am the divine hawk.” He has issued from the shell of the egg and been established beyond the status of the shade as a Ba-soul. With this may be compared the superstition that in eating eggs one should always break up the empty shell, lest it should be made evil use of by the witches. There are wretched shades condemned to immobility in the fifth of the mystical abodes. They suffer their final arrest in that place and position, and are then devoured by the giants who live as eaters of the shades. These monsters are described as having thigh-bones seven cubits long (ch. 149, 18, 19). No mere shade has power enough to pass by these personifications of devouring might; they are the ogres of legendary lore, who may be found at home with the ghoul and the vampire in the dark caverns of the Egyptian under world. These were the dead whose development in spirit world was arrested at the status of the shade, and who were supposed to seek the life they lacked by haunting and preying upon human souls, particularly on the soul of blood. In its next stage the soul is called a Ba, and is represented as a hawk with a human head, to show that the nature of the soul is human still. This is more than a soul of shade, but it was not imagined nor believed that the human soul as such inhabited the body of a bird. In one of the hells the shades are seen burning, but these were able to resist the fire, and it is consequently said, “The shades live; they have raised their powers.” They are raised in status by assimilating higher powers.
Following his taking possession of the soul of shade and the soul of light the Osiris is given a new heart, his whole or twofold heart. With some of the primitive folk, as with the Basutos, it is the heart that goes out in death as the soul that never dies. Bobadilla learned from the Indians of Nicaragua that there are two different hearts; that one of these went away with the deceased in death, and that it was the heart that went away which “made them live” hereafter. This other breathing heart, the basis of the future being, is one with the Egyptian heart by which the reconstituted person lives again. The heart that was weighed in the Hall of Judgment could not have been
the organ of life on earth. This was a second heart, the heart of another life. The Manes makes appeal for this heart not to bear evidence against him in presence of the god who is at the balance (chs. 30A and 30B). The second is the heart that was fashioned anew according to the life lived in the body. It is said to be the heart of the great god Tehuti, who personated intelligence. Hence it is said to be young and keen of insight among the gods, or among the seven souls. The physical representation comes first, but it is said in the text of Panchemisis, “The conscience or heart (Ab) of a man is his own god” or divine judge. The new heart represents rebirth, and is therefore called the mother (ch. 30A); and when the deceased recovers the basis of future being in his whole heart he says, although he is buried in the deep, deep grave, and bowed down to the region of annihilation, he is glorified (even) there (ch. 30A, Renouf).
Now if we take the shade to image a soul of blood, the Ba-hawk to image a soul of light, and the hati-heart to represent a soul of breath, we can perceive a raison d’être for the offering of blood, of lights, and of incense as sacrifices to the Manes in three different phases or states. Blood was generally offered to the shades, as we see in survival among the Greeks and Romans. The shade was in the first stage of the past existence, and most needing in Amenta the blood which was the life on earth and held to be of first necessity for the revivifying of the dead as Manes or shades. The Sekhem was one of the souls or powers. It is difficult to identify this with a type and place in the seven. Pro tem. we call it fourth of the series. It is more important to know what force it represents. The name is derived from the word khem, for potency. Khem in physics signifies erectile power. The man of thirty years as typical adult is khemt. Sekhem denotes having the power or potency of the erectile force. In the eschatological phase it is the reproducing, formative power of Khem, or Amsu, to re-erect, the power of erection being applied to the spirit in fashioning and vitalizing the new and glorious body for the future resurrection from Amenta. The Khu is a soul in which the person has attained the status of the pure in spirit called the glorified, represented in the likeness of a beautiful white bird; the Ka is a type of eternal duration in which the sevenfold personality is unified at last for permanent or everlasting life.
It is the Khu that is thus addressed in the tomb as the glorified one: “Thou shalt not be imprisoned by those who are attached to the person of Osiris [that is, the mummy], and who have custody of souls and spirits, and who shut up the shades of the dead. It is heaven only that shall hold thee.” (Rit., ch. 92.) The shade of itself could never leave the tomb. For this reason it was commonly held that the shade remained with the corpse or mummy on the earth. But here the tomb, the mummy, and the shade are not on earth; they are in Amenta. Without the Ba-soul, the shade remains unvivified. Without the Sekhem, it lacks essential form or power of re-arising. Without the Khu-spirit the person does not ascend from the sepulchre or prison-house of the nether world. But when this has been attained the deceased is glorified. If chapter 91 is known, “he taketh the form of a fully-equipped Khu [spirit] in the nether
world, and does not suffer imprisonment at any door in Amenta, either in coming in or going out” (Renouf, ch. 91). It is only when the Manes is invested as a Khu that he ascends to the father as a son of god. So we gather from the following words addressed to Horus by the person who is now a Khu: “O mighty one, who seest thy father, and who hast charge of the books of Taht, here am I. I come, and am glorified and filled with soul and power, and am his light in the darkness of Amenta. He now ascends to Ra his father, who is in the bark, and exclaims again and again, “I am a powerful Khu; let thy soundness be my soundness” (Renouf, ch. 105). When the deceased has been made perfect as a Khu, he is free to enter the great house of seven halls (ch. 145). Likewise the “house of him who is upon the hill,” and who is “ruler in the divine hall.” The great house is the heaven of Osiris based upon the thirty-six gates or duo-decans of the zodiac. The other is the house of Anup at the summit of the mount in Annu. “Behold me,” he exclaims; “behold me. I am come to you, and have carried off and put together my forms,” or constituent parts of the permanent soul, which were seven altogether. These are: (1) The Khabit or dark shade; (2) the Ba or light shade; (3) the breathing heart; (4) the Sekhem; (5) the Sahu; (6) the Khu; (7) the Ka. When the Manes has become a Khu, the Ka is still a typical ideal ahead of him; so far ahead or aloof that he propitiates it with offerings. In fact, he presents himself as the sacrificial victim that would die to attain conjunction with his Ka, his image of eternal duration, his type of totality, in which the seven souls were permanently unified in one at last. The Ka has been called the double of the dead, as if it simply represented the Doppel-ganger. But it is not merely a phantom of the living or personal image of the departed. It serves also for the apparition or revenant; it is a type rather than a portrait. It is a type that was pre-natal. It images a soul which came into existence with the child, a soul which is food and sustenance to the body all through life, a soul of existence here and of duration for the life hereafter. Hence it is absorbed at last in the perfected personality. It is depicted in the Temple of Luxor, where the birth of Amenhetep III, is portrayed as coming from the hand of god. The Ka of the royal infant is shown in the pictures being formed by Khnum the moulder on the potter’s wheel. It is in attendance on the person all life through, as the genius or guardian angel, and the fulfilment of the personality is effected by a final reunion with the Ka. As already shown, when divine honours were paid to the Pharaoh the offerings were made to his Ka, not to his mortal self. Thus the Manes in Amenta makes an offering of incense to purify himself in propitiation of his Ka (ch. 105). There is a chapter of “providing food for the Ka.” Also the mortuary meal was eaten in the chamber of the Ka, the resurrection chamber of the sepulchre. Food was offered to the Ka-eidōlon as the representative of the departed, instead of directly to the spirits of the ancestors. It was set up there as receiver-general of the offerings. Also the food was presented to it as a type of the divine food which sustained the human soul. Thus, when the divine sustenance is offered by the god or goddess to the soul of the mortal on the
earth, or to the Manes in Amenta, it is presented by the giver to the Ka. Certain priests were appointed to be ministers to the Ka, and these made the offerings to the Ka of the deceased on behalf of the living relatives. This is because the Ka was the type of personality, seventh of the seven souls attained as the highest in which the others were to be included and absorbed. In the vignettes to chapter 25 of the Ritual (Naville, Todt., Kap. 25, vol. I, p. 36) the deceased is shown his Ka, which is with him in the passage of Amenta, not left behind him in the tomb, that he may not forget himself (as we might say), or, as he says, that he may not suffer loss of identity by forgetting his name. Showing the Ka to him enables the Manes to recall his name in the great house, and especially in the crucible of the house of flame. When the deceased is far advanced on his journey through Amenta, his Ka is still accompanying him, and it is described as being the food of his life in spirit world, even as it had been his spiritual food in the human life. “Thou art come, Osiris; thy Ka is with thee. Thou feedest thyself under thy name of Ka” (128, 6). When the Osiris has passed from the state of shade to the stage of the Ka, he will become what the Ritual designates a fully equipped Manes who has completed his investiture. As a Sahu he was reincorporated in a spiritual body. As a Khu he was invested with a robe of glory. As a sacred hawk with the head of a Bennu he was endowed with the soul of Horus (ch. 78). It was here he exclaimed “Behold me; I am come to you [the gods and the glorified], and have carried off my forms and united them.” But in chapter 92 he was anxiously looking forward to the day of reckoning, when he said, “Let the way be open to my soul and my shade, that I may see the great god within his sanctuary on the day of the soul’s reckoning,” “when all hearts and words are weighed.” He is not yet one of the spirits made perfect, being neither judged nor justified. He has to pass his last examination, and is now approaching the great hall of judgment for his trial. He says, “I am come that I may secure my suit in Abydos,” the mythical re-birthplace of Osiris. This is the final trial of the long series through which he has hitherto successfully passed (Rit., ch. 117, Renouf). He has now arrived at the judgment hall. It has been asserted that the deeds which the deceased had done here on earth in no wise influenced the fate that awaited the man after death (Maspero, Egyptian Archæology, Eng. tr., p. 149). But how so, when the new heart which was given to the deceased in Amenta, where he or she was reconstituted, is said to be fashioned in accordance with what he has done in his human life? And the speaker pleads that his new heart may not be fashioned according to all the evil things that may be said against him (Rit., ch. 27). He is anxious that the ministrants of Osiris in the Neter-Kar, “who deal with a man according to the course of his life,” may not give a bad odour to his name (ch. 30B). And again he pleads, “Let me be glorified through my attributes; let me be estimated according to my merits” (ch. 72). It is plainly apparent that the future fate of the soul was dependent on the deeds that were done in the body, and the character of the deceased was accreted according to his conduct in the life on earth.
The jury sitting in the judgment hall consisted of forty-two masters of truth. Their duty was to discover the truth with fierce interro-
gation and the instinct of sleuth-hounds on their track. Was this Manes a true man? Had he lived a true life? Was he true at heart when this was tested in the scales? His viscera were present for inspection, and these keen scrutinizers in their animal-headed forms were very terrible, not only in visage, for they had a vested interest in securing a verdict of guilty against the Manes, inasmuch as the viscera of the condemned were flung to them as perquisites and prey, therefore they searched with the zeal of hunger for the evidence of evil living that might be found written on this record of the inner man. Piecemeal the Manes were examined, to be passed if true, to be sent back if not, in the shape of swine or goats or other Typhonian animals, and driven down into the fiery lake of outer darkness where Baba the devourer of hearts, the Egyptian “raw-head-and-bloody-bones,” was lying in wait for them. The highest verdict rendered by the great judge in this most awful Judgment Hall was a testimony to the truth and purity of character established for the Manes on evidence that was unimpeachable. At this post-mortem the sins done in the body through violating the law of nature were probed for most profoundly. Not only was the deceased present in spirit to be judged at the dread tribunal, the book of the body was opened and its record read. The vital organs, such as the heart, liver, and lungs, were brought into judgment as witnesses to the life lived on earth. Any part too vitiated for the rottenness to be cut off or scraped away was condemned and flung as offal to the powers who are called the eaters of filth, the devourers of hearts, and drinkers of the blood of the wicked. And if the heart, for example, should be condemned to be devoured because very bad, the individual could not be reconstructed for a future life.
In order that the Osiris may pass the Great Assize as one of the justified, he must have made the word of Osiris truth on earth against his enemies. He must have lived a righteous life and been just, truthful, merciful, charitable, humane. In coming to the Hall of Judgment or Justice to look on the divine countenance and be cleansed from all the sins he may have committed he says, “I have come to thee, O my Lord. I know thee. Lord of Righteousness is thy name. I bring to thee right. I have put a stop to wrong.” His plea is that he has done his best to fulfil the character of Horus-Makheru. Some of his pleas are very touching. “He has not exacted from the labourer, as the first-fruits of each day, more work than was justly due to him. He has not snatched the milk from the mouths of babes and sucklings. He has not been a land-grabber. He has not damned the running water. He has caused no famine, no weeping, no suffering to men, and has not been a robber of food. He has not tampered with the tongue of the balance, nor been fraudulent, mean, or sordid of soul. There is a goodly list of pre-Christian virtues besides all the theoretical Christian ones. Amongst others, he says, “I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth.” This was especially by the offering of Maat, viz., justice, truth, and righteousness. “I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, and a boat to the shipwrecked” (ch. 125). Yet we have been told that charity and mercy were totally unknown to the pagan world. He asks the forty-two assessors for the great
judge not to go against him, for he did the right thing in Tamerit, the land of Egypt. His heart is weighed in the scales of justice. He passes pure, as one of those who are welcomed by Horus for his own faithful followers, the blessed of his father, to whom it is said, “Come, come in peace.” Horus the intercessor, advocate, or paraclete, now takes him by the hand and leads him into the presence of Osiris in the sanctuary. The Manes in the Judgment Hall is black-haired, as seen in the pictures of Ani (Papyrus of Ani, pl. 4). But when he kneels before Osiris on the throne his hair is white. He has passed as one of the purified and is on his way to join the ranks of the just spirits made perfect, who are called the glorified. The attendants say to him, “We put an end to thy ills and we remove that which is disorderly in thee through thy being smitten to the earth” in death. These were the ills of mortality from which he has now been freed in spirit. Here occurs the resurrection of the Osiris in the person of Horus, and it is said, “Ha, Osiris! thou hast come, and thy Ka with thee, which uniteth with thee in thy name of Ka-hetep” (ch. 128). An ordinary rendering of “Ka-hetep” would be “image of peace”=type of attainment; but as the word hetep or hepti also means number seven, that coincides with the Ka being an image of the septenary of souls, complete at last to be unified in the hawk-headed Horus.
In the book or papyrus-roll for invoking the gods of the Kerti, or boundaries, we find the speaker has now reached the limit of Amenta. He says, “I am the soul of Osiris, and rest in him” (ch. 127). He is hailed as one who has attained his Ka and received his insignia of the resurrection. It is now said to the Osiris, “Ha, Osiris! thou hast received thy sceptre, thy pedestal, and the flight of stairs beneath thee” (Rit., ch. 128). The sceptre was the hare-headed symbol of the resurrection first carried by Ptah the opener. The pedestal is the papyrus of Horus, and the stairs denote the means of ascent from Amenta to the summit of the Mount of Glory. He is now prepared and empowered to enter the bark of Ra which voyages from east to west by day and from west to east by night. Before entering the bark the Osiris has attained to every one of his stations in Amenta previously to sailing for the circumpolar paradise upon the stellar Mount of Glory.
Chapter 130 is the book by which the soul is made to live for ever on the day of entering the bark of Ra, which means that it contains the gnosis of the subject. It was made for the birthday or re-birthday of Osiris. Osiris is reborn in Horus as the type of an eternal soul. Hence the speaker says, in this character, “I am coffined in an ark like Horus, to whom his cradle [or nest of reeds] is brought.” He is reborn as Horus on his papyrus, an earlier figure on the water than the bark of Ra. He prays, “Let not the Osiris be shipwrecked on the great voyage; keep the steering tackle free from misadventure.” When he entered Amenta the deceased in Osiris bore the likeness of the god in mummy form. Before he comes forth from the lower Aarru garden he can say, at the end of certain transformations in type and personality, “I am the soul of Osiris, and I rest in him” (ch. 127). This is in the character of Horus. “I am Horus on this auspicious day” at the “beautiful coming forth from Amenta.” He
has reached the boundary, and now invokes the god who is in his solar disk, otherwise in the bark of Ra. He died in Osiris to live again in Horus, son of god, or in his likeness. Chapters 141 and 142 begin the book of making the Osiris perfect. And this, as the Ritual shows, was in the likeness of Horus the beloved sole-begotten son of Ra, the god in spirit. Now, when the Manes had included his Ka in the name of Ka-hetep (Rit., ch. 128) it is said to the deceased (in the Pyramid texts, Teta, 284, Pepi I, 34), “Horus hath brought to pass that his ka, which is in thee, should unite with thee in thy name of Ka-hetep,” which shows the Ka within him was the image of Horus divinized. This corroborates the suggestion that the ka-type was derived from Ka (later Sa) the son of Atum-Ra, who was earlier than Horus as the son of Osiris. Thus the divine sonship of humanity which was personified in Horus, or Iu, or Sa, was also typified in the ka-image of a higher spiritual self; and when the Manes had attained the status of a spirit perfected it was in the form of the divine son who was the express image of the father god. He was Horus the beloved, in all reality, through perfecting the ideal type in his own personality.
He now enters the divine presence of Osiris-Ra to relate what he has done in the character of human Horus, Har-Tema, and Har-Makheru on behalf of his father which constitutes him the veritable son of god. When the Manes had attained the solar bark he has put on “the divine body of Ra” and is hailed by the ministrants with cries of welcome and acclamations from the Mount of Glory (ch. 133). In travelling through the under-world he had passed from the western horizon of earth to the east of heaven, where he joins the solar boat to voyage the celestial waters. There is a change of boat for the night. Hence the speaker says he is “coming in the two barks of the lord of Sau” (ch. 136B, Renouf). There may be some difficulty about the exact position of the chapter numbered 110 in the Ritual, but there is no difficulty in identifying the fields of peace upon the summit of Mount Hetep as the lower paradise of two, which was the land of promise attainable in Amenta. This was the sub-terrestrial or earthly paradise of the legends. When the Manes comes to these elysian fields he is still in the earth of eternity, and has to prove himself an equal as a worker with the mighty Khus (Khuti), who are nine cubits high, in cultivating his allotment of arable land. The arrival at Mount Hetep in this lower paradise or heaven of the solar mythos precedes the entrance to the Judgment Hall which is in the domain of the Osiris below, and the voyage from east to west in the Matit and the Sektit bark of the sun, therefore it is not in the ultimate heaven or the upper paradise of eternity upon Mount Hetep. We see from the Pyramid texts (Pepi I, lines 192, 169, 182, Maspero, Les Inscrip. Des Pyramids de Sakkarah) that there were two stages of ascent to the upper paradise, that were represented by two ladders: one is the ladder of Sut, as the ascent from the land of darkness, the other is the ladder of Horus, reaching to the land of light. King Pepi salutes the two: “Homage to thee, O ladder of Sut. Set thyself up, O ladder of God. Set thyself up, O ladder of Sut. Set thyself up, O ladder of Horus, whereby Osiris appeared in heaven when he wrought protection for Ra.” Pepi likewise enters heaven
in his name of the ladder (Budge, Book of the Dead, Intro., pp. 117, 118). The Manes also says, in ch. 149, “I raise my ladder up to the sky, that I may behold the gods.”
But, having traced the reconstruction of the deceased for a future life, we now return, to follow him once more from the entrance to Amenta on his journey through the under-world. His mortal personality having been made as permanent as possible in the mummy left on earth, the Manes rising in Amenta now sets out to attain the personality that is to last for ever. He pleads with all his dumbness that his mouth may be opened, or, in other words, that his memory, which he has lost awhile, may be given back to him, so that he may utter the words of power (chs. 21-23) with which he is equipped. The ceremony of opening the mouth after the silence of death was one of the profoundest secrets. The great type of power by means of which the mouth is opened was the leg of the hippopotamus goddess, the symbol of her mightiness as primum mobile in the Great Bear having been adopted for this purpose in the eschatology. The ceremony was performed at the tomb as well as in Amenta by the opener Ptah as a mystery of the resurrection. And amongst the many other survivals this rite of “opening the mouth” is still performed in Rome. It was announced in a daily paper not long since (the Mail, August 8th, 1903) that after the death of Pope Leo XIII and the coronation of Pius X “a Consistory would be held to close and open the lips of the cardinals newly created,” or newly born into the purple. The Osiris also prays that when his mouth is opened Taht may come to him equipped with the words of power. So soon as the mouth of the Manes is freed from the fetters of dumbness and darkness (or muzzles of Sut) and restored to him, he collects the words of power from all quarters more persistently than any sleuth-hound and more swiftly than the flash of light (chs. 23, 24, Renouf). These words of power are magical in their effect. They paralyze all opposition. They open every door. The power is at once applied. The speaker says, “Back, in retreat! Back, crocodile Sui! Come not against me, who live by the words of power!” (ch. 31). This is spoken to the crocodiles or dragons who come to rob the Manes and carry off the words of power that protect the deceased in death. The magical mode of employing the words of power in the mysteries of Taht is by the deceased being assimilated to the character and assuming the superhuman type as a means of protection against the powers of evil. The speaker in the Ritual does not mistake himself for the deity. He is the deity pro tem. in acted Sign-language, and by such means is master of the magical power. It is the god who is the power, and the magician employs the words and signs which express that power; but instead of praying to the god he makes use of the divine words attributed to the god, and personates the god as Horus or Ra, Taht or Osiris, in character. He puts on the mask of a crocodile, an ibis, a lion, or other zootype of the primary powers, and says to his adversaries: I am the crocodile (=Sebek), or, I am the lion (=Atum), or, I am Ra, the sun, protecting himself with the Uræus serpent, and consequently no evil thing can overthrow me (ch. 32). Repeating ch. 42 was a magical way of escaping from the slaughter which was wrought in Suten-Khen, and the mode of magic was for the deceased in his re-
birth to become or to be assimilated to the divine child in his rebirth. He tells the serpent Abur that he is the divine babe, the mighty one. Not a limb of him is without a god. He is not to be grasped by arms or seized by hands. “Not men or gods, the glorified ones or the damned; not generations past, present, or to come, can inflict any injury on him who cometh forth and proceedeth as the eternal child, the everlasting one” (Rit., ch. 42), or as Horus, the son of Isis. These divine characters are assumed by the Manes when he commands his enemies to do his bidding. According to the magical prescriptions, in fighting the devil, or the evil Apap, a figure of the monster was to be moulded in wax with the name inscribed upon it in green (Budge, Proceedings Soc. of Arch., 1866, p. 21). This was to be spat upon many times, spurned with the foot, and then flung into the fire, as a magical mode of casting out the devil. When the Apap reptile is first encountered and addressed in the Ritual it is said, “O one of wax! who takest captive and seizest with violence and livest upon those who are motionless, let me not become motionless before thee” (Rit., ch. 7). This is because the presence of the devouring monster is made tangible by the image of wax which represents the power addressed, that is otherwise invisible. The ideal becomes concrete in the figure that is thus magically employed. It is in this magical sense that the opening chapters of the Ritual are declared to contain the “words of power” that bring about the resurrection and the glory of the Manes in Amenta. This mode of magic is likewise a mode of hypnotism or human magnetism which was universally common with the primitive races, especially the African, but which is only now being timidly touched by modern science. The power of paralyzing and of arresting motion was looked upon as magical potency indeed. Hypnotic power is magical power. This is described as being taken from the serpent as its strength. In one passage (Rit., ch. 149) the serpent is described as he “who paralyzes with his eyes.” And previously, in the same chapter, the speaker says to the serpent, “I am the man who covers thy head with darkness, and I am the great magician. Thine eyes have been given to me, and I am glorified through them. Thy strength [or power] is in my grasp.” This might be termed a lesson in hypnotism. The speaker becomes a great magician by taking possession of the paralyzing power in the eyes of the serpent. The description seems to imply that there had been a contest betwixt the serpent-charmer and the serpent, and that the man had conquered by wresting the magical power from the reptile. The Manes has much to say about the adversary of souls whom he meets in Amenta. This is the Apap of darkness, of drought and dearth, disease and death. It is the representative of evil in physical phenomena which was translated as a figure from the mythology into the domain of eschatology. In chapter 32 the “Osiris standeth up upon his feet” to face and defy the crocodiles of darkness who devour the dead and carry off the words of power from the glorified in the under-world. They are stopped and turned back when the speaker says: “I am Atum. All things which exist are in my grasp, and those depend on me which are not yet in being. I have received increase of length and depth and fulness of breathing within the domain of my father the great one. He hath given me the
beautiful Amenta through which the living pass from death to life” (ch. 32). Thus the Osiris appears, speaks, and acts in the characters of a drama previously extant in the mythology. He comes forth: As the bull of Osiris (ch. 53A); as the god in lion form, Atum (ch. 54); as the jackal Ap-uat, of Sothis or Polaris; as the divine hawk, Horus (ch. 71); as the sacred hawk (ch. 78); as the lotus of earth (ch. 81); as the bennu-bird or phœnix-soul of Ra (ch. 83); as the shen-shen or hernshaw (ch. 84); as the soul that is an image of the eternal (ch. 85); as the dove or swallow (ch. 86); as the crocodile Sebek (ch. 88); as the khu, or glorified spirit (ch. 91); and many more. But the individual is shown to persist in a human form. He comes forth by day and is living after death in the figure, but not as the mummy, that he wore on earth. He is portrayed staff in hand, prepared for his journey through the under-world (Naville, Todt., Kap. 2, vignette). Also the ka-image of man the immortal is portrayed in the likeness of man the mortal. The human figure is never lost to view through all the phantasmagoria of transformation (Naville, Todt., vignettes to Kap. 2 and 186). From beginning to end of the Ritual we see it is a being once human, man or woman, who is the traveller through the nether-world up the mount of rebirth in heaven, at the summit of the stellar paradise, where the effigy of the earthly personality was ultimately merged in the divine image of the ka, and the mortal puts on immortality in the likeness of the dear old humanity, changed and glorified. This shows the ghost was founded on a human basis, and that it continued the human likeness in proof of its human origin.
Resurrection in the Ritual is the coming forth to day (Peri-em-hru), whether FROM the life on earth or TO the life attainable in the heaven of eternity. The first resurrection is, as it were, an ascension from the tomb in the nether earth by means of the secret doorway. But this coming forth is in, not from, Amenta, after burial in the upper earth. The deceased had passed through the sepulchre, emerging in the lower earth. He issues from the valley of darkness and the shadow of death. Osiris had been cut to pieces in the lunar and other phenomena by the evil Sut, and the limbs were gathered up and put together by his son and by the mother in Amenta, where he rose again as Horus from the dead. And whatsoever had been postulated of Osiris the mummy in the mythology was repeated on behalf of the Osiris in the eschatology.
Osiris had originated as a god in matter when the powers were elemental, but in the later theology the supreme soul in nature was configurated in a human form. Matter as human was then considered higher than matter unhumanized, and the body as human mummy was superior to matter in external nature. Also the spirit in human form was something beyond an elemental spirit; hence the god as supreme spirit was based, as already shown, upon the human ghost, with matter as the mummy. Osiris as a mummy in Amenta is what we might call the dead body of matter invested with the limbs and features of the human form, as the type to which the elemental powers had attained in Ptah, in Atum, and in the human-featured Horus, which succeeded the earlier representation by means of zootypes. Osiris is a figure of inanimate nature, personalized as the mummy with a human form and face, whilst being also an image
of matter as the physical body of the god. The process applied to the human body first in death was afterwards applied to the god in matter, in the elements, or in the inert condition at the time of the winter solstice, awaiting corpse-like for his transformation or transubstantiation into the young and glorious body of the sun, or spirit of vegetation in the spring. The solar god as the sun of evening or of autumn was the suffering, dying sun, or the dead sun buried in the nether earth. To show this, it was made a mummy of, bound up in the linen vesture without a seam, and thus imaged in a likeness of the dead who bore the mummy form on earth, the unknown being represented by the known. The sun god when descending to Amenta may be said to mummify or karas his own body in becoming earthed or, as it were, fleshed in the earth of Ptah. Hence the mummy-type of Ptah, of Atum, and Osiris, each of whom at different stages was the solar god in mummied form when buried in Amenta. It has now to be shown how it was brought about that the final and supreme one god of the Egyptian religion was represented as a mummy in the earth of eternity, and why the mystery of the mummy is the profoundest of all the mysteries of Amenta. An essential element in Egyptian religion was human sympathy with the suffering god, or the power in nature which gave itself, whether as herself or himself, as a living sacrifice, to bring the elements of life to men in light, in water, air, vegetation, fruit, roots, grain, and all things edible. Whence the type was eaten sacramentally at the thanksgiving meal. This feeling was pathetically expressed at “the festival of the staves,” when crutches were offered as supports for the suffering autumn sun, otherwise the cripple deity Horus, dying down into Amenta and pitifully needing help which the human sympathizers tried to give. Can anything be more pathetic than this address to the sufferer as the sun god in Amenta: “Decree this, O Atum, that if I see thy face [in glory] I shall not be pained by the signs of thy sufferings.” Atum decrees. He also decrees that the god will look on the suppliant as his second self (Rit., ch. 173; Naville).
The legend of the voluntary victim who in a passion of divinest pity became incarnate, and was clothed in human form and feature for the salvation of the world, did not originate in a belief that God had manifested once for all as an historic personage. It has its roots in the remotest part. The same legend was repeated in many lands with a change of name, and at times of sex, for the sufferer, but none of the initiated in the esoteric wisdom ever looked upon the Kamite Iusa, or gnostic Horus, Jesus, Tammuz, Krishna, Buddha, Witoba, or any other of the many saviours as historic in personality, for the simple reason that they had been more truly taught. Mythology was earlier than eschatology, and the human victim was preceded by the zootype; the phenomena first rendered mythically were not manifested in the human sphere. The natural genesis was in another category altogether. The earliest Horus was not incorporated in a human form. He represented that soul of life which came by water to a dried-up, withering world upon the verge of perishing with hunger and with thirst. Here the fish or the first-fruit of the earth was the sign of his incorporation in matter; hence the typical shoot, the green ear, or the branch that were imaged
in Child-Horus. The saviour who came by water was Ichthys the fish. The saviour who came in fruit as product of the tree was the Natzer. The saviour who came by spirit was the soul of the sun. This was the earliest rendering of the incorporation of Horus as the primary life and light of the world made manifest in external nature, before the doctrine was applied to biology in the human domain, where Horus came by blood, as the mode of incarnation in the human form. In the later myth Osiris is the deity who suffered as the winter sun, assailed by all the powers of darkness. He also suffered from the drought as imaged in the fire-breathing Apap-reptile, and in other ways as lord of life in water, vegetation, and in various forms of food. This suffering deity or provider was the god in matter. Ra is the god in spirit, Osiris in matter. Not only in the matter of earth, but also in the human form—the form assumed by Horus as the child of earth, or Seb. Osiris, the great sufferer in the dead of winter, was not simply the sun, nor was Osiris dead, however inert in matter, lying dumb in darkness, with non-beating heart. He was the buried life of earth, and hence the god in matter imaged in the likeness of a mummy waiting for the resurrection in Amenta. Such was the eschatology. Mummy-making in Egypt was far older than the Osirian cult. It was at least as old as Anup the divine embalmer of the dead. Preserving the human mummy perfectly intact was a mode of holding on to the individual form and features as a means of preserving the earthly likeness for identifying the personality hereafter in spirit. The mummy was made on purpose to preserve the physical likeness of the mortal. The risen dead are spoken of in the Ritual as “those who have found their faces.” The mummy was a primitive form of the African effigy in which the body was preserved as its own portrait, whereas the ka was intended for a likeness of the spirit or immortal—the likeness in which the just spirit made perfect was to see Osiris in his glory. Both the mummy and the ka were represented in the Egyptian tomb, each with a chamber to itself. From the beginning there had been a visible endeavour to preserve some likeness or memento of the earthly body even when the bones alone could be preserved. Mummy-making in the Ritual begins with collecting the bones and piecing them together, if only in a likeness of the skeleton. It is at this stage that Horus is said to collect the bones of his father Osiris for the resurrection in a future life by means of transubstantiation. The same primitive mode of preparing the mummy is implied when it is said to the solar god on entering the under-world, “Reckon thou thy bones, and set thy limbs, and turn thy face to the beautiful Amenta” (ch. 133, Renouf). Teta, deceased, is thus addressed, “O Teta, thou hast raised up thy head for thy bones, and thou hast raised up thy bones for thy head.” Also the hand of Teta is said to be like a wall as support of Horus in giving stability to his bones. Thus the foundation was laid for building the mummy-type as a present image of the person who had passed.
Amongst other types, the Yucatanese made little statues of their fathers. The head was left hollow, so that the ashes of the cremated
body might be placed in the skull, as in an urn; this, says Landa, was then covered “with the skin of the occiput taken from the corpse.” The custom is akin to that which has been unearthed in the European bone caves, where the skulls of the adult dead are found to have been trepanned, and the bones of little children inserted instead of human ashes. In Sign-language the bones of the child were typical of rebirth in a future life. The desire to live and the longing for a life after death, in earlier times, are inexpressible, and the efforts made to give some kind of expression to the feeling are ineffably pathetic. D’Acugna relates that it was a custom with the South American Indians to preserve and keep the dead bodies of relatives in their homes as long as was possible, so as to have their friends continually before their eyes. For these they made feasts and set out viands before the dead bodies. Here, in passing, we would suggest that in the Egyptian custom as described by both Herodotus and Plutarch it was not the dead mummy that was brought to table as a type of immortality, but the image of the ka, which denoted what the guests would be like after death, and was therefore a cause for rejoicing. Carrying the ka image round the festive board was just a Kamite prototype of the elevation and carrying round of the host for adoration in the Church of Rome. Indeed, the total paraphernalia of the Christian mysteries had been made use of in Egyptian temples. For instance, in one of the many titles of Osiris in all his forms and places he is called “Osiris in the monstrance” (Rit., ch. 141, Naville). In the Roman ritual the monstrance is a transparent vessel in which the host or victim is exhibited. In the Egyptian cult Osiris was the victim. The elevation of the host signifies the resurrection of the crucified god, who rose again in spirit from the corpus of the victim, now represented by the host. Osiris in the monstrance should of itself suffice to show that the Egyptian Karast (Krst) is the original Christ, and that the Egyptian mysteries were continued by the gnostics and Christianized in Rome. The mode of conveying the oral wisdom to the initiate in the mysteries of young man making was continued in the mystery of mummy making. Whilst the mummy was being prepared for burial, chapters of the Ritual were read to it, or to the conscious ka, by an official who was known as the man of the roll. Every Egyptian was supposed to be acquainted with the formulæ, from having learned them during his lifetime, by which he was to have the use of his limbs and possession of his soul restored to him in death, and to be protected from the dangers of the nether-world. These were repeated to the dead person, however, for greater security, during the process of embalming, and the son of the deceased, or the master of the ceremonies, took care to whisper to the mummy the most mysterious parts, which no living ear might hear with impunity. (Maspero, The Struggle of Nations, Eng. trans., pp. 510, 511.)
But it is an error to suppose with some Egyptologists, like M. de Horrack, that the new existence of the deceased was begun in the old earthly body (Proceed. Society of Bib. Archæology, vol. VI, March 4, 1884, p. 126). The resurrection of the dead in mummy form may look at first sight as if the old dead corpse had
risen from the sepulchre. But the risen is not the dead mummy, it is a type of personality in the shape of the mummy. It is what the Ritual describes as the mummy-form of a god. The Manes prays, “May I too arise and assume the mummied form as a god,” that is, as the mummy of Osiris, the form in which Amsu-Horus rose, a type of permanent preservation, but not yet one of the spirits made perfect by possession of the ka. It was this mistake which led to a false idea that the Egyptian held the dogma of a corporeal resurrection of the dead which became one of the doctrines that were fostered into fixity by the A-Gnostic Christians. The Osiris as mortal Manes, or Amsu-Horus as divinity, does rise in the mummy form, but this is in another life and in another world, not as a human being on our earth. It has the look of a physical resurrection in the old body, and so the ignorant misinterpreters mistook it and founded on it a corporeal basis for the future life. In the Christian scheme the buried dead were to rise again in the old physical corpus for the last judgment in time at the literal ending of the world. This was another delusion based on the misrendering of the Egyptian wisdom. The dead who rose again in Amenta, which was the ground floor of a future state of existence, also rose again for the judgment; but this took place in the earth of eternity which was mistaken by the Christians for the earth of time, just as they had mistaken the form of the risen sahu for the old body of matter that never was supposed to rise again by those who knew. The earthly mummy of the deceased does not go to heaven, nor does it enter the solar boat, yet the Osiris is told to enter the boat, his reward being the seat which receives his sahu or spirit mummy (Rit., ch. 130). Clearly this can only refer to the spiritual body, as the earthly mummy was left on the earth outside the gates of Amenta. Not only is the corporeal mummy not placed on board the boat of souls, the deceased was to be represented by a statue of cedar wood anointed with oil, or, as we might say, Christified (134, 9, 10). There is no possible question of a corporeal resurrection. The object, aim, and end of all the spiritualizing processes is to become non-corporeal in the earthly sense—that is, as the Ritual represents it, to defecate into pure spirit. The word sahu (or the mummy) is employed to express the future form as well as the old. But it is a spiritual sahu, the divine mummy. Even the bones and flesh of souls are mentioned, but these are the bones of Ösiris, the backbone of the universal frame, and the flesh of Ra. The terms used for the purpose of divinizing are antipodal to any idea of return to corporeality as a material mummy. The mummy of the Manes is a sahu of the glorified spirit. This state of being is attained by the deceased in chapter 73: “I am the beloved son of his father. I come to the state of a sahu of the well-furnished Manes.” He is said to be mummified in the shape of a divine hawk when he takes the form of Horus (78, 15, 16), not as the earthly mummy in a resurrection on our earth. The resurrection of Osiris was not corporeal. The mummy of the god in matter or mortality rises from the tomb transubstantiated into spirit. So complete is the transformation that he is Osiris bodily changed into Horus as a sahu or spirit. The Egyptians had no doctrine of a physical resurrection
of the dead. Though they retained the mummy as a type of personality, it was a changed and glorified form of the earthly body, the mummy that had attained its feet in the resurrection. It was the Karast mummy, or, word for word and thing for thing, Amsu-Horus was the Kamite Christ who rose up from the mummy as a spirit.
Also it is entirely false to represent the Egyptians as making the mummy and preserving it for the return of the soul into the old earthly body. That is but a shadow of the true idea cast backwards by Christianity. Millions of cats were made into mummies and sacredly preserved around the city of Bubastes, but not with the notion of a bodily resurrection. They were the totems of the great cat clan or its metropolis, the Egyptian “Clan Chattan,” which had become symbols or fetishes of religious significance to later times when the totemic mother as the cat, the seer by night, was divinized in the lunar goddess Pasht, and the worshippers embalmed her zootype, not because they adored the cat, but because the deess herself was the Great Mother typified by the cat. Both the mother and the moon were recognized beyond the cat, which was their totemic zootype and venerated symbol. Osiris was the mummy of Amenta in two characters; in one he is the khat-mummy lying laid out with corpselike face upon the funeral couch, in the other he is the mummy risen to his feet and incorporated in the glorious body. These two characters were continued as the Corpus Christi and the risen Christ in Rome. Hence in the iconography of the catacombs the Egyptian mummy as Osiris-sahu, and as Horus the new-born solar child, are the demonstrators of the resurrection for the Christian faith, where there is no testimony whatever to an historical event. Any time during the last 10,000 years the mummy made for burial in the tomb was imaged in the likeness of Osiris in Amenta, who, though periodically buried, rose again for ever as the type of life eternal. In making the mummy of Osiris the Egyptians were also making an image of the god who rose again in spirit as Osiris-sahu or as Horus divinized, the risen Christ of the Osirian cult. When the lustrations were performed with water in Tattu and the anointings with oil in Abydos, it was what may be termed a mode of Christifying or making Horus the child of earth into Horus the son of god who became so in his baptism and anointing that were represented in the mysteries. The first Horus was born of the virgin, not begotten. The second Horus was begotten of the father, and the child was made a man of in his baptismal regeneration with the water and with unction, with the oil of a tree or the fat of a bull.
We have now to show that in making the mummy the Egyptians were also making the typical Christ, which is the anointed. The word karas, kares, or karis in Egyptian signifies embalmment, to embalm, to anoint, to make the mummy. Kreas, creas, or chros, in Greek denotes the human body, a person or carcase, more expressly the flesh of it; cras, Gaelic and Irish, the body; Latin, corpus, for a dead body; these are all preceded by the word karas or karast, in Egyptian, with the risen mummy for determinative of the meaning. Each body that had been embalmed was karast, so to say, and made into a type of immortality in the likeness of Osiris-sahu or Horus, the prototypal
Christ. It will be made apparent by degrees that the religion of the Chrestoi first began at Memphis with the cultus of the mummy in its two characters, which represented body and spirit, or Ptah in matter and Kheper (Iu-em-hetep) in spirit. Hence the hawk as bird of spirit issuing from the karast-mummy was an image of the resurrection. The origin of the Christ as the anointed or “karast” will explain the connection of the Christ name and that of the Christiani with unction and anointing. Horus the Kamite Christ was the anointed son. The oil upon his face was the sign of his divinity. This supplied a figure of the Christ to Paul when he says that for those who “put on Christ” “there can be no male and female, for ye are one [man or mummy] in Christ Jesus” (Gal., III, 28). The Christ was “put on” metaphorically in the process of anointing which originated with the making of the mummy. Whether the dead were represented by the bones invested with a coating of blood, of flesh-coloured earth, or by the eviscerated and desiccated body that was bandaged in the cloth of a thousand folds, the object was to preserve and perpetuate the deceased in some permanent form of personality. The Egyptians aimed at making the mummy imperishable and incorruptible, as an image of durability and continuity, a type of the eternal, or of Osiris-karast in the likeness of a mummy. Hence the swathe without a seam and of incredible length in which the mummy was enfolded to represent unending duration. Some of these have been unwound to the extent of seven or eight hundred yards, and one of them is described as being a thousand yards in length. But, however long, it was made without a seam. This vesture is alluded to in the chapter of the golden vulture. The chapter is to be inscribed for the protection of the deceased on “the day of his burial in the cloth of a thousand folds” (Rit., ch. 157, 3).
This cloth was the seamless swathe of the Egyptian karast, which became the vesture or “coat without a seam woven from the top throughout” (John XIX. 23) for the Christ. Even the poorest Egyptian, whose body was steeped in salt and natron and anointed with a little cedar oil, was wrapped in a single piece of linen equally with the mummy whose swathe was hundreds of yards in length, because the funeral vesture of Osiris, his body of matter, was without a seam. The dead are often called “the bandaged ones.” On rising from the tomb the deceased exclaims triumphantly, “O my father! my sister! my mother Isis! I am freed from my bandages! I can see! I am one of those who are freed from their bandages to see Seb” (158, 1). Seb denotes the earth, and the Manes is free to visit the earth again, this time as the ghost or double of his former self. Covering the corpse with the transparent tahn, or golden gum, was one way of turning the dead body into a type of the spiritual body which was imaged as the glorified. One cannot doubt that this was a mode of showing the transformation of the Osirian dead mummy into the luminous body called the sahu of Osiris when he was transfigured but still retained the mummy form in Amsu-Horus at his rising from the sepulchre. Mummies buried in the tomb at Medum had been thus enveloped. This was one form of investiture alluded to in the Ritual as distinguished from the mummy bandages. One of these mummies is now to be seen in the Royal College of Surgeons.
“The mode of embalming,” says Prof. Petrie, “was very singular. The body was shrunk, wrapped up in linen cloth, then modelled all over with resin (or tahn) into the natural shape and plumpness of the living figure, completely restoring all the fullness of the form, and this was wrapped round with a few turns of the finest gauze.” (Petrie, Medum, Intro., ch. 2, pp. 17 and 18.) There was no coffin present in the tomb. The mummy thus invested with the tahn had been buried in this primitive kind of glass case, in which the form and features could be seen either directly or by means of the modelling. The tahn, gum or resin, as a natural product from the tree, preceded glass, and would be fashioned for the earlier monstrance. Remodelling the dead in the likeness of the living form by means of the pellucid tahn is a mode of making the glorified body on earth that was imaged by the sahu in Amenta, and thus the mummy here attains the twofold type of the Osiris Khat, or corpse, and the Osiris-sahu, or the glorified in spirit. In the Christian agglomerate of Egyptian doctrines and dogmas, rites and symbols, the pellucid tahn may, we think, be recognized in the sacred monstrance of the Roman ritual. This is a show-case in which the host or Corpus Christi is placed to be uplifted and exhibited. The eye of Horus is yet visible in the lanula or crescent-shaped crystal of the monstrance which holds the consecrated bread. The name of this show-case is derived from the Latin monstrare, “to show,” and this had been the object of the mummy makers in employing the transparent tahn.
In the eschatological or final phase of the doctrine, to make the mummy was to make the typical anointed, also called the Messu, the Messiah, and the Christ. Mes or mas, in the hieroglyphics, signifies to anoint and to steep, as in making the mummy, and messu in Egyptian means the anointed; whence Iah the Messu becomes Messiah in Hebrew. There was a previous form of the anointed in the totemic mysteries of young man making. When the body attained the age of puberty he was made into the anointed one at the time of his initiation into the way of a man with a woman. It was a custom with certain Inner African tribes to slit the urethra of the boy and lubricate the member with palm oil. This was a primitive way of making the anointed at puberty. Australian aborigines are also known to slit the prepuce cover for the same purpose. At this stage of the mystery the anointed one is the adult youth who has attained the rank of begetter full of grace and favour, or is khemt, as it was rendered in Egyptian. Tertullian claims that the name of the Christians came from the unction received by Jesus Christ. This is in perfect keeping with the derivation of the typical Christ from the mummy which was anointed so abundantly with oil in its embalmment. It is said of the woman who anointed Jesus in Bethany, “In that she poured the ointment upon my body, she did it to prepare me for my burial” (Matt. XXVI. 12). She was preparing the mummy after the manner of Anup the embalmer, who prepared Osiris for his burial and resurrection. But it was only as a dead mummy and not a living man that the gnostic Jesus could have been embalmed for burial.
We now proceed to show that Christ the anointed is none other than
the Osiris-karast, and that the karast mummy risen to its feet as Osiris-sahu was the prototypical Christ. Unhappily, these demonstrations cannot be made without a wearisome mass of detail. And we are bound for the bottom this time. Dr. Budge, in his book on the mummy, tells his readers that the Egyptian word for mummy is ges, which signifies to wrap up in bandages. But he does not point out that ges or kes, to embalm the corpse or make the mummy, is a reduced or abraded form of an earlier word, karas (whence krst for the mummy). The original word written in hieroglyphics is krst, whence kas, to embalm, to bandage, to knot, to make the mummy or karast (Birch, Dictionary of the Hieroglyphics, pp. 415-416; Champollion, Gram. Egyptienne, 86).